rss_2.0Art History & Criticism FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Art History & Criticismhttps://sciendo.com/journal/MIKhttps://www.sciendo.comArt History & Criticism Feedhttps://sciendo-parsed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/64724893215d2f6c89dc2e6b/cover-image.jpghttps://sciendo.com/journal/MIK140216Ukrainian Folk Games and Toys: Levels of Integration Into Modern Visual Culturehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2023-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The study deals with the possibilities of integrating the folk experience of creating Ukrainian games and toys into modern visual culture. An ethno-cultural pattern that synthesizes the artistic image, national form, natural materials, and game principles of interaction into an integral structure based on the analysis of folklore materials and artistic folk products from the territory of Western Polissia in Ukraine has been formed. The result of the study is the classification of Ukrainian folk toys and games of the population of Western Polissia organized as a holistic multifaceted visual and communicative system of interaction between folk games and toys. It has been proved that integration of ethno-cultural patterns into modern visual culture is carried out on three levels: subject, environmental, and socio-cultural. The study presents the theoretical basis for designing a modern visual and communicative environment for life, learning and rest, which is able to attract a child to the deep traditions of national culture in a natural way.</p> <p>The outlined levels of integration are closely related with modern practices of eco-design, ethno-design, and art-therapy, which act as a strategic basis for the formation of modern visual culture and are aimed at the sustainable development of society.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2023-00082023-11-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Reinstalling the Fourth Wall: Digital Performance and Spectatorship in (Post-)Pandemic Erahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2023-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Theatre can be interpreted as a place where various modes of participation in the community or patterns of citizen behaviour can be rehearsed. In pre-pandemic Lithuanian theatre (as well as theatres of other Baltic countries) various forms of audience engagement were conspicuously emerging, ranging from physical co-creation practices to interactive forms of entertainment. After the global lockdown of theatre institutions the emerging forms of “virtual theatre”, ranging from performance recordings to zoom theatre, redefined the role of theatre spectatorship, in particular the notions of “active”, “passive”, “collective”, “individual”, fundamental for the understanding of the role of publics. Analysing the abundant examples of “pandemic theatre” one starts to think about the return of the digital “fourth wall”, where audiences are becoming distant spectators. This poses important questions to theatre research: whether these forms of theatre are strengthening the feeling of passivity and isolation, serve as platforms for much-needed psychological escapism or offer a critical revaluation of the essential principles of theatre art.</p> <p>With the help of two case studies, this paper will define and analyse the prevailing practices of pandemic Lithuanian theatre and will outline whether and how the fundamental categories associated with the spectator’s experience of theatre have changed in the post-pandemic era.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2023-00032023-11-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Architectural Typologies Appeared by Modernism: Case Study of the Edirne Zeppelin Hangarhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2023-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>When modernism started to be seen in architectural spheres, it did not emerge just with an architectural language for design but also with new architectural typologies. Due to the main discourse of the Modern Movement with the famous quote of Louis Sullivan, “Form follows function”, new building types which were explicitly designed for their functions have appeared. However, over time, while some of these functional buildings kept their functions, some of them either lost their function entirely already, or the technology which created that function is in a downward trend. Zeppelin/airship hangars are amongst those buildings constructed for a specific function in the early 20th century which have lost that function in the present. Therefore, even though they might not reflect any tangible qualities, the function can operate as an intangible cultural reference. The object of this paper is one of those zeppelin hangars, which is located in Edirne, Turkey. The research attempts to categorise the architectural typologies that appeared by modernism, and apply a case study method to the Edirne Zeppelin Hangar to gain insight towards the problem, which is related to the consequences created by the language of the Modern Movement due to the emphasis of the function, and to discuss the possible adaptive reuse strategies regarding these artefacts which totally lost their functions. It is concluded that it is not possible to transform all the building stock that emerged in the built environment into museums, including the Edirne Zeppelin Hangar; however, inconsequential to the designated purposes, it is crucial to leave intangible references to the previous function in its design process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2023-00062023-11-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Lithuanian Landscape Photography of the 20 Century: Place Towards Spacehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2023-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>This article analyses Lithuanian landscape photography that reflects the cultural landscape of the 20th century, revealing not only the natural phenomena of the land, but also the historical development of the country, social memory and national identity. Landscape photographs are abundant with cultural codes implicated in visual structures of landscapes, which are read and distinguished with the help of the palimpsest model. An interdisciplinary methodological approach is applied to the understanding of the functioning of photography in the spatial and local planes and to the purposeful use of the concepts of <italic>place</italic> and <italic>space</italic>, combining the phenomenological insights of humanistic geography, the theory of spatial production of the sociologist Henri Lefebvre, and the art historical analysis of visual texts. This interdisciplinary study introduces the cultural layer that is characteristic of the 20th century landscape, provides a sense of historical time shifts, and clarifies the prevailing stylistic movements in photographic landscapes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2023-00022023-11-29T00:00:00.000+00:00“Art and Objecthood,” Michael Fried and Jonathan Edwardshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2023-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Michael Fried’s 1967 essay “Art and Objecthood” is one of the most well-known and influential pieces of art criticism ever written, and continues to generate novel interpretations. Its overtly theological cast, however, has never been the subject of close study. This article focuses on Fried’s decision to use a lengthy quotation from Perry Miller’s biography of the theologian Jonathan Edwards as his epigram, and contends that Fried’s essay is informed in significant ways by Edwards’ notions of history and grace, and characterized by wordings that reveal an active engagement with Miller’s text. Certainly, the contexts in which Edwards and Fried worked were irreducibly different. Nevertheless, an examination of the ways in which Fried drew on Miller’s text and Edwards’ ideas demonstrates that he was productively influenced by both in composing “Art and Objecthood.”</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2023-00012023-11-29T00:00:00.000+00:00The Development of Standard Designs of Primary School Buildings in Lithuania During the 1920s and 1930shttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2023-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>This article analyses the development of standard designs of primary school buildings in Lithuania during the 1920s and 1930s. This process aimed to create simple and comfortable standard school buildings and provide them to the primary schools operating in the country. The article presents the development of standard designs that took place at that time, explaining the circumstances of their emergence, and comparing the main designs of such buildings developed at that time. To reveal this process as best as possible, the influence of the then Ministry of Education of Lithuania, local former Lithuanian county municipalities, and various architectural specialists in the standardisation of buildings for primary schools and the development of standard designs are presented and analysed. This aims to introduce the readers to the still little-known process that took place in the architecture of Lithuania during the 1920s and 1930s.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2023-00052023-11-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Romanian Art History During the 1950s as a Form of Social History of Arthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2023-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The Romanian Workers’ Party – the political party that led Romania from 1947 until 1965 – need for legitimisation led to the rewriting of history in a way that the history of Romania was presented as a linear progression finally leading to communism. In art history, art also became a linear phenomenon, progressively advancing towards Socialist Realism.</p> <p>The tactics of constructing the new narrative in art history during the 1950s and the beginning of the 1960s can be read as a form of the social history of art. Although the methodology could have led to remarkable results, ethical boundaries were violated: only some historical episodes and moments from artists’ biographies were selected.</p> <p>Within this context, this study investigates whether papers and monographs about Romanian painters active in the second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century can be read as a form of social history of art.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2023-00072023-11-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Perfecting the Imperfect: Parallels Between the Contemporary Circus Artist’s Embodiment and the Westernized Wabi Sabi Concepthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2023-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Wabi Sabi is a Japanese concept that, despite lacking a universal definition, comprises three principles: nothing is perfect, nothing is finished and nothing lasts forever.<sup>1</sup> While in 2018, an adapted version of Wabi Sabi started to become trendier in the Western world<sup>2</sup>, this Westernized concept accidentally starts to have parallels with the way in which contemporary circus artists experience their embodiment. The research showed that contemporary circus artists are constantly trying to focus more on what a body can do and how it can do instead of body appearance, they are accepting that bodies are not perfect and share an understanding of the importance of embracing this imperfection. Moreover, contemporary circus artists are having in mind constant bodily changes and reflecting it correspondingly by developing positive relationships with their bodies. This article will be a sociological outlook of interconnections among the already existing beliefs in the contemporary circus field and the new trend of Westernized Wabi Sabi ideas.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2023-00042023-11-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Digital Code as an Object Graphic Design for Dissemination and Promotion of Brandhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2023-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The article reveals the features of the graphic language of coded information by identifying, systematizing, and combining QR-codes and AR-codes at the present stage of graphic design development. The analysis of coded information in different types of graphic design is presented: advertising, environmental, motion, print, packaging, set prop, web, mobile app, art, and illustration graphic design. The role of a graphic designer in the development of digital codes of various types for various fields of application is described. It is proved that the coded information is a trigger between the online and offline worlds. The article also reveals the importance of using coded information for the formation, development, and improvement of the brand.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2023-00102023-11-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Iconography as System. The Structural Principles of Representation in Visual Culturehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2023-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>This paper constitutes a reflexive and theoretical approach to the study of iconographies from a cultural perspective. Its aim is to depict iconographies as the structural order which makes images representative of the social frameworks from which they stem. By analysing the stable principles which participate in the production of such representativity in any given iconography, and by considering the cultural agents which socially regulate them and make images culturally specific, it is possible to understand the cultural mechanisms by which the social construction of reality is projected onto images. Consequently, this approach favours a conceptualisation of iconographies as cultural systems through which the identity of social frameworks is conveyed thanks to the use of images.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2023-00092023-11-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Multicultural Art Nouveau Décor and Polychromy in the Interior of the Chaim Frenkel Villa in Šiauliaihttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2022-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The Frenkel family was famous in Lithuania not only as major manufacturers but also as generous benefactors. They honourably fulfilled the duty of a wealthy Jew to provide charity and social assistance to those most in need. The Frenkel family was forced to leave Lithuania in 1939: during the Soviet and Nazi occupations, the family lost all their possessions. While some family members had Lithuanian citizenship, the property rights of the descendants of Chaim Frenkel (1857–1920) were not reinstated, and from 17 June 1993 the Chaim Frenkel Villa became a department of the Šiauliai “Aušros” Museum (ŠAM, established in 1923). After the building’s renovation (finished in 2008) the villa’s interior spaces reflect minimally survived aesthetics of high class everyday Lithuanian Jewish private life at the beginning of the 20th century. The aim of the article is to argue how the Art Nouveau style in (territory of nowadays) Lithuania was not pure, but intertwined with retro-styles and internationalism. The case of the Ch. Frenkel Villa enriches the history of Lithuanian Art Nouveau with rich combinations of colours, shapes and compositions typical of Lithuanian Jews. Noticeably in the case of the Ch. Frenkel Villa, the traditionalist way of life and the wisdom of Jewish daily life restrained fashionable European design innovations. This is proof that the living environment of Lithuanian Jews was perceived as an important space for spiritual life and the worship of God.</p> <p>Despite searches – fruitless so far – to discover the building’s architect, we can nonetheless recognise the connection of the Ch. Frenkel Villa with the art history of neighbouring Latvia, Riga in particular. It is known that the creator of the villa’s wall painting – famous Latvian painter Voldemārs Zeltiņš (1879–1909) – came to Šiauliai from Riga especially for this work. While the décor of the Ch. Frenkel family house-villa interior may look very magnificent to today’s generation, in comparison with wealthy European factory owners’ homes it was very modest, though yet of very high artistic value, unique and avoiding the repetition of straightforward cheap fashions of interior design.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2022-00052022-12-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Early Cinema in Lithuania: The Emergence of a Cultural Traditionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2022-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Leaning on the notions of transnationalism of cinema or Cinema of Small States, this article sets out to evaluate early cinema in the Northwestern Krai of the late 1800s–early 1900s Russian Empire and the region’s largest city, Vilnius, thematically, rather than chronologically, through the layers of the formation of film culture and the transformation of cinema into an aesthetic object. Such an approach presents a culturally new possibility of finding commonalities, allowing one to see early cinema in the provinces not necessarily as an always-late phenomenon that highlights the provinciality of the provinces, but on the contrary, as part of the overall European film tradition. This is argued from several aspects. Firstly, by showing how the perception of cinema has changed (and how this change coincided with Western trends) from cinema of attractions to narrative cinema; and secondly, by identifying changes in the repertoire of cinemas and in the established preferences of the early cinema audiences.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2022-00072022-12-08T00:00:00.000+00:00The Church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Chicago: A Complicated Story of the Search for Lithuanian Identityhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2022-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The article examines the complicated history of the search for Lithuanian identity in the church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Chicago. After leaving their homeland in the aftermath of World War II, the Lithuanian community struggled to maintain its national identity under difficult conditions of emigration. The search for a Lithuanian architectural character became an important part of this political task. Based on a case study, a church near Chicago’s densely populated Marquette Park in Lithuania, the text analyzes the Lithuanian community’s debate about the cultural and political mission of Lithuanian architecture in exile, and the way to express it. Although the concept of the <italic>national style</italic> had already emerged at the beginning of the twentieth century, post-war technological progress and the unfamiliar context of emigration brings additional questions to the subject. The article argues that historical reminiscences in the church are more an ethical than an aesthetic choice. This approach embodies the specific cultural expectations of the community and is, at least partially, in line with the critique of modernism from regionalist point of view.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2022-00022022-12-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Watercolours and Drawings of Count Konstanty Tyzenhauz – the Romanticised Testimony of the Timehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2022-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The goal of this article is to analyse and evaluate from an art-historical perspective the artistic legacy of Count Konstanty Tyzenhauz (1786–1853) in view of his multifaceted activities and in the context of his time, by applying formal and iconographic methods of art criticism. The Count’s work is a captivating and noteworthy legacy, a testimony to the amateur creativity of aristocracy. Various publications have published or mentioned only single works by Tyzenhauz; no attempt, however, has been made to study them as a whole with regard to the art-historical approach, moreover, some of the works had not yet been published. The analysis revealed that a number of sparsely preserved works, be it drawings or watercolours, are at variance with the stylistic rendering and artistic expression, thus disclosing the Count’s creative experiments and a notable influence of his teachers Orłowski and Norblin. The views representing historical heritage objects (the Koknese, the Vilnius Gediminas, and the Trakai castles) reflect in the main the Romantic tendencies and constitute the group of the most mature Count’s artworks. However, taking account of his unique style and individual manner, images of Rokiškis and the surrounding areas, as well as drawings of birds, stand out for the distinctive interpretation and comprise the most original group. They are romanticised, authentic visual fragments of his time and familiar environment. Art was not the Count’s main and professional endeavour, likewise for a number of noblemen of the epoch, but his artistic inclination let him adapt his talent for scientific purposes. No doubt, Tyzenhauz’s works that feature birds and various architectural objects are of important scientific, historical and iconographic value.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2022-00042022-12-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Modernist Genius in the Light of the Reception of Georgia O’Keeffe’s Workhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2022-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The text analyzes the discourse on modernist genius functioning within the critical reception of the works of an American abstract painter Georgia O’Keeffe in the 1910s and 1920s. The aim is to reflect on how the understanding of O’Keeffe as an atypical artist in the masculinized reality of her time influenced the views on the ideal of genius articulated by art critics during the discussed period. The text also aims to revise some concepts regarding the painter’s presence in the artistic world and the position of her artwork therein.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2022-00062022-12-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Adaptations of Prosper Mérimée’s “The Bear” in Different Media and Genres: Correction and Recontextualizationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2022-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Adaptation research demonstrates that the narrative of a particular work may be transferred to different media and/or contexts. In the analysis of such adaptations, it is possible to observe that in the context of both cinema and theatre, the often debated discourses around the connection between literature and and its adaptations in another media, are dialogical and conflicting. Although these discussions still dominate many texts, a considerable number of researchers agree that there are significant connections between adaptations of the same work and the original narrative. For example, Regina Schober describes adaptations as the process of emerging relationships.<sup>1</sup> Such a definition refers both to the relationship between the literary source and its adaptation to another medium, and the relationships between other adaptations created in the same or different media. The definition also encompasses the possibilities of narrative transformation in different cultural contexts. Prosper Mérimée’s work – the short story “The Bear”, in which 19th century Lithuania is reflected by combining fiction and reality – was selected for detailed investigation. The selected adaptations include, on the Lithuanian theatre stage, the opera “The Bear” (2000) created by composer Bronius Kutavičiuss and director Jonas Jurašas, and Łukasz Twarkowski’s “Lokis” (2017), staged at the drama theatre. The opera includes important additions to the short story. The adaptation by Lukasz Twarkowski and playwright Anka Herbut of the stage performance presents the idea of Mérimée’s work in today’s context, combining it with real stories of artists of our time. Two of the listed adaptations of “The Bear”, representing different genres – opera and contemporary drama theatre, as well as the relationship with the original text – became the objects of further research analysis. These case studies explore the use of media tools in the interpretation of the textual narrative, assess each adaptation within the overall field of previously produced adaptations, and seek to decipher the intertexts, and to notice the connections (as well as the differences).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2022-00082022-12-08T00:00:00.000+00:00A Critique on Authenticity and Integrity in Reconstruction: Perception of Architectural Heritage and Cities of Postwar Era from Europehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2022-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Interaction with heritage objects, which represent the transition between the past and present, is part of people’s daily lives in historical cities. However, even though heritage is a cultural asset, it is also the outcome of the social and political conditions regarding the selection, protection, and management of heritage objects. After the Second World War, different European countries developed diverse approaches regarding the rebuilding process of their cities, which were heavily destroyed due to air raids. While some followed the strategy of constructing a modern city from scratch, some decided to reconstruct the prior structures before the cities were demolished. Furthermore, there are examples where the authorities have selectively chosen what they wanted to remember and build. When these strategies are analysed in today’s conditions, they raise the question of how these different approaches affected the appreciation of these cities in the contemporary world, concerning their perceived authenticity and integrity, since perception can vary regarding the issues related to heritage objects. In most cases, while experts emphasise the protection of the environment and safeguard the authenticity of the historical objects, for the general public, the visual integrity and the impact of the changes to their daily lives might be more critical, which establishes a difference towards the social value of the authenticity. Therefore, this paper aims to demonstrate the possible diversity of ethical and aesthetic approaches to restoration and reconstruction, from the perspective of authenticity and integrity, by comparing three cities from different parts of Europe with similar demographics. The selected cities in this research are Coventry (United Kingdom), Dresden (Germany), and Gdańsk (Poland), which were all damaged by air raids during the Second World War and implemented different reconstruction approaches to their cities after the war.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2022-00102022-12-08T00:00:00.000+00:00The Chapel of St. Casimir in Vilnius – A Counter-Reformation Landmarkhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2022-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The present study takes issue with the accepted view (cf. Vikipedija) that the Chapel of St. Casimir in the Cathedral of Vilnius (1623–1636) resembles the Pauline and the Sistine Chapels in the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome. A closer look and comparison of the dimensions, geometry, materials, and internal décor, however, reveals significant differences. The defining architectural features of the Chapel of St. Casimir do not derive from these Baroque chapels but from multiple Biblical and Early Christian sources. (This study focused on the Chapel’s interior features that survived the 1655–1661 occupation of Vilnius.) Its cubic core recalls the twenty-cubit amplitude of the Holy of Holies in the Temple of Solomon in Jerusalem. The black marble walls (<italic>noir de Namur</italic>) allude to the blackening acacia wood of the Ark of the Covenant holding the Ten Commandment stone tablets that Moses received from the Lord on Mt. Sinai. The ox-blood colored pilasters (<italic>vieux rouge de Rance</italic>) recall the porphyry columns of the Aedicule that sheltered the Tomb of Christ in the Church of the Holy Sepulcher, Jerusalem. The Chapel’s reduced Greek cross plan derives from Vitruvius and recalls Early Christian mausoleums. The Ionic column capitals in the Chapel duplicate the ones in the entrance portals of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome and in the Confessio above the tomb of St. Peter the Apostle in the Roman necropolis underneath the Basilica. The Council of Trent upheld Early Christian customs, precedents, and traditions. Materializing the Council’s values, the Chapel became a landmark of the Counter-Reformation. The study at hand relied heavily on the indispensable archival documents gleaned by Povilas Reklaitis, Paulius Rabikauskas, SJ, Zenonas Ivinskis, Mintautas Čiurinskas, Birutė Rūta Vitkauskienė, and Piotr Jacek Jamski.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2022-00012022-12-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Portrait of the People of Silla According to the Persian Textshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2022-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Persian and Arabo-Persian texts frequently referred to Silla as a highlighted toponym. Obviously, descriptions used for Silla in Persian texts cannot be comparable with other toponyms. Ajayeb-al-Makhlughat is the name of a manuscript which deals with marvellous lands, islands, seas, animals, birds, people or customs etc. in Persian literature. Qazvini’s versions have no designs/paintings on toponyms. <italic>Haji Mohammad Nasir Khansari</italic> published the lithographical version of the manuscript in Tehran in 1283 Hegira (1904 AD) for the first time. His copyist and graphic designer was <italic>Abas-Ali Tafreshi</italic>. He, in the lithographical version, described the lands and islands of South and Southeast Asia (India to Silla) along with paintings. Most of the people of those islands appeared naked, were uncivilized and had a strange lifestyle. As an exceptional case, Silla is described very positively, civilized, attractive and charming. This paper focuses on the significant difference between Silla and the others, based on the paintings. Nevertheless, this painting is very different from the unpublished painting from <italic>Kush-nama</italic>, the most important book on Iran’s connection with Silla. The first painting of the people of Silla dates back to a unique manuscript of this book copied by <italic>Muhammad ibn Saeed ibn Abdullah</italic>. Herat School of Art, by extending towards Shiraz School, has formed the structure of this unique painting from the eighth century AH. However, the painting of the Kush-nama version is not very far from the time of writing of the original text; but the book Ajayeb-al-Makhlughat (AJ) is dedicated to 865 AH and the painting to 1904 AD. At this time, Western art (Europe) had a great impact on Iran.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2022-00092022-12-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Décor Motifs of the Bronze Chandeliers in Lithuania and Latvia in the 16th to the 18th Century: Typology, Prevalence, Symbolismhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2022-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The article analyses for the first time the décor motifs of the bronze chandeliers from Lithuania and Latvia in the 16th–18th century. More abundant objects in Latvia are used to reconstruct the lost heritage of chandeliers in Lithuania, and the variety, origin, and symbolism of décor motifs are analysed. The study revealed two groups of décor elements: some of them came from the Gothic and were still used during the Renaissance, while other motifs were started to use altogether with the beginning of the promotion of antiquity culture in the 16th century. The tops of the chandeliers were not decorated with random but rather relevant and important elements of the symbolic meaning of that period. These could be allegorical motifs of décor symbolising fire/Heavenly light, motifs symbolising Divine order on earth or Divine patronage, as well as heraldic décor elements denoting political relationships or friendliness.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mik-2022-00032022-12-08T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1