rss_2.0Malaysian Journal of Halal Research FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Malaysian Journal of Halal Research Journal of Halal Research Feed and Quality Evaluation of Underutilized Unripe Papaya Candy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In nature, papaya is fast-growing, high-yielding, and has a variety of varieties that can produce economically important products on a commercial scale, which can also be blended with other fruits. So, for the utilization of unripe papaya wastage, this study presents candies prepared from unripe papaya using different sweeteners. It helps in the improvement of digestion, due to rich in enzyme papain and composed of several nutritional compositions like Vitamin C and Vitamin A. Sugar-based candy (A) and Honey based candy (B) was prepared with 1.15 kg each of edible portion. Each candy was prepared using similar initial concentrations i.e., 30°Bx and final concentrations of 70°Bx. On alternate days, the syrup’s strength was increased by 10 °Brix TSS, reaching a maximum strength of 70 °Brix TSS. 0.1% of citric acid was added on the basis of sugar syrup initially present when TSS reached to 60°Brix. They were then dried at 60°C for 12 h in a hot air oven. From sensory analysis, honey-based candy was found to be the best product. The result shows that the moisture content, total ash, crude fat, crude fiber, Vitamin C, reducing sugar, Total sugar, crude protein, acidity, pH, and carbohydrate of A and B was found to be 12.35±1.44%, 0.25±0.02%, 0.28±0.06%, 0.46±0.05%, 21.71±7.13 mg/100g, 6.45±0.09%, 29.45±0.95%, 5.94±0.81%, 0.19±0.06%, 6.35±0.11 and 80.38±1.71% respectively. Similarly, 16.03±1.11%, 0.37±0.05%, 0.31±0.07%, 0.56±0.10%, 15.11±4.33mg/100g, 29.64±0.09%, 76.81±0.58%, 6.29±1.21%, 0.14±0.04%, 6.66±0.06 and 76.87±1.04% respectively were found for honey-based candies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Recipe of Value-Added Functional Aloe Vera Drink Enriched with Moringa Leave<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to investigate the standard formulation of aloe Vera drinks using different moringa leaf extract levels and assess the quality parameters. The result showed the moisture content of the formulated samples was 99.85 to 99.80%, with higher in sample T2 and lowered in the control sample (T0). The protein content for all samples ranged from o.11 to 0.42%, with the highest found in sample (T3) and lowest found in sample T0. The pH was increased from 3.8 to 4.13 for all samples. The mean values of TSS of aloe Vera drink for all samples were ranged between 11.33 to 13.67 %. The acidity for all samples was in the ranges of 0.25 to 0.31%. The sensory attributes of drinks were evaluated in terms of color, flavor, taste, and overall acceptability. After increasing, the moringa leaves percentage; the consumer acceptance was gradually decreased. Overall, sample T1 containing 1% moringa leaves blended with 4% aloe Vera showed a reliable result compared to other samples.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Major Cereal Productivity in South Asia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The trend analysis in the time series of crop production is an important tool to make future plans and to take the appropriate decisions for sustainability in food production and future food security. The objective of this study was to assess the trend analysis of the yield of five different major kinds of cereal (paddy, maize, millet, wheat, and barley) from 1985 to 2018 in six South Asian countries (Nepal, India, Pakistan, Bhutan, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh). The average annual yields of cereals in five quadrennial drought years (1985, 1989, 1993, 1997, and 2002) were estimated. The results revealed that the yield of major cereals had an increasing trend over the study period. The reasons for the fluctuations in the production were due to the changing climates, increasing global warming, the development of new hybrids and cultivars, the adoption of new practices by the farmers, economic constraints, and agronomic constraints. For improving the production of cereal crops, the use of modern technology should be increased, and the agricultural organizations should provide full support at the country level.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Eva Green Real-Time PCR Assay for Porcine DNA Analysis in Raw and Processed Foods<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The prevalence of the inclusion or substitution of porcine and its derivatives in foods by imprudent food manufacturers accentuated the need for a sensitive and specific method to detect porcine DNA. This work aimed to develop and validate an EvaGreen dye-based quantitative real-time (qPCR) assay for porcine DNA analysis. The primer set used in this work targets a 95-bp fragment of the porcine cytochrome b gene. Application of the assay to dilutions of porcine genomic DNA showed that the assay is sensitive down to 10 pg/μL of porcine DNA and the detection limit, under binary admixture conditions, was 0.001%. A correlation coefficient (R<sup>2</sup>) of 0.998 and PCR efficiency of 101.6% over the dynamic range from 10 to 10000 pg/μL indicated that the assay has high linearity and efficiency. The method’s specificity towards porcine was revealed by the amplification profile, which only displayed an amplification signal for porcine DNA. These findings suggest that the developed assay is sensitive, specific, and rapid. In conclusion, the assay can be used as an alternative method to detect and quantify porcine DNA in raw and processed food products.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of French Bean ( L.) Genotypes for Growth, Yield and Seed Production at Khumaltar<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The experiment was conducted at the end of July in NHRC, Khumaltar (1332 masl) located at Longitude 27.6485° N and Latitude 85.3253° E situated at Province no. 3, Lalitpur, Nepal in 2077/04/18 to 2077/04/28. The experiment was carried out in Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four treatments and five replications. The genotypes Trishuli, Chaumase, Semi Light Long and Semi Long Green Bean were used as treatment. Phenotypic traits like Plant Height, Days to maturity, Number of node at harvest in main stem, Flower colour, No of pod per plant at harvest, Dry pod colour, Single pod weight at harvest, pod length, Seed yield per plant, Seed weight per pod, 1000 seed weight, Moisture %, Seed weight per plant(gm), seed weight per pod after drying per plant (gm), seed weight after drying were taken. Plant height was highest in Semi long ligh which is 332 cmt and lowest in Trishuli which is 294.48 cm. Total number of seed was found highest in Semi Long Green 8.6 and least in Trishuli 7. The highest yield was found in Trishuli 2.69 ton/ha followed by Chaumase 2.56 ton/ha, Semi long green 2.33 ton/ha, and the lowest was seen in Semi Long Light 1.51 ton/ha.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Assessment of Guava for Quality Jelly Production<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Guava (<italic>Psidium guajava</italic> L.) is a Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) rich fruit. Its production is quite high in Bangladesh but post-harvest life is very short. Farmers will benefited by producing different guava products like juice, jelly etc. and selling them to market for year round. The current study has been carried out to observe the nutritional composition of fresh guava, guava juice, and jelly for nutritive jelly production. Shelf life and sensory evaluation of guava and guava jelly were also evaluated. Fresh green guava of four varieties (Swarupkathi Peyera, Kazi Peyera, BAU-2 Peyera and BAU-19 Peyera) were collected from the Germplasm Center, Patuakhali Science and Technology University (PSTU), Bangladesh. The shelf-life (mean value) of fresh Guava, Guava juice, and Jelly were about 11, 9, and 142 days in ambient condition; 24, 30, and 213 days in refrigerated condition; and 42, 142, and 325 days in freezing condition, respectively. Kazi Peyara confined the highest percentage of ascorbic acid (195.59 mg/100g FW), total sugar (10.65 % FW), calcium (17.45 mg/100g), and phosphorus (34.63 mg/100g). However, BAU-19 Peyara contains the highest percentage of magnesium (20.15 mg/100g) and BAU-2 Peyara contains the highest percentage of potassium (392.1 mg/100g). The mean ascorbic acid content in guava juice (29.23 mg/100ml) and jelly (17.65 mg/100gm) were significantly lower compared to the fresh guava (192.77 mg/100gm) and also the ascorbic acid loss during storage was significant. The average score of different sensory parameters for fresh guava and guava Jelly were within the standard range. From the results, it can be concluded that guava is a good source of nutrients and quality jelly could be prepared from it.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Advertising Approach Differentiation of Indonesia’s Halal Toothpaste Products<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aims to understand how the Halal Toothpaste Products in Indonesia differentiate themselves from one another through Advertising. This study was conducted to provide strategic Advertising recommendations. The study used the framework of the Elaboration Likelihood Theory Model and the Advertising concepting approaches to analyze the applied techniques on the executed Advertising materials. This qualitative descriptive try to describe narratively and visually the TV Advertising material that was collected from the official YouTube account of each brand. Data were collected from relevant literature, documents, and online publications. The result of the study shows that all the Halal Toothpaste products utilized the central route and approaches whereas each of the product Advertising materials elaborates their respective product ingredients and their benefits. Each of the Advertising materials communicates Halal and its nuances both verbally and visually. The Halal label of the Toothpaste is mainly influenced by the ingredient within the product that is perceived to be correlated with the Islamic culture by the Indonesian consumers, Siwak. To create differentiation, each of the Advertising materials applied the combination of several Advertising concepting approaches. In practice, the result of the study can be a reference for Strategic Planners and Creative Professionals in Advertising Agencies on ‘What to Say’ and How to Say’ in the Halal Product Category. Academically, the study will be a reference for more research ideas in the future on Halal Advertising Strategy and Halal Product Campaign.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Composition and Microbial level Estimation of some selected roasted/fried food items sold along Nigeria roadsides<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of this study was to determine the proximate and microbiological compositions of some food samples obtained at three different locations within Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria from different local food vendors. The highest mean carbohydrate, crude protein, fat, moisture, total ash and crude fibre are 88.10 ±0.79% (Roasted Yam), 17.76 ±2.29% (Roasted Fish), 20.54 ±4.0% (Suya Meat), 20.27 ±11.43% (Roasted Plantain), 4.57 ±0.10% (as in Suya Meat) and 5.07 ±0.69 (Roasted Plantain) respectively while the lowest mean carbohydrate, crude protein, fat, moisture, total ash and crude fibre are 49.14 ±1.37% (as in Fried Bean Cake), 0.08 ±0.01% (Roasted Yam), 0.47 ±0.05% (Roasted Yam), 1.81 ±0.33 (Roasted Fish), 1.37 ±0.12 (Doughnut) and 0.16 ±0.06% (Fried Bean Cake) for all the samples estimated. The highest mean heterotropic bacteria and fungi counts are 6.19× 10<sup>3</sup>cfu/ml (Roasted Yam) and 3.30× 10<sup>3</sup>cfu/ml (Fried Bean Cake) respectively while the lowest mean heterotropic bacteria and fungi counts are 1.64× 10<sup>3</sup>cfu/ml (Doughnut) and 1.08× 10<sup>3</sup>cfu/ml (Roasted Plantain) respectively. These food samples were shown to contain certain level of proximate parameters but these are not sufficient for nutritional requirements in human diet. Increasing the shelf-life of foods is one of the major purposes in food processing. Processes which precede food processing causes loss of essential vitamins and minerals. Also, roasted foods sold along Nigerian road-sides are exposed to dust accumulation and wastes from automobile exhaust.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and quality evaluation of carbonated guava fruit drinks produced from BARI Payera-4<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present study was conducted with the objective of utilizing new varieties of guava (BAARI Payera-4) fruit in the production of carbonated drinks and also evaluation of different properties such as physico-chemical and sensory characteristics with respect to the different guava juice concentrations (10%, 15%, and 20% of juice) and TSS (10°, 12° and 15° Brix), respectively. This variety is selected for the preparation of carbonated fruit drinks because of its refreshing acidic taste, seedless with good keeping quality and also delicious fruit with good aroma. The extracted fruit juice subjected to carbonation. The physicochemical factors such as viscosity, TSS, acidity, pH, color, ascorbic acid, volume of CO<sub>2</sub> and sugars were studied and the changes were observed. The sensory evaluation study was done with hedonic scale to find the best combination of juice concentration and TSS. The obtained results of physiochemical parameters showed that guava juice level at 20% with 12°Bx (Sample T6) had received highest ascorbic acid 28.87 mg/100g, high acidity 0.51%, high color value ΔE 4.60 and highest volume of CO<sub>2</sub>. Data also revealed that sample T6 found to be superior among all with respect to sensory qualities such as color, flavor, appearance, taste and overall acceptability. In conclusion, the overall assessment pointed that the resulting carbonated drinks developed from BARI Payera-4, sample T6 was best for all physicochemical characteristics and, in general, resulted in good sensory behavior, indicating that it could be a promising alternative to synthetic soft drinks.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Country Bean Germplasm Collected from Patuakhali Region<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The experiment was conducted at Regional Horticulture Research Station, Lebukhali, Patuakhali and were evaluated the genotypic performance like yield and yield traits of seventeen (17) country bean genotypes collected from Patuakhali region. In this area, country bean yield is very low, that why we need to identify high yielding country bean genotypes in Patuakhali region. The experiment was laid out in an augmented block design. Seventeen country bean lines viz., LPPK001 to LPPK017 and four check variety viz., BARI Sheem-1, 6, 7 and IPSA Sheem-2 were used for this trial. A lot of variability was observed such as plant height, pod length, pod breadth, pod weight, No. of pod plant<sup>−1</sup>, yield plant<sup>−1</sup>, 100 seed weight and yield. The pod length ranged from 20.4-7.62 cm, pod breadth range from 4.83-1.41 cm and pod weight ranged from 13.28-5.08g. The longest pod (20.4 cm), maximum pod breadth (4.83cm) and the premier pod weight (13.28 gm) were found in BARI Sheem 6, LPPK012 and LPPK002 respectively. The highest yield (18.73 t/ha) obtained from the line <italic>LPPK016</italic> and minimum in the line <italic>LPPK</italic> 003 (5.43 t/ha). Among the 17 tested lines and 4 checks; 15 were green in colour, and <italic>IPSA Sheem 2</italic> was light green, <italic>LPPK011</italic> was purple green and LPPK001 and LPPK014 were creamy- white in colour. The wide variations in phenotypic level among the genotypes LPPK001, LPPK005, LPPK015, LPPK016, <italic>and</italic> BARI Sheem 7 can be potentially used for more production in Patuakhali region, ultimately it will increase the farmers’ incomes level.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of barley, corn and rice flour on physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of gluten-free bread<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>People suffering from the celiac disease have to apply a strict gluten-free diet because this is the only effective management. Nowadays, the increasing incidence of celiac disease promotes worldwide interests for various desirable gluten free products. As a consequence, food processing researchers have been seeking to develop high-quality gluten-free bread. Cereals having gluten such as wheat must be removed from the diet for the clinical and histological improvement. So, the purpose of this study was to determine the physical, chemical and sensory properties of gluten-free bread produced with barley (T<sub>1</sub>), corn (T<sub>2</sub>) and rice (T<sub>3</sub>) flours instead of wheat flour, using the 1.5 % xanthan gum. The chemical and sensory attributes of bread were evaluated by AOAC method and hedonic test, respectively. Obtained results showed that sample T<sub>3</sub> had the highest contents of crude protein (7.94%), ash (2.51%) and carbohydrate (78.31%) as compared to other samples, while fat was lower (2.01%). Regarding moisture, breads prepared with the three different flours were not statistically different at the significance level of p&lt;0.05. However, they differed significantly regarding the specific volume and bake loss. Data also revealed that gluten-free bread, treatment T<sub>3</sub> presented the best parameters, being preferred by the sensory evaluation panel, followed by treatment T<sub>1</sub> and T<sub>2</sub>. The overall assessment pointed that the resulting breads treatment T<sub>3</sub> was best for all physico-chemical characteristics and, in general, resulted in good sensory behavior, indicating that it could be a promising alternative to wheat flour.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Practices for Whitefly and Thrips in Mungbean<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This experiment was conducted at the central farm of Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University, [23.740 N latitude and 90.350 E longitude] Sher-e-Bangla Nagar, Dhaka, Bangladesh, during the period of March to May, 2014 to study the Whitefly and Thrips pest incidence in mungbean and their management practices BARI Mung-5 was used as the test crop for this experiment. The experiment consists of the following treatments: T<sub>1</sub>: Nitro 505EC (Chloropyrifos+Cypermethrin) @ 2 ml/L of water at 10 days interval; T<sub>2</sub>: Casper 5 SG (Emamectin Benzoate) @ 2gm/L; T<sub>3</sub>: Voliam Flexi (Thiamethoxam+Chlorantraniliprole) @ 0.25 ml/L; T<sub>4</sub>: Tapnor 40 EC (Dimethoate) @ 2.0 ml/L; T<sub>5</sub>: Allion 2.5 EC (Lamda-Cyhalothrin) @; T<sub>6</sub>: Admire 200SL (Imidachorpid) @ 0.25 ml/Land T<sub>7</sub>: Control. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The lowest number of whitefly infestation per plant in the vegetative stage (4.18) and reproductive stage (2.13) was recorded from T6 treatment, whereas the highest (14.44) and (8.10) was recorded from T<sub>7</sub> treatment in respective stage. Thrips infestation was higher (6.32) per 5 flower was recorded from T<sub>7</sub> treatment whereas lower infestation (1.88) per 10 flower was recorded from T<sub>6.</sub> The lowest yield per hectare (1.27 ton) was found in T<sub>7</sub> and lowest benefit cost ratio (4.16) was found in T<sub>5</sub> whereas highest yield per hectare (1.53 ton) was found in T<sub>6</sub> and highest benefit cost ratio (12.81) was found in T<sub>3</sub> treatment. Among the management practices for controlling whitefly and thrips of mungbean Admire 200SL @ 0.25 ml/L of water was more effective which was followed by Voliam Flexi (Thiamethoxam+Chlorantraniliprole) @ 0.25 ml/L of water Farmers should use Admire 200SL(Imidachorpid) @ 0.25 ml/L of water at 10 days interval for controlling whitefly and thrips in mungbean.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Healthcare Tourism: Nurses’ Perspectives<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Muslim-friendly tourism or halal tourism is an industry targeted by the Indonesian government. This is also created as an opportunity for the halal healthcare tourism industry. Previous studies in Indonesia have been conducted in the area of halal tourism. However, limited study has focused on halal healthcare tourism. This paper aimed to examine the challenges and prospects of halal healthcare tourism in Indonesia from nurses’ perspectives. Methods, this qualitative study applied the descriptive approach. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to 10 nurses from different hospitals in West Java and South Sumatra provinces. The snowball sampling technique was used to recruit participants. Data from the interviews were analyzed using the Comparative Analysis for Interview technique to find the study themes. Results, three themes emerged from the data analysis including the concept of halal healthcare tourisms is applied in health services, barriers in developing halal healthcare tourism, and the leader determines the main focus of services programs in the hospital. In conclusion, these findings provide an understanding of the potency of Indonesian hospitals in the halal healthcare tourism market from nurses’ perspectives, yet several barriers were also identified. A comprehensive assessment is needed to obtain other health professionals’ opinions, and to raise their awareness of the strength of this industry in Indonesia.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Studies Of Three Formulated Artificial Litchi Flavored Drinks Under Storage<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim to the present study was to formulate of artificial litchi flavored drinks, to assess quality parameters like pH, acidity, TSS and sensory characteristics of three formulated artificial litchi flavored drinks were investigated under 28 days of storage at ambient (30±2°C) temperature. The pH values for all samples varied from 3.53 to 3.65 under the entire storage duration. The acidity found in three different samples ranged from 0.155 to 0.161% under storage condition. The TSS possess among the samples between 15.43 to 16.10°Brix. The sensory profile of three different formulation was evaluated in terms of color, flavor, taste and overall acceptability. The sensory parameters were followed the decreasing trend after end of the storage except sample 3. Although, initially sample 3 found in lowest sensory acceptance but retained the more stable score under the entire storage period which is significantly different (P≤0.05) from other samples. Considering pH, acidity, TSS values under entire storage condition the formulation of sample 3 had shown better results although with few exceptions there was no significant difference (P≤0.05) among the samples. However, end of the study we recommended that, the formulation of sample 3 had better among other sample 1 and sample 2 in terms of quality and cost.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Reduction by Improved Quality Control And Hadzad Analysis And Critical Control Point (HACCP) Implementation: A Case Study From Edfina Company For Presrved Foods, Alexandria, Egypt<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Under the Under the project Support for Environmental Assessment and Management (SEAM), This project is being implemented by Reduction of Milk Losses at Miser Company for Dairy and Food, Mansoura, Egypt. It was implemented under the National Industrial Pollution Prevention Programmers (NIPPP). NIPPP focuses on the introduction and promotion of low-cost improvement measures, which can be easily and quickly implemented by factories. It also emphasizes the importance of economic benefits of any such intervention, particularly those with short pay-back periods. A summary of how these improvements were identified and the underlying problems solved, follows. Waste minimization through improved quality control procedures was implemented at Edfina Company for Preserved Foods, Alexandria, Egypt. A number of interventions costing LE 65,200 (Egyptian Pound) have yielded annual savings of LE 382,622. Quality control training and the implementation of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system will lead to improved product quality and further savings. Although it is difficult to quantify at this stage further savings of LE 550,000 could be expected in the short term.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Priming Significantly Affects Germination and Post Germination Early Seedling Growth in Okra<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Seed priming significantly affects germination and post germination emergence in seedling of plants. Okra is an important vegetable plays significant role in human nutrition. However, little information is available regarding effect of seed priming on germination and post germination early vegetative growth. Therefore, a pot experiment was conducted to find out the effect of seed priming on the emergence and seedling vigor in different okra varieties. Six local Bangladeshi okra varieties were primed in water for 24 hours and evaluated their germination and post germination emergence. The varieties were named as V<sub>1</sub>-V<sub>6</sub> (V<sub>1</sub> = Flash power, V<sub>2</sub> = Durga, V<sub>3</sub> = BARI dheros-2, V<sub>4</sub> =Okra pornota, V<sub>5</sub> =Dandy all green, V<sub>6</sub> = Boishakhi). Post priming evaluation was done based on germination percentage, root-shoot length of seedlings, seedling height, and dry weight of seedlings, germination index and speed of germination at different days after sowing (5-15 DAS). Highest germination was observed in V<sub>3</sub> (88.00%) and lowest was in V<sub>5</sub> (25.33%). Root length was highest in V<sub>3</sub> and V<sub>4</sub> (8.77cm) and lowest was observed in V<sub>2</sub> (5.15cm). Shoot length of the seedlings was highest in V<sub>3</sub> (7.94cm) followed by V<sub>1</sub> (7.33). Shoot length of the seedlings was lowest in V<sub>5</sub> (5.12cm). Seedling height was highest in V<sub>3</sub> (16.71cm) which was followed by V<sub>6</sub> (16.26cm). The lowest seedling height was observed in V<sub>1</sub> (12.50cm). Dry weight of the seedlings was highest in V<sub>3</sub> (2.32g) which was followed in V<sub>1</sub> (2.26g). The lowest dry weight was observed in V<sub>5</sub> (1.99g). The variety V<sub>3</sub> performed better in most of the evaluated parameters and suggested for commercial cultivation.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue and quality assessment of honey nut drink<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The objective of this study was to standardize the formulation of honey nut drink, to assess the quality parameters like pH, brix, acidity, brix acid ratio and sensory characteristics of formulated honey nut drink under 12 days of storage at ambient temperature (32±2°C). The pH values varied from 3.5 to 3.9 during storage. The brix found in three different products ranged from 7 to 13%. The acidity possesses during the entire storage period between 0.16 to 0.32%. The brix acid ratio higher found in product 2 (59.99) and lower in product 3 (35.0) under storage. The sensory profile of three different formulation was evaluated in terms of color, flavor, taste and overall acceptability. Among the three-products formulation product 1 retained better quality followed by product 3 and product 2 considering pH, brix and acidity percentage although after increasing time of storage their value also increased. The sensory profile of product 3 found in much better score followed by the product 1 and product 2 which are significantly different (p≤0.05). In conclusion, both formulation of product 1 and product 3 could be produced in commercial purpose.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Pork Adulteration In Recycled Frying Oils Using Raman Spectroscopy<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Unscrupulous food business operators may use recycled frying oil to save costs. Of particular concern is the recycled frying oil is usually taken from nonhalal food premises which should not be used by halal food premises, and indeed may posing health treats to consumers. Hence, the objective of this paper is to analyse pork adulteration in recycled frying oils by using the combination of Raman spectroscopy and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Samples of frying oils from homemade fried pork, fried chicken, fried fish and fried banana were analyzed. Spiked samples were prepared by adding frying oil from homemade fried pork ranging from 10% to 50% (v/v) to frying oils from homemade fried chicken, fried fish and fried banana. The results found that Raman spectroscopy and PCA are able to differentiate adulterated frying oil and unadulterated frying oils. However, it could not distinguish the percentage of pork adulteration in the spiked samples. This method would beneficial to ensure food integrity in the frying oils.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue’ Perceiving The Halal As A Sign Of Quality (Case Of St. Petersburg Meat Market)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>There is a lot of scandals and even food poisoning caused by consuming poor-quality meat in Russian Federation (RF). This is especially true for ready-toeat meat products (e.g., sausages, smoked meats, dumplings, meat pies), as the buyers do not see what they are made of. The fact is that in the USSR they had a well-developed system of state verification and standardization of all food products. The state standards (GOSTs) issued for each food product had the power of law. Violations of GOST requirements were regarded as crimes. However, the RF Law “On Standardization” has factually lost its power in connection with the adoption (2002) of the Federal Law “On Technical Regulating”. Therefore, new GOSTs have not previous power and are removed from the jurisdiction of the RF government. The fuzzy “technical specifications” (TUs) in contrast with previous severe GOSTs for food do not provide products quality control but are only indicators of biological, chemical and radiation safety. Using GOST labelling on food items seems as a marketing gimmick today. Nevertheless, recently there have been reports of the development of digital quality control and related legislation. Research findings presented herein show significant growth of Halal meat market. Increased customer confidence in Halal products is also found among non-Muslim buyers. The Council of Muftis of RF, together with the presidential administration of RF, has initiated the development of the state document “Requirements for producing, manufacturing, processing, storage and sale of Halal products”. Halal labelling was developed and approved and Halal stores opened. Our brief customer survey has showed the results of customer confidence in the Halal meat and meat product market could be found across the entire range of Halal food items. Taking into account global trends, the Halal food market in Russia as well as Halal industry as a whole have great prospects (exporting Halal items included) and this phenomenon demands a future extended research.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Spacing and Nitrogen Level on Growth and Yield of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Mid hill of Nepal<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of spacing and nitrogen level on growth and yield of maize in Parbat from February to July, 2019. The experiment was laid out in two Factorial Randomized complete Block Design (RCBD) comprising of spacing: 60×15 cm and 60×25 cm and nitrogen: 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg/ha level as treatment with three replications. “Arun-2” variety of maize was planted on clay loam and acidic soil (pH 5.3) having medium in total nitrogen (0.15%), medium in soil available phosphorus (48.1 kg/ha), medium in soil available potassium (218.8 kg/ha) and medium in organic matter content (2.92%). Result shows that yield was significantly increased with increment in N-level up to 90 kg N/ha. The grain yield (5.18 mt/ha) was significantly higher at 90 kg N/ha than at 30 and 60 kg N/ha but at par with 120 kg N/ha. Significant effect on grain yield due to spacing was observed. The grain yield (4.11 mt/ha) obtained at spacing 60×15 cm. Moreover, the highest grain yield showed that highest grain yield (4.33 mt/ha) was obtained under 90 kg N/ha plus 60×15 cm spacing. The result revealed that different spacing and nitrogen level significantly affect the plant height and leaf area index. The plant height and leaf area index were significantly high at close spacing (60×15 cm) and at 120 kg N/ha. Likewise, yield attributing characteristics like cob length, cob diameter, number of kernel/rows, number of kernel row, thousand gran weight were the highest at 90 kg/ha but as par with 120 kg/ha at close spacing (60×15 cm). This study suggested that maize production can be maximized by cultivating “Arun-2” maize fertilizing with 90 kg N/ha and maintaining 60×15 cm spacing.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue