rss_2.0Moravian Geographical Reports FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Moravian Geographical Reports Geographical Reports Feed cooperation of Polish and Czech area-based partnerships supported by Rural Development Programmes: Genuinely international or solely national projects?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The literature on cross-border cooperation in Europe is predominated by the analysis of the European Union (EU) INTERREG Programmes’ results, while other support funds are often neglected. To fill this research gap, the authors undertook the research on cross-border cooperation of the area-based partnerships (Local Action Groups – LAGs) from Poland and the Czech Republic, financed by the Rural Development Programmes (RDPs) 2014–2020. The main purpose of our paper is to identify the rationales for cooperation, strategies to find partners, the scope of activities and obstacles in implementing the joint projects. The qualitative research involved a content analysis of LAG documents and interviews with LAG managers. The actions in twelve identified cooperation projects were mainly related to local traditions, inventory and the promotion of local products and services, the development of tourism and environmental issues. The respondents have emphasised that these actions required separate financing by national RDPs following different administrative rules, even though when constituting the components of a single project. The bureaucratic restrictions resulted in a clear asymmetry of LAGs activities, manifested in a lower involvement of the Czech LAGs. As a result, many projects can be considered as highly unilateral, solely national rather than genuinely international, which has not been the intention of the LAG managers, however.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue refrains of people with visual impairments: A post-phenomenological geography beyond space and place<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper intervenes in current discussions within post-phenomenological geography. It analyzes the movement of people with visual impairments in order to develop an approach to post-phenomenology that emphasizes the in-betweenness of bodies in motion. Our perspective differs from phenomenological (and humanistic) geographies and from post-phenomenological geographies that are rooted in object-oriented ontology. They both rely on the differentiation between space and place, accept pointillism, treat places as points in space, time as exclusively chronological, and bodies as beings, not becomings. We analyze data from interviews with people with visual impairments. We first consider their movement through the perspective of humanistic (particularly phenomenological) geography. After acknowledging the limits of this approach, we turn to our actualized conception of post-phenomenological geography, which draws on Deleuze’s concepts of movement, path, refrain, and involuntary memory. With this conceptual repertoire, we go beyond the space-place dichotomy and highlight the in-betweenness and virtuality of movement. We explore difference-producing repetitions, which are constituted through refraining into paths. Our approach conceptualizing movement as “refraining into paths” is instrumental to studying the movement of people with visual impairment: It helps to dispute ableism, and it enriches the current discussion about post-phenomenological geography in its insistence on relations and becoming.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Roma losing their roots? Traditional and non-traditional Roma occupations in two large communities in Romania: Timișoara and Cluj-Napoca<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In Romania, one of the countries with the largest Roma community in Europe, the gap between the majority population and the Roma minority continues to be wide. The paper explores whether there is a sustainability of traditional Roma occupations and crafts or whether we are witnessing a continuous occupational dynamic. The objective of the research is to identify the patterns of traditional and non-traditional economic activities practised in Roma communities in two cities: Timişoara and Cluj-Napoca. The research hypothesis investigates whether there is a wide range of economic activities in analyzed Roma communities, where traditional activities tend to have a negligible share and dynamics compared to non-traditional ones. Also, we analyze whether traditional activities remain relevant in Roma communities and whether they represent a significant occupational resource in the case of external migration. The following statistical hypotheses are presented: there are significant differences between members of Roma communities in Timisoara and Cluj-Napoca. These are observed in the choice of practising non-traditional-traditional economic activities in the country. There are significant differences between members of Roma communities in Timisoara and Cluj-Napoca in the practice of traditional versus non-traditional occupations according to ethnic subgroup membership.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue required general practitioner capacity due to generational change in Czech regions up to 2035<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Czech healthcare system primary care segment, comprising general practitioners and pediatricians, faces persistent challenges due to the unbalanced and aging workforce of physicians. Ensuring adequate generational turnover in this sector is threatened at the national level and will exert an even more significant impact regionally. The changing age structure of the population will also play a crucial role in shaping the future demand for healthcare services. Using data obtained from the largest Czech health insurance company, this article highlights current regional disparities regarding the number, structure and capacity of general practitioners and pediatricians. It estimates the potential decline in the availability of physicians due primarily to advancing age – it has been estimated that almost 40% of general practitioner and 55% of pediatrician capacity will be withdrawn by 2035. Using regional population projections, the study determines the capacity required in each region to maintain the appropriate doctor/patient ratios. The results of the projections serve to raise awareness of the impact of changing age structures on the future supply of, and demand for, healthcare. Although the study does not determine a precise estimate of unfilled capacity, it prompts further discussions on ensuring accessible healthcare in the future.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue perceptions of topophilia and topophobia using a mobile app: A tale of two cities<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study evaluates positive (topophilic) and negative (topophobic) perceptions of places using participatory mapping methods. Current research on mapping perceptions of urban environments relies heavily on retrospective self-reports from citizens. These methods are often susceptible to recall bias and do not capture granular information about urban environments. Places are dynamic, and peoples’ perceptions of them vary by time and space. To address these gaps in methods, we collected data from individuals living in two cities, Olomouc, Czech Republic and Brisbane, Australia. GIS was used to analyse a combined total of 634 momentary assessments from Olomouc, and 318 assessments from Brisbane. Our findings suggest that this approach can yield accurate and reliable data about perceptions of topophobia and topophilia in the two cities as well as enable researchers to clearly define hotspots and hot times related to individual activity spaces.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue opportunity missed is an opportunity lost. Flood maps and their (non-)utilization by local government bodies in the Czech Republic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Flood maps are a crucial component of integrated flood risk management. While their key role is commonly acknowledged by experts and scholars, however, literature and findings on the practical utilization of flood maps (including the user’ experiences) within the processes of governance are scarce. Our study aims to contribute to closing this gap; by focusing on the Czech local government bodies, data collected through a questionnaire survey allowed us to examine (a) how, or whether at all, the officials employ flood maps in their agendas; (b) how do they experience and assess working with the maps; and (c) which data would they supplement the extant flood maps by. Our findings show that the praxis of local flood-related governance in the Czech Republic still largely neglects the up-to-date approaches and practices of flood risk management. The officials addressed mostly continue to rely on the earliest type of floodplain maps and purely technical aspects of floods, while largely omitting the newer flood danger and risk maps; thus, they are also missing the opportunities of applying multi-criteria assessment of the flood risk and more effective communication with the public. The paper concludes with a set of suggestions for relevant praxis and future research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue pandemic and urban green spaces: Shifting usage behaviours and perceptions in Leipzig (Germany)?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Crises such as the COVID-19 pandemic challenge some established human-landscape interactions notably. In this article, we analyse whether the pandemic had an impact on the perception of urban green spaces (UGS) and usage behaviours in Leipzig, Germany. We use a quantitative survey to understand people’s attitudes. Our study is novel in that it firstly explores the relationship between UGS and visitors during the final phase of the COVID-19 pandemic (winter 2022/2023), contrary to the vast majority of already existing studies that relied on digitally distributed surveys due to the lockdown protocols. Secondly our study does not apply exclusively online methods to reach out to the participants. The survey results show that about 40% (of the 115 participants) use parks more frequently during the final phase of the COVID-19 pandemic compared to before 2020. Characteristics such as proximity to home, naturalness and cleanliness have become the most relevant. We see a notable increase in the demand for secure public green spaces, particularly among female visitors. Every second respondent confirmed experiencing considerable difficulties when accessing UGS, revealing the existing (spatial) deficits in environmental justice. These results should be considered by urban planners to adapt UGS to the changing demands of the citizens.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue or YIMBY? Understanding the complex relationships between foreign military bases and host societies<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Based on a scoping review of English-language scientific literature for the period of 1990–2022, the article presents a synthetic outline of previous research, focusing on factors influencing the specifics of foreign military bases (FMBs) as examples of facilities that mostly generate negative attitudes known as ‘Not In My Backyard’ (NIMBY). The specific characteristics of different categories of objects that generate various social attitudes are also presented. The results of the analyses include a classification of factors and aspects related to the local impacts of foreign military bases, which have not been analysed before.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue use of the urban riverscape: What brings people to the river?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Visiting urban green and blue spaces improves the quality of life in cities as it helps to preserve human-nature bonds. In this context, the role of urban parks and forests has been well-recognised; however, much less is known about the landscapes of inland water bodies. To fill this gap, the study aimed to identify spatiotemporal patterns of recreational activities in the urban riverscape in relation to the visitors’ residential proximity. Also, survey results were combined with spatial and remote sensing data to determine how the spatial characteristics of the riverscape affect its recreational use. The case of Warsaw, Poland, was used. The results indicated that the riverscape serves as a local park for the neighbouring communities, while it is rather a warm-weekend attraction for far-living ones. Visitors concentrate in the city centre, and spread out along the communication paths; however, spatial patterns of the magnitude of particular activities also show interbank differences. Spatial error models of drivers of riverscape recreation revealed (1) the multifaceted role of trees in densely visited areas and (2) the importance of physical availability for contact with the urban river. These findings expand knowledge on the recreational use of urban rivers by exploring its place-related motivations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue mobility of the inhabitants of the countries of NATO’s eastern flank in the event of a military conflict<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this article, we identify the spatial mobility of the populations of selected urban centres in Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Hungary. In total, 1,616 interviews were conducted. Additionally also interviews with the employees responsible for crisis management were conducted. Based on the analyses, five different clusters were identified, with different patterns of inhabitants in terms of their spatial mobility in the event of war. The most significant factors influencing their mobility in crisis situations are country of residence, age, number of people in the household and sex. This research can help develop evacuation strategies at different levels of governance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the deep learning recognition of cultivated terraces based on Lidar data: The case of Slovenia<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cultivated terraces are phenomena that have been protected in some areas for both their cultural heritage and food production purposes. Some terraced areas are disappearing but could be revitalised. To this end, recognition techniques need to be developed and terrace registers need to be established. The goal of this study was to recognise terraces using deep learning based on Lidar DEM. Lidar data is a valuable resource in countries with overgrown terraces. The U-net model training was conducted using data from the Slovenian terraces register for southwestern Slovenia and was subsequently applied to the entire country. We then analysed the agreement between the terraces register and the terraces recognised by deep learning. The overall accuracy of the model was 85%; however, the kappa index was only 0.22. The success rate was higher in some regions. Our results achieved lower accuracy compared to studies from China, where similar techniques were used but which incorporated satellite imagery, DEM, as well as land use data. This study was the first attempt at deep learning terrace recognition based solely on high-resolution DEM, highlighting examples of false terrace recognition that may be related to natural or other artificial terrace-like features.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue revitalisation within the historical quarter: A comprehensive analysis of a medium sized city in Romania<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The public space environment is one of the critical influential factors for strengthening local identity and communities’ sense of belonging, while enhancing city life quality. This study focuses on the use of heritage buildings as a catalyst for reactivating public spaces and aims to explore to what extent the revitalization project for the historical centre of Craiova, a medium-sized post-socialist city, has succeeded. The three dimensions of revitalisation – physical, economic and social – were analysed using a mixed approach, including participant observation, field investigation, and a residents’ survey. Physical changes within the study area, improved accessibility, functional changes and economic restructuring were analysed, as well residents’ perceptions and use of the area (perceived changes, use of the place, types of places used by the residents, frequency, times spent). The results point to the fact that not all the three dimensions of the revitalization project were equally successful, proving once again that not all the actions are effective in delivering the best outcomes. The main beneficiaries are discussed and the outcome of the revitalisation project is analysed against similar projects in other countries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue perception of food value: A comparative study of global supermarkets and local farmers' markets in Slovakia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper explores how Slovak consumers perceive the value of food, sold by different retail formats (especially farmers’ markets and supermarkets), in terms of the quality, price, and healthiness. The aim of this paper is to evaluate consumer perceptions regarding global and local types of retail stores where they buy food most frequently. In the study, the segmentation of consumers by generation, income, and type of residence is provided. From the methodological point of view, Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests are used to test hypotheses. According to the sample of respondents (n = 1,004), large-scale stores do not offer healthier and higher-quality food. This perception, however, varies based on the income of the consumer groups. On the other hand, respondents perceive that food sold at farmers’ markets is healthier and of higher quality than food in conventional stores. They do not perceive that food sold at farmers’ markets is cheaper than food in conventional stores.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Turów coal mine international dispute as a determinant of the cross-border integration of inhabitants of the Polish-Czech border<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The crisis around the operation of the Turów coal mine and its impact on cross-border relations in the Polish-Czech borderlands is examined in this article. The genesis of the international dispute and its course is analysed on the basis of international relations and border studies theories. Moreover, the specific cross-border relations and asymmetries in the area are studied. Then, the authors discuss the methodology and results of the research through questionnaires and formulate conclusions drawn from the research conducted by the Polish-Czech research team in 2022. The results prove that the nearly two-year Polish-Czech dispute over the Turów mine hurt the cross-border activity of the inhabitants of the Polish-Czech border. Despite alarming media news, this impact was weak and short-lived. It ultimately did not significantly impact the cross-border integration of the inhabitants or cause a deterioration of relations between the Polish and Czech sides of the Euroregion Neisse-Nisa-Nysa. The crisis was caused by the lack of adequate communication between local governments from Poland and the Czech Republic and insufficient commitment from the local and regional authorities. Another cause was the poor integration of residents in the border area, although the cross-border cooperation epitomised by the Euroregion Neisse-Nisa-Nysa is not poorly rated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue divided town of Český Těšín/Cieszyn as the most integrated part of the Czech-Polish borderland: A life in the cross-border educational togetherness or side by side?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The (non)contribution of schools towards cross-border integration in the divided town of Těšín/Cieszyn, located on the Czech-Polish border, is analysed in this article. The pandemic-related border closures revealed a substantial level of togetherness in this town, manifested by various social activities. Moreover, a part of these (during the pandemic restricted) cross-border social practices were those in education. We applied a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods to diagnose the directions of cross-border educational flows, the approach of schools towards the identified joint cross-border social practices, and the possible level of togetherness. As a result, one-sidedness (Polish pupils attending schools in the Czech Republic) of cross-border flows was identified – which also follows the direction of a cross-border workforce. Except for the schools with Polish as the instruction language, located in the Czech part of the town, primarily serving Polish speakers living in the Czech Republic, we can mention hardly any mutually shared feeling of togetherness and an actual place-based approach towards educational governance in this divided town. We observe some ties in education between the autochthonous Polish minority in the Czech Republic and the Poles in Poland, without the involvement of pupils or teachers of Czech ethnicity, who do not reflect opportunities behind the border.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and forecasting the influence of environmental controls on windstorm disturbances in the Central Low Tatras, through regression models<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nowadays, the large-scale disturbance and subsequent temporary deforestation of mountain forests are widely discussed phenomena. In this study, we built both a logistic regression model (LRM) and a generalised additive model (GAM), in order to understand the drivers of deforestation after the Elisabeth windstorm (2004) in the Central Low Tatras, Slovakia. A set of topographic and biotic characteristics was selected as explanatory variables, while the presence of deforestation was a response variable. The results show that the most prone to windstorm-driven damage are forests growing at a high elevation, in the ridge’s surroundings, and on gentle slopes exposed to the wind during the disturbance. Moreover, the stands with a high proportion of Norway spruce and with medium-diameter trees, which are under forest management, were identified as more vulnerable. Additionally, both models were used to identify those stands, which would be most susceptible to damage by future windstorms. According to its explanatory power and building efficiency, we propose using of LRM rather than GAM in similar large-scale studies. The addressed methods can be used in local forest management, as scientifically based decision-making appears to be crucial for maintaining mountain forests resistant to gusty winds, as well as other disturbing agents.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue voter turnout using multiscale geographically weighted regression: The case of Slovakia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Voter turnout is an essential aspect of elections and often reflects the attitude of a country’s population towards democracy and politics. Therefore, examining the distribution of voter turnout and determining the factors that influence whether or not people will vote is crucial. This study aims to find significant factors that underlie the different levels of electoral participation across regions in Slovakia during the 2020 parliamentary elections. In this interpretation, special attention is paid to the ability of the main theories of voter turnout to explain the behaviour of Slovak voters. The primary analytical tool is multiscale geographically weighted regression, which represents an advanced local regression modelling variant. The results indicate that the multiscale geographically weighted regression is superior to the global ordinary least square model in virtually all aspects. Voter turnout is generally higher in economically and socially prosperous localities and regions, which is in line with the societal modernisation theory. Additionally, factors connected to mobilisation theory and the concept of ‘left behind places’ also proved to be valuable. However, in other cases, such as with the share of retirees and potential habitual voting, the outcomes were not overly convincing, and further research is required.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and polycentric urban forms as intertwined concepts: Learning from the impacts of Covid–19 retail restrictions on spatial (in)equalities in Brno (Czech Republic)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Urban structure conceptualisation using compact and polycentric city narratives is often performed separately. However, although both are based on different spatial grammars, they are inextricably linked. The spatially equitable distribution and accessibility of urban functions are often seen as their main contributions. This paper uses the unprecedented circumstances of the COVID-19 pandemic to further analyse the relationship between the two narratives, using the radical transformation of a retail network in a post-socialist city (Brno, Czech Republic) as an example. Based on an in-depth analysis of government measures aimed at preventing the spread of the coronavirus and their coverage in the media, operational changes among all stores in the city are quantified. A comparative spatial analysis then shows that, in addition to economic inequalities, spatial injustice was exacerbated by the position of the central government, with varying degrees of intensity depending on the type of urban structure. It is argued that the resilience potential of polycentric and compact structures is very low, especially in the absence of retail planning and reflection upon spatiality in ensuring social equity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of migration motives: Matching migration motives with socioeconomic data<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Motives behind internal migration reported by internal migrants often differ from those assumed by standard economic and social theories. This research aims to narrow the gap between the stated motives and those suggested by human capital models. It relates the net migration rates by specific motives to socioeconomic and sociodemographic variables at the LAU 1 level in the period 1997–2021 in Slovakia. This research establishes that most of the stated motives behind internal migration (housing and family) differ from those assumed by human capital theories. This finding is valid for motives stated at the proximal level. The analysis of migration rates and housing supply indicates a substantial concentration of interdistrict migrants in suburban districts of affluent metropolitan regions. This finding resonates with assumptions on the latent importance of employment and income for internal migration.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in times of crisis: The possibility of de-marginalisation of the Polish border zone with Russia after the outbreak of war in Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Polish-Russian border, closed since the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic, transformed into an iron curtain without any chance for its disappearance in a long-term perspective. The ongoing conflict between Russia and the EU started an experiment in the Polish zone bordering with Russia with respect to the planning of economic growth in the new reality – in a fully isolated area – where the border is a limitation and not an opportunity. According to the author’s research, the crisis caused by the permanent closing of the Polish-Russian border and suspension of contacts with the Kaliningrad Oblast, which initially was a hard blow for the border communes, with a particularly difficult economic situation, may – in the long-term perspective – turn out to be an important driving force for changes. The primary purpose of this paper is to identify the main actions taken by the Polish local authorities at the border with Russia, the aim of which is revitalisation of the local economy after the Polish-Russian border was closed. The article is based on a number of in-depth expert interviews carried out in the Polish border area.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue