rss_2.0Moravian Geographical Reports FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Moravian Geographical Reports Geographical Reports Feed pandemic and urban green spaces: Shifting usage behaviours and perceptions in Leipzig (Germany)?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic challenge some established human-landscape interactions notably. In this article, we analyse whether the pandemic had an impact on the perception of urban green spaces (UGS) and usage behaviours in Leipzig, Germany. We use a quantitative survey to understand people’s attitudes. Our study is novel in that it firstly explores the relationship between UGS and visitors during the final phase of the COVID-19 pandemic (winter 2022/2023), contrary to the vast majority of already existing studies that relied on digitally distributed surveys due to the lockdown protocols. Secondly our study does not apply exclusively online methods to reach out to the participants. The survey results show that about 40% (of the 115 participants) use parks more frequently during the final phase of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to before 2020. Characteristics such as proximity to home, naturalness and cleanliness have become the most relevant. We see a notable increase in the demand for secure public green spaces, particularly among female visitors. Every second respondent confirmed experiencing considerable difficulties when accessing UGS, revealing the existing (spatial) deficits in environmental justice. These results should be considered by urban planners to adapt UGS to the changing demands of the citizens.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue or YIMBY? Understanding the complex relationships between foreign military bases and host societies<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Based on a scoping review of English-language scientific literature for the period of 1990–2022, the article presents a synthetic outline of previous research, focusing on factors influencing the specifics of foreign military bases (FMBs) as examples of facilities that mostly generate negative attitudes known as ‘Not In My Backyard’ (NIMBY). The specific characteristics of different categories of objects that generate various social attitudes are also presented. The results of the analyses include a classification of factors and aspects related to the local impacts of foreign military bases, which have not been analysed before.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue use of the urban riverscape: What brings people to the river?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Visiting urban green and blue spaces improves the quality of life in cities as it helps to preserve human-nature bonds. In this context, the role of urban parks and forests has been well-recognised; however, much less is known about the landscapes of inland water bodies. To fill this gap, the study aimed to identify spatiotemporal patterns of recreational activities in the urban riverscape in relation to the visitors’ residential proximity. Also, survey results were combined with spatial and remote sensing data to determine how the spatial characteristics of the riverscape affect its recreational use. The case of Warsaw, Poland, was used. The results indicated that the riverscape serves as a local park for the neighbouring communities, while it is rather a warm-weekend attraction for far-living ones. Visitors concentrate in the city centre, and spread out along the communication paths; however, spatial patterns of the magnitude of particular activities also show interbank differences. Spatial error models of drivers of riverscape recreation revealed (1) the multifaceted role of trees in densely visited areas and (2) the importance of physical availability for contact with the urban river. These findings expand knowledge on the recreational use of urban rivers by exploring its place-related motivations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue mobility of the inhabitants of the countries of NATO’s eastern flank in the event of a military conflict<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this article, we identify the spatial mobility of the populations of selected urban centres in Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Hungary. In total, 1,616 interviews were conducted. Additionally also interviews with the employees responsible for crisis management were conducted. Based on the analyses, five different clusters were identified, with different patterns of inhabitants in terms of their spatial mobility in the event of war. The most significant factors influencing their mobility in crisis situations are country of residence, age, number of people in the household and sex. This research can help develop evacuation strategies at different levels of governance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the deep learning recognition of cultivated terraces based on Lidar data: The case of Slovenia<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cultivated terraces are phenomena that have been protected in some areas for both their cultural heritage and food production purposes. Some terraced areas are disappearing but could be revitalised. To this end, recognition techniques need to be developed and terrace registers need to be established. The goal of this study was to recognise terraces using deep learning based on Lidar DEM. Lidar data is a valuable resource in countries with overgrown terraces. The U-net model training was conducted using data from the Slovenian terraces register for southwestern Slovenia and was subsequently applied to the entire country. We then analysed the agreement between the terraces register and the terraces recognised by deep learning. The overall accuracy of the model was 85%; however, the kappa index was only 0.22. The success rate was higher in some regions. Our results achieved lower accuracy compared to studies from China, where similar techniques were used but which incorporated satellite imagery, DEM, as well as land use data. This study was the first attempt at deep learning terrace recognition based solely on high-resolution DEM, highlighting examples of false terrace recognition that may be related to natural or other artificial terrace-like features.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue revitalisation within the historical quarter: A comprehensive analysis of a medium sized city in Romania<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The public space environment is one of the critical influential factors for strengthening local identity and communities’ sense of belonging, while enhancing city life quality. This study focuses on the use of heritage buildings as a catalyst for reactivating public spaces and aims to explore to what extent the revitalization project for the historical centre of Craiova, a medium-sized post-socialist city, has succeeded. The three dimensions of revitalisation – physical, economic and social – were analysed using a mixed approach, including participant observation, field investigation, and a residents’ survey. Physical changes within the study area, improved accessibility, functional changes and economic restructuring were analysed, as well residents’ perceptions and use of the area (perceived changes, use of the place, types of places used by the residents, frequency, times spent). The results point to the fact that not all the three dimensions of the revitalization project were equally successful, proving once again that not all the actions are effective in delivering the best outcomes. The main beneficiaries are discussed and the outcome of the revitalisation project is analysed against similar projects in other countries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue perception of food value: A comparative study of global supermarkets and local farmers' markets in Slovakia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper explores how Slovak consumers perceive the value of food, sold by different retail formats (especially farmers’ markets and supermarkets), in terms of the quality, price, and healthiness. The aim of this paper is to evaluate consumer perceptions regarding global and local types of retail stores where they buy food most frequently. In the study, the segmentation of consumers by generation, income, and type of residence is provided. From the methodological point of view, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests are used to test hypotheses. According to the sample of respondents (n = 1,004), large-scale stores do not offer healthier and higher-quality food. This perception, however, varies based on the income of the consumer groups. On the other hand, respondents perceive that food sold at farmers’ markets is healthier and of higher quality than food in conventional stores. They do not perceive that food sold at farmers’ markets is cheaper than food in conventional stores.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Turów coal mine international dispute as a determinant of the cross-border integration of inhabitants of the Polish-Czech border<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The crisis around the operation of the Turów coal mine and its impact on cross-border relations in the Polish-Czech borderlands is examined in this article. The genesis of the international dispute and its course is analysed on the basis of international relations and border studies theories. Moreover, the specific cross-border relations and asymmetries in the area are studied. Then, the authors discuss the methodology and results of the research through questionnaires and formulate conclusions drawn from the research conducted by the Polish-Czech research team in 2022. The results prove that the nearly two-year Polish-Czech dispute over the Turów mine hurt the cross-border activity of the inhabitants of the Polish-Czech border. Despite alarming media news, this impact was weak and short-lived. It ultimately did not significantly impact the cross-border integration of the inhabitants or cause a deterioration of relations between the Polish and Czech sides of the Euroregion Neisse-Nisa-Nysa. The crisis was caused by the lack of adequate communication between local governments from Poland and the Czech Republic and insufficient commitment from the local and regional authorities. Another cause was the poor integration of residents in the border area, although the cross-border cooperation epitomised by the Euroregion Neisse-Nisa-Nysa is not poorly rated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue divided town of Český Těšín/Cieszyn as the most integrated part of the Czech-Polish borderland: A life in the cross-border educational togetherness or side by side?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The (non)contribution of schools towards cross-border integration in the divided town of Těšín/Cieszyn, located on the Czech-Polish border, is analysed in this article. The pandemic-related border closures revealed a substantial level of togetherness in this town, manifested by various social activities. Moreover, a part of these (during the pandemic restricted) cross-border social practices were those in education. We applied a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods to diagnose the directions of cross-border educational flows, the approach of schools towards the identified joint cross-border social practices, and the possible level of togetherness. As a result, one-sidedness (Polish pupils attending schools in the Czech Republic) of cross-border flows was identified – which also follows the direction of a cross-border workforce. Except for the schools with Polish as the instruction language, located in the Czech part of the town, primarily serving Polish speakers living in the Czech Republic, we can mention hardly any mutually shared feeling of togetherness and an actual place-based approach towards educational governance in this divided town. We observe some ties in education between the autochthonous Polish minority in the Czech Republic and the Poles in Poland, without the involvement of pupils or teachers of Czech ethnicity, who do not reflect opportunities behind the border.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and forecasting the influence of environmental controls on windstorm disturbances in the Central Low Tatras, through regression models<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nowadays, the large-scale disturbance and subsequent temporary deforestation of mountain forests are widely discussed phenomena. In this study, we built both a logistic regression model (LRM) and a generalised additive model (GAM), in order to understand the drivers of deforestation after the Elisabeth windstorm (2004) in the Central Low Tatras, Slovakia. A set of topographic and biotic characteristics was selected as explanatory variables, while the presence of deforestation was a response variable. The results show that the most prone to windstorm-driven damage are forests growing at a high elevation, in the ridge’s surroundings, and on gentle slopes exposed to the wind during the disturbance. Moreover, the stands with a high proportion of Norway spruce and with medium-diameter trees, which are under forest management, were identified as more vulnerable. Additionally, both models were used to identify those stands, which would be most susceptible to damage by future windstorms. According to its explanatory power and building efficiency, we propose using of LRM rather than GAM in similar large-scale studies. The addressed methods can be used in local forest management, as scientifically based decision-making appears to be crucial for maintaining mountain forests resistant to gusty winds, as well as other disturbing agents.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue voter turnout using multiscale geographically weighted regression: The case of Slovakia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Voter turnout is an essential aspect of elections and often reflects the attitude of a country’s population towards democracy and politics. Therefore, examining the distribution of voter turnout and determining the factors that influence whether or not people will vote is crucial. This study aims to find significant factors that underlie the different levels of electoral participation across regions in Slovakia during the 2020 parliamentary elections. In this interpretation, special attention is paid to the ability of the main theories of voter turnout to explain the behaviour of Slovak voters. The primary analytical tool is multiscale geographically weighted regression, which represents an advanced local regression modelling variant. The results indicate that the multiscale geographically weighted regression is superior to the global ordinary least square model in virtually all aspects. Voter turnout is generally higher in economically and socially prosperous localities and regions, which is in line with the societal modernisation theory. Additionally, factors connected to mobilisation theory and the concept of ‘left behind places’ also proved to be valuable. However, in other cases, such as with the share of retirees and potential habitual voting, the outcomes were not overly convincing, and further research is required.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and polycentric urban forms as intertwined concepts: Learning from the impacts of Covid–19 retail restrictions on spatial (in)equalities in Brno (Czech Republic)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Urban structure conceptualisation using compact and polycentric city narratives is often performed separately. However, although both are based on different spatial grammars, they are inextricably linked. The spatially equitable distribution and accessibility of urban functions are often seen as their main contributions. This paper uses the unprecedented circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic to further analyse the relationship between the two narratives, using the radical transformation of a retail network in a post-socialist city (Brno, Czech Republic) as an example. Based on an in-depth analysis of government measures aimed at preventing the spread of the coronavirus and their coverage in the media, operational changes among all stores in the city are quantified. A comparative spatial analysis then shows that, in addition to economic inequalities, spatial injustice was exacerbated by the position of the central government, with varying degrees of intensity depending on the type of urban structure. It is argued that the resilience potential of polycentric and compact structures is very low, especially in the absence of retail planning and reflection upon spatiality in ensuring social equity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of migration motives: Matching migration motives with socioeconomic data<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Motives behind internal migration reported by internal migrants often differ from those assumed by standard economic and social theories. This research aims to narrow the gap between the stated motives and those suggested by human capital models. It relates the net migration rates by specific motives to socioeconomic and sociodemographic variables at the LAU 1 level in the period 1997–2021 in Slovakia. This research establishes that most of the stated motives behind internal migration (housing and family) differ from those assumed by human capital theories. This finding is valid for motives stated at the proximal level. The analysis of migration rates and housing supply indicates a substantial concentration of interdistrict migrants in suburban districts of affluent metropolitan regions. This finding resonates with assumptions on the latent importance of employment and income for internal migration.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in times of crisis: The possibility of de-marginalisation of the Polish border zone with Russia after the outbreak of war in Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Polish-Russian border, closed since the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic, transformed into an iron curtain without any chance for its disappearance in a long-term perspective. The ongoing conflict between Russia and the EU started an experiment in the Polish zone bordering with Russia with respect to the planning of economic growth in the new reality – in a fully isolated area – where the border is a limitation and not an opportunity. According to the author’s research, the crisis caused by the permanent closing of the Polish-Russian border and suspension of contacts with the Kaliningrad Oblast, which initially was a hard blow for the border communes, with a particularly difficult economic situation, may – in the long-term perspective – turn out to be an important driving force for changes. The primary purpose of this paper is to identify the main actions taken by the Polish local authorities at the border with Russia, the aim of which is revitalisation of the local economy after the Polish-Russian border was closed. The article is based on a number of in-depth expert interviews carried out in the Polish border area.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue memory of Stanislav Martinát (1976–2023)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>On Sunday, August 13, 2023, Stanislav Martinát – a respected Czech geographer and member of the Editorial Board of Moravian Geographical Reports journal – died after a short serious illness at the age of 47. Despite his relatively young age, Stanislav Martinát was one of the most productive and the most cited Czech geographers. He is the author or coauthor of over 100 peer-reviewed articles, of which more than 70 were published in journals indexed in the Web of Science database. This article is a collection of personal memories from people from different workplaces from several countries who had the opportunity to work with Stanislav (Standa) and to share a part of their life stage with him.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the spatial extent of the peri-urban area: The case of three cities in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The work detailed here seeks to recognise features by which areas that can be deemed peri-urban differ from both city and countryside, to the extent that a separate specific identity for them can be discerned. The recognised features made it possible to identify the extent of the peri-urban area. The wealth of relevant literature is first considered, and this is seen to relate to the spatial side and to definition on the one hand, and to ongoing socio-economic processes on the other. Several Polish cities are then selected as the authors seek to discuss indicators useful in determining the spatial scope of the said peri-urban zones. The work proceeds on the assumption that these represent a real component of an urban-rural continuum characterised by reduced diversity and intensity of social and economic phenomena with steadily-increasing distance from the limits of a city in the direction of “traditional” rural areas.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the road network riskiness for motorcycle transport: The use of accident probability and accessibility to emergency medical service<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Motorcycle users are generally perceived as one of the most vulnerable road user groups. It is therefore evident that, in addition to a range of prevention and awareness-raising activities, it is also necessary to identify specific locations where motorcycle users are at risk. We use a synthetic approach to identify the road network sections dangerous for motorcycle traffic. We perceive the risk level of individual sections as a complex combination of the causes (accident probability) and consequences (accessibility of medical services) of motorcycle accidents. The combination of both factors is then used to define the Road Network Hazard Index (RNHI) as a newly introduced indicator synthetically assessing the risk levels of individual road network sections for motorcycle traffic. The motorcycle accident probability on the Czech road network is extremely differentiated. The time accessibility of accident locations from EMS dispatch stations shows a clear correlation with the severity of motorcycle accidents. The model for the accident locations’ accessibility indicates that the sparsely populated peripheral regions of the Czech Republic in particular show not only a higher motorcycle accident probability but also higher time accessibility values for emergency vehicles. The new RNHI provides a comprehensive view of the risk levels for motorcycle traffic in different Czech road network sections.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue factors affecting the functional diversity of regenerated brownfields: The case of Silesian Voivodeship (Poland)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Until 1990, the Silesian Voivodeship was one of the most industrialised regions in Central Europe. The restructuring of the national economy after the change of the political system, in particular the extensive deindustrialisation, resulted in the emergence of substantial quantity of post-industrial brownfields. During the research we identified a total of 125 post-industrial brownfield sites that had undergone a regeneration process between 1990 and 2019. The total value of these regeneration projects was estimated at over EUR 1.7 billion. About 55% of the projects were carried out by public bodies, 40% by private enterprises and 5% by non-governmental organisations. The EU aid from structural funds was used in 37% of projects. The aim of the paper is to provide new empirical evidence about the role of spatial factors on the regeneration and new functional use of the brownfields. The analysis has revealed that there is a statistically significant relationship between the distance from the city centre and the functions of regenerated brownfield sites: commercial services were located closest to the centre, whereas manufacturing plants and investment zones were found at the greatest distance from the city centre. The research has also shown the crucial role of post-industrial heritage for projects related to redevelopment for public services, which was insignificant for other project types. These results have been interpreted in the context of the rent gap theory and the brownfield redevelopment potential model (the so-called ABC model).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue differences in unsafety perception and precautionary behaviour among adolescents: Case study of a small peripheral town in Slovakia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study is to question gender stereotypes regarding differences in the unsafety perceptions and perceived threats of adolescents, with a special emphasis on their precautionary behaviour. This research was based on emotional mapping in the very small peripheral town of Fiľakovo (Slovakia). Altogether, 151 adolescents in the age of 10–16 years were asked to mark places where did not feel safe, along with perceived threats, as well as information on precautionary strategies they use there. Regardless of the time of day, neither girls nor boys felt significantly less safe, with residential location and age playing a more important role in unsafety perception differences than gender. Girls perceived significantly more people-related threats than boys (regardless of daylight), while boys were aware of significantly more risk in buildings, streets, and places with negative associations (after dark). Avoidance, dependence, and self-reliant precautionary behaviours were identified. Regardless of daylight, girls chose dependence (e.g. calling someone, having a companion) among other types of precautionary behaviour significantly more often than boys. Avoidance and self-reliance were gender neutral. The perception of girls as perceiving more risks and being more avoidant is showed to be a form of gender stereotype and should not be considered a generally valid paradigm.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue patterns of EU funds absorption in Romanian rural municipalities<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study analyses the spatial differences in EU funds absorption among Romanian rural municipalities through the 2014–2020 programming period. The absorption capacity for EU funds is measured by the volume of spent EU funds by inhabitant, for each Romanian rural municipality. The results of the analysis highlight the importance of the territorial dimension when studying the distribution of EU funds among the rural municipalities of Romania. Affiliation with a specific development region (NUTS 2), county (NUTS 3) or a functional urban area (FUA) is used to differentiate the volume of absorbed EU funds. In Romania, rural municipalities with higher levels of absorbed EU funding are, to a statistically higher extent, located in development regions in the Centre, North-West, South-West and West of the country; in communes with no change, or even an increase, in population between 2014 and 2021; in the highest quartile of fiscal capacity and in communes with experience with EU funding from the preceding programming period. This article adds to the growing body of territorial evidence and can be used as a policy instrument to more closely examine the intervention tools embedded in EU funding policy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue