rss_2.0Moravian Geographical Reports FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Moravian Geographical Reports Geographical Reports 's Cover GIS-based framework to determine spatially explicit priority categories for flood risk management intervention schemes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The necessity of plural valuation of costs for flood risk management is widely acknowledged, but practical case studies are still scarce. We developed a GIS-based plural valuation framework to determine spatially explicit priority categories for flood risk management intervention schemes on the Drava River, Southern Hungary. A conventional economic evaluation, including land market prices and additional costs due to legal conservation restrictions, was complemented by ecological valuation of vulnerability. The inclusion of ecological vulnerability significantly changed the proposed priority areas for flood risk management interventions: in this case, softwood riparian forests face far less threat, together with other Natura 2000 habitats, in comparison to unprotected wetlands and grasslands. This valuation framework also highlights priority habitats and areas for joint conservation and water management projects, utilising the synergies between several EU Directives as the Birds Directive, Habitats Directive, Flood Directive, and Water Framework Directive. Our framework is adaptable for the other floodplains along major or medium-sized European rivers, assuming that specific local settings are considered.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-10-15T00:00:00.000+00:00The influence of administrative status on the trajectory of socio-economic changes: A case study of Polish cities<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Most of the academic literature indicates that high administrative status positively influences the development of a city, while the loss of such status leads to marginalisation. Most of these studies, however, investigated national capitals, and relatively little research has analysed the effect of a change in status at lower levels of government. Poland is an obvious subject for such research, due to the recent extensive reforms of its system of territorial government. This article presents the recent dynamics of socio-economic development in Polish cities and their relation to whether a city maintained or lost its status as a regional capital. These results enable us to identify correlations between the dynamics of socio-economic development and the status of a city. The nature of these correlations is more ambiguous than the results presented in previous studies. The findings of this study give new insight into the effect of changes in a city’s administrative status.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-10-15T00:00:00.000+00:00How should we do the history of geographies during the period of state socialism? Historical period, space and expert knowledge in the post-war Czechoslovakia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A critical reflection on the current state of research into the history of the production of geographical knowledge during the period of state socialism is presented in this report. Using the example of the Czechoslovak administrative reform from 1949, several questionable aspects of current interpretations are identified. In particular, the problematic use of three crucial concepts in the study of the history of geography: time (a politics of memory); space (spatial imaginations); and geographical knowledge. Examples of approaches to each concept are presented, which can overcome the insufficiencies and contribute to a better understanding of the mutual relations between state socialism and the production of geographical knowledge. Research into the history of geography during the period of state socialism is important both to understand the current state of ‘post-socialist’ national geographies, and to add to the production of an inclusive history of global geography. One necessary condition is, however, to leave the current descriptive and encyclopaedic styles, which are marked with ahistoricism and presentism. In contrast, it is essential that the history of geography during the period of the state socialism become a serious issue, which is analysed through critical and reflexive approaches.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-10-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Spatial regularities in Internet performance at a local scale: The case of Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>At present the digital divide has started to be considered not so much in the context of Internet access itself or the skills of Internet users, but in terms of Internet performance. The COVID-19 pandemic has revealed that faster Internet made it easier to adapt to the new reality. But not all areas can benefit from good Internet connection. Therefore, the aim of this study is to identify spatial regularities in Internet performance on a local scale. This study is based on a set of data generated by Internet users, collected using the publicly available Ookla Speedtest measurement tool. The information about Internet speed and latency obtained in this way shows the actual Internet speed experienced. The analyses have indicated significant characteristics of the spatial differentiation of Internet performance. First, in the case of the Internet, the core-periphery dimension is not universal and obvious, as regional systems are strongly marked. Second, perceiving the digital divide mainly through the prism of Internet access is an insufficient approach.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-10-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Local centres in post-socialist suburbs: Redefined concept and retrofitting perspectives<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Chaotically developed post-socialist suburbs need retrofitting by providing residents with a local central space. This research aims at developing a typology of suburban local centres, describing the most common central spaces according to adopted criteria, as well as identifying which type of local centre has the most potential to be perceived as such by suburbanites and how suburban municipalities plan central spaces. The research was conducted in six institutional Warsaw suburbs representing the most common types of local centres of a neighbourhood catchment area. The research has shown that spatial criteria differentiate local centres more than social criteria. Concentric layouts attract different non-residential functions more effectively than linear ones. When recognising some spaces as central, the legibility of the broader spatial arrangement and the presence of key objects with centre-forming functions seems to be important. Factors that distort such recognition include the excessive dispersion of buildings, shops, and service points; peripheral or random location of the main activity node; poorly designed and equipped central spaces; and the proximity to large-scale shopping centres and recreational areas/objects. When looking for a model of retrofitting post-socialist suburbs through strengthening neighbourhood centres, it is worth recalling the concept of the so-called “third places”.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-10-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Late motherhood and spatial aspects of late fertility in Slovakia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Shifting childbearing to later reproductive ages is reflected in all European populations. Late motherhood also changes, from the point of view of parity structure, since nowadays, the beginning of reproductive pathways is increasingly realised at the age of 35 and over more often. The regional dimension of this phenomenon is significantly overlooked, however. The main aim of this paper is to explore how the level and the impact of late motherhood has changed from a spatial perspective. We use Slovakia as a case study population characterised until the end of the 1980s by an early beginning of reproduction and its concentration in the first half of the reproductive period, and by relatively significant socio-economic, cultural and demographic differences. At the same time, we point out the changes in late motherhood in terms of parity structure. Finally, through linear regression models, we try to identify which of the selected factors may condition the differences in share of late fertility and the significance of first births at advanced reproductive ages.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00A comparison of the hydrodynamic characteristics of surface runoff generated by flash floods in geologically different areas of the Bohemian Massif (crystalline rocks) and the western Carpathians (flysch)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The geological environment is undoubtedly one of the basic factors that influence the formation of surface runoff. The extent to which this factor can also affect the hydrodynamic characteristics of flash floods, which is also indirectly associated with flood risk, is the main topic of this study. In two geologically different areas of the Bohemian Massif (crystalline rocks predominate) and the western Carpathians (flysch rocks predominate), a total of 40 watersheds characterised by sharing a certain hydrological analogy were selected (20 watersheds from the Massif and 20 from the Flysch zone). In each of these watersheds, 1-year, 10-year and 100-year flash flood return periods were constructed using the two-dimensional hydrodynamic model Iber. The outputs from this model included raster datasets of areas, depths, and flow velocities during inundations. Subsequently, these rasters were analysed and compared with an emphasis on differences within the individual geological study areas. The outputs showed clear differences in the individual hydrodynamic characteristics (e.g. the average inundation area during Q<sub>100</sub> was 29.07% larger in the Flysch than in the Massif). Overall, the Flysch zone appeared to be far riskier in terms of flash floods than in the case of the Bohemian Massif.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00A geography of creative networks: The case of a small European economy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This research project analyses the effects of networking by creative and conventional enterprises at regional and inter-industry levels. It relies on a unique dataset provided by the Slovak Creative Voucher Scheme and has some novel elements. We used direct evidence of industry locations from projects developed by creative industries rather than proxies. Network analysis was applied to establish major patterns in regional and inter-industry cooperation by creative and conventional firms. Regression models were used to analyse the network structure. The findings from quantitative analyses were complemented with evidence from qualitative methods. The network included a wide variety of cooperating partners. A sample of creative firms supported by the Creative Voucher Scheme cooperated with partners from no less than 60 industries. Spatial proximity was a key condition for cooperation, enabling face-to-face contacts and the development of a trusting relationship between creative firms and their clients.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The sustainability of social care in Slovakia: Modelling the existing network of residential social facilities for future senior populations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The possible availability of residential long-term care for seniors in the regions of Slovakia in the period to 2040 is evaluated in this contribution. The study identifies risk in the availability of residential care concerning the future development of the senior population. To highlight the potential risk for regions, three model projections are used. A factor analysis with two-by-two classifications was employed to identify the risk in the regions in terms of the availability of residential care. Due to the expanding senior population in Slovakia, maintaining the current capacity of residential facilities would significantly deteriorate the availability of social services. If the current ratio of residential care capacity to the size of the senior population is maintained, the number of beds will have to increase by 56% by 2040. Demographic ageing is a current challenge for public policy and requires searching for solutions to ensure the quality of social care for the elderly in every society. Our research shows that the risk in the regions of Slovakia varies depending on the existing capacity of residential facilities and the forecasted senior population.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Modal split of passenger traffic: The Polish section of EU external borders<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Despite the ongoing processes of territorial integration, especially in Europe, there are still borders that fulfil their original function, namely that of a barrier. In some cases, this function has even been strengthened. Such is the case with Poland’s eastern border, which is also the external border of the EU and of the Schengen Area. This article presents the modal split of passenger traffic under conditions of frequent changes in the functions and permeability of borders, against the background of the key drivers behind the volumes of border traffic, i.e. the geopolitical, socio-economic, and infrastructural factors, both in relation to road, rail and border infrastructure. All sections of the border display some marginalisation of railway transport. The Polish eastern border is characterised by a sustained high share of bus transport, which pertains to all sections under analysis. The long waiting times for clearance when travelling in private cars was probably one of the factors behind the creation of the market for collective transport. Private transport is most dominant on the Polish-Russian border, while the largest share of crossings by bus is recorded on the Belarusian border.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Adoption of renewable energy innovations in the Portuguese rural tourist accommodation sector<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The imperative of decarbonisation represents a great challenge for the tourist accommodation sector. This article examines the adoption of renewable energy innovations in the tourist accommodation sector of Portugal. The analysis focuses on one of the most known tourist accommodation products in the Portuguese countryside: Tourism in Rural Areas (TER). Drawing from two complementary e-mail-based surveys conducted with TER owners/managers, the results of the study show that there is a substantial gap between their positive perceptions of renewables and levels of renewable energy innovations adoption. The reasons pinpointed relate to unfavourable market factors and to institutional, legal, regulatory, or administrative hurdles. In addition, except for geographical location, the characteristics of the units and respondents had no significant influence on adoption.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00How to find a suitable location for a cemetery? Application of multi-criteria evaluation for identifying potential sites for cemeteries in Białystok, Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Valorisation of land is an important tool for countries around the world to help regulate land use planning and ensure sustainable development. Cemeteries are multifaceted spaces, providing a keystone community infrastructure. Poorly located cemeteries can generate adverse environmental, landscape and community outcomes. Identifying optimal sites for cemeteries will become an increasing concern for land use planners as population numbers and consequent death rates increase while the amount of available land decreases. This study was conducted with the aim of proposing multi-criteria analysis for identifying some optimal sites for cemeteries. This analysis was implemented in Białystok (297,585 inhabitants, in Podlaskie Voivodeship, Poland), where 11 potential areas for the location of a new cemetery were assessed. Through a comprehensive process of investigation, engagement, and analysis, four options in different locations were identified as suitable for further consideration. Two sites (options 7 and 11) had fatal flaws – high risk and effects associated with development and were not recommended to be taken forward.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Spaces of internal displacement: Understanding the hidden urban geographies of armed conflict in Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Ukraine, like some other Eastern European post-communist countries, faced a military-political crisis during its subsequent development that led to a ‘new’ category of migrants: internally displaced persons (IDPs). This paper aims to deepen the understanding of the hidden urban geographies of internal displacement and the consequences of armed conflicts in large cities, in the context of the Russo-Ukrainian armed conflicts with a focus on major Ukrainian cities as primary recipients of Ukrainian IDPs. The difficulties faced by Ukrainian urban IDPs in adapting to new geopolitical and life realities and integrating into host communities are examined, as well as an elaboration of the spatial intra-urban patterns of IDP distributions. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to achieve the goals of the research. The data set consisted of official data, generalised survey results, and materials from in-depth interviews with urban IDPs from Donbas/Crimea. The empirical results of the study of urban IDPs in Ukraine shed light on patterns of the adaptation and integration of IDPs in large Ukrainian cities and help to understand more deeply the hidden urban geographies of internal displacement in large cities, in particular an understanding of the nature of intra-urban patterns of Ukrainian IDP distributions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Perception of safety and passage of time as factors influencing mode choice: The case of the Prague-Munich high-speed route<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Behavioural factors of risk perception and time perception influencing the mode choice on the Prague-Munich route in relation to railway as a reference mode, are subject to evaluation in this article. Semi-structured interviews are qualitatively analysed using the Grounded Theory method and ATLAS.ti software, giving specific sets of meanings and understandings of selected factors, which in turn affect the travel behaviours and the mode choice. Defining these factors creates space for estimating and proposing perspectives for the development of expected travel behaviours in the context of the planned high-speed rail (HSR) system on the Prague-Munich route. The significance of this research lies in creating new meaning fields of selected factors in the specific transport infrastructure with four existing transport modes between Prague and Munich. The results based on the formulated concepts show two different meaning fields of risk – the concept of perceived risk of an accident and the concept of personal safety. Empirical results of time perception show four different meaning fields of time perception based on a preferred transport mode. Finally, the results are used for creating contextual perspectives for HSR planning across Czech – German borders.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Changes in the geographical distribution of youth poverty and social exclusion in EU member countries between 2008 and 2017<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>With respect to the fulfillment of the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy, the threat of poverty and social exclusion has not been sufficiently reduced in the European Union (EU) over the past decade, and large regional disparities persist. Young people are the most affected by the problems of income poverty, material deprivation and labour market exclusion, which are the three dimensions of poverty and social exclusion. In this article, we focus on comparing the EU countries in terms of the three listed dimensions, while revealing similarities and differences in the incidence and severity of these social phenomena among youth. In addition to measuring dimensions by the currently used AROPE (at risk of poverty or social exclusion) rate, we also use a larger spectrum of relevant indicators for a more comprehensive analysis. While the AROPE aggregate indicator uses the same methodology for the population of young people as for the whole population, our approach includes indicators that are specific to young people. We assume that all dimensions affect each other, so we apply multidimensional statistical methods such as principal components and cluster analysis to analyse them. These methods have revealed that some dimensions affect poverty and social exclusion to a greater extent and others to a lesser extent than might appear to be the case, based on AROPE’s partial rates. Moreover, we present quantified integral indicators that together with the results of the multivariate methods, provide a rather complex picture concerning the geographical distribution of poverty and social exclusion, as well as their dimensions in the EU, for the population of persons aged 18–24 years in 2008 and 2017.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-04-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Scientific citizens, smartphones and social media – reshaping the socio-spatial networks of participation: Insects, soil and food<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The conjunction of citizen science and social media through the mediation of the smartphone is investigated in this Scientific Communication, following on from the last issue of the Moravian Geographical Reports (2019, Vol. 27, No. 4). Through a reconsideration of three previously published articles, in part written by the author, this paper reflects on these topics with regard to farmer innovation, local food networks and citizen-informed ecology. Each of these papers has used Twitter to gather data about practices of innovation and observation that have revealed new insights about innovation networks amongst farmers, urban-rural connections and insect behaviours. The reflections reported here are embedded in a discussion of the rise of the term ‘Citizen Science’. Recent experiences in areas as diverse as fisheries management and combating Ebola, have informed societal needs for greater engagement in finding inclusive, comprehensive solutions to urgent socio-ecological problems. This paper suggests a compositional approach to studies using citizen scientists and their data as a new avenue of practice and investigation.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-04-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Changes in urban transport behaviours and spatial mobility resulting from the introduction of statutory Sunday retail restrictions: A case study of Lodz, Poland<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The impact of statutory Sunday retail restrictions on the transport behaviours of people living in the Polish post-socialist city of Lodz is investigated in this article. One carrier of information on journeys undertaken in the city is data from induction loops – a part of the city’s Intelligent Transportation System (ITS). The second source of data is a two-stage questionnaire survey (concerning trading and non-trading Sundays) of the city’s inhabitants, aimed at defining any changes in their transport behaviours with reference to the introduction of retail restrictions. The research was conducted to assess the way in which the new statutory restrictions affect transport behaviour discharged after the political transformation. The results of the research conducted on the transport behaviours of Lodz residents indicate that the majority of their transport behaviours clearly depend on whether a given Sunday is a trading or non-trading day. The traffic load of the urban road network (perceived as the manifestation of residents’ spatial mobility) is characterised by a distinct changeability due to the legislative restrictions related to Sunday trading. There is both a time (daily and hourly) differentiation of traffic flows and a spatial changeability of the load in the urban space, when a comparative analysis is conducted of the results of observations made in the weeks preceding trading and non-trading Sundays. The study also demonstrates that the time previously devoted to Sunday shopping is currently spent not only at home, but also allocated to new (and until now unperformed) activities that often require travelling.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-04-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Using local climate zones to compare remotely sensed surface temperatures in temperate cities and hot desert cities<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Urban and rural thermal properties mainly depend on surface cover features as well as vegetation cover. Surface classification using the local climate zone (LCZ) system provides an appropriate approach for distinguishing urban and rural areas, as well as comparing the surface urban heat island (SUHI) of climatically different regions. Our goal is to compare the SUHI effects of two Central European cities (Szeged, Hungary and Novi Sad, Serbia) with a temperate climate (Köppen-Geiger’s Cfa), and a city (Beer Sheva, Israel) with a hot desert (BWh) climate. LCZ classification is completed using WUDAPT (World Urban Database and Access Portal Tools) methodology and the thermal differences are analysed on the basis of the land surface temperature data of the MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor, derived on clear days over a four-year period. This intra-climate region comparison shows the difference between the SUHI effects of Szeged and Novi Sad in spring and autumn. As the pattern of NDVI (Normalised Difference Vegetation Index) indicates, the vegetation coverage of the surrounding rural areas is an important modifying factor of the diurnal SUHI effect, and can change the sign of the urban-rural thermal difference. According to the inter-climate comparison, the urban-rural thermal contrast is the strongest during daytime in summer with an opposite sign in each season.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-04-09T00:00:00.000+00:00The preferences of residents and tourists for culturaland architectural heritage in a rural landscape:The case of Zlatna Greda, Croatia<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Rural areas of the Republic of Croatia are experiencing abandonment, which is especially intensive in the eastern part of the country. This paper aims to provide insights into places with specific spatial and functional characteristics, pustara settlements, within the rural landscape of the Baranja region, presenting their cultural and architectural heritage that needs comprehensive protection and conversion. The redevelopment potential, as well as the negative significance of abandonment of these sites, indicates the need for identifying the characteristics of these settlements: the tangible value of its built facilities and open spaces, its movable cultural heritage, as well as its intangible values. The main objectives were to determine desirable tangible and intangible pustara values by investigating place attachment among former pustara residents, and to provide information on domestic tourists’ preferences in visiting these settlements. The results indicate a common preference among former pustara residents and tourists for its architectural heritage: e.g. its settlement as a spatial unit and its parks. Additionally, tourists expressed preferences for recreational and entertainment facilities. Common interests, as well as highly expressed needs among former inhabitants and tourists, present the basis for establishing new functions and redevelopment plans.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-01-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Mobility and the assimilation of immigrants: Variationsin migration patterns of Ukrainians and Vietnamesein the Czech Republic<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The distribution of international migrants is an essential part of socio-geographical differentiation. In addition to international migration, internal or domestic migration plays an important role in the geographical distribution of immigrants. Based on data from the population register, the Census, and a quantitative survey, we analysed the internal mobility of Ukrainian and Vietnamese immigrants, which are the first and third largest international migrant groups in the Czech Republic. Using the assimilation perspective, the results of the analysis indicate that each ethnic group behaves differently. Specifically, the concentration of these immigrants differed at both regional and neighbourhood levels.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-01-25T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1