rss_2.0Management & Marketing. Challenges for the Knowledge Society FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Management & Marketing. Challenges for the Knowledge Societyhttps://sciendo.com/journal/MMCKShttps://www.sciendo.comManagement & Marketing. Challenges for the Knowledge Society 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/600970081d9b3b2510ef98cf/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20220811T031545Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20220811%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=401956f7414025013224a4d7ae9c44e36e239064ec3d0358d8523a67dbadf4e4200300Towards an economic recovery after the COVID-19 pandemic: empirical study on electronic commerce adoption by small and medium-sized enterprises in Vietnamhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mmcks-2022-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The COVID-19 outbreak has created a severe crisis for the general economic situation. Despite the short duration of the pandemic, many innovations are implemented for organizational survival and recovery in the competitive market environment of digital age. This paper aims to find out significant factors and how they impact on E-commerce adoption by small and medium-sized enterprises in Vietnam, especially during the epidemic. The results reveal that technology perceived compatibility has the greatest effect on E-commerce adoption, followed by management support and external pressure. Moreover, external support only has minor impact on E-commerce adoption during the Covid-19. Meaningfully, this study makes a contribution to both innovation literature and practical management with new insight of current Vietnamese situation for small and medium-sized organizations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Digital competence development in a few countries of the European Unionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mmcks-2022-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The first computers were made as early as in the 20<sup>th</sup> century, but the rapid development of digitalisation took place in the 21<sup>st</sup> century. Nowadays, Industry 4.0 has created a network connection between man and machines. Without computers and the Internet, the world is unthinkable. Digitalisation is pervading every part of our lives. Whether at work or in our leisure activities, digitalisation and the use of digital tools are present. The digital revolution was started by computers and is now an indispensable our lives, for example with the internet, mobile phones, cloud solutions and self-driving cars. It's no coincidence that digital competence is no longer an expectation, but an obligation for employers and employees alike. Several studies have undertaken to define digital skills; however, we can talk about a rather complex competence. The current study examines the question in the dimension of the European Union from a multitude of aspects. The authors use the DESI index and EU statistics on this topic to find correlations between digital potential, use of tools and the exploitation of opportunities offered by digitalisation in thirteen countries. The authors primarily examined the impact of the level of digital infrastructure and the frequency of Internet use on digital skills. It is outlined from statistics that Scandinavian countries have a leading role in the digital competition. Nevertheless, our results throw light on the individual level that digital skills forcefully improve during browsing on the internet, and practical activities have a significant role in development, which the authors named PMP.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Examining the influence of brand personality dimension on consumer buying decision: evidence from Ghanahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mmcks-2022-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>With the advent of innovative marketing, the increasing use of brand personality concepts for the promotion of a brand or product has received scholarly work across the globe. Yet little is known in the literature about the dimensions of brand personality and its applicability in the telecommunication industry. Considering the known link between brand personality and customer purchase intent, this research sought to examine the impact of the brand personality dimension on customer buying decisions in the telecoms sector. A positivist research paradigm was used to attain the study goal(s) with valid data of 414 subscribers (customers) of telecom giants in Ghana. The result from the PLS-SEM technique identified five main attributes of brand personality (ie. sincerity, excitement, competence, sophistication, and ruggedness) as antecedents of customer buying decisions in the research model. Findings revealed that brand sincerity, brand excitement, and brand competence have a significant relationship with customer buying decisions. Whereas brand sophistication and ruggedness were not. An effective brand increases its brand equity by having a consistent set of traits that a specific consumer segment enjoys. This article not only provides empirical insight into the brand personality literature but also serves as a source of information for managers in the telecom industry to successfully trigger strategic marketing practices that would help to optimize the usefulness of the brand personality concept. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Mapping the maturity of SMART WORLD trends as a tool for developing business excellence and reducing organizational complexityhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mmcks-2022-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>By highlighting the importance of tracking the maturity of various phenomena, this study aims at facilitating their response to the emerging changes and reducing the complexity of organizational management processes. To support business excellence and organization management in the SMART WORLD era, special attention was paid to previous findings. The pilot study research was carried out on a sample of 107 enterprises from Poland and Lithuania. The results of the data analysis collected during the quantitative research and their mapping identified: currently leading trends (mainstream - “new normal trends”), trends expected to undergo the development in short/medium/long term perspective and trends labelled as “no future” - fads or one step before their time. Research results were the basis for expressing preliminary conclusions about how to reduce uncertainty and complexity of the process of strategic decision making by contemporary managers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Development of supportive characteristics to facilitate learning from strategic allianceshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mmcks-2022-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this paper, we aim to find answer to a single question: what are the characteristics of firms with superior use of alliance learning practices? Consequently, we aim to discover the characteristics of firms which are more preoccupied to learn from their strategic alliances. We investigate this research question through a statistical analysis of the answers provided by 46 best performing medium and large-sized companies operating in Romania. By means of several multilinear regressions and an analysis of variance, we found that the companies with superior use of alliance learning practices – thus, more preoccupied to learn – are more proactive, build an alliance culture favouring the use of alliances, develop relational attributes in their alliances (e.g., trust), respectively monitor and control their alliance activity to a higher degree. Contrary to expectations, the companies with superior use of alliance learning practices do not collaborate to a higher degree horizontally, with their competitors and complementors. In terms of the dispersion of companies depending on their use of alliance learning practices, to a high degree (34.1%), the differences between companies can be explained by the proposed set of characteristics developed in this paper. Our findings contribute to the existent literature in the field of alliances, bringing empirical evidence on the characteristics that companies need to develop to better learn from their strategic alliances. In addition, executives of medium and large-sized companies find in this paper valuable information regarding the nurturing of alliance knowledge acquisition and transfer from their strategic allies and partners.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Resource efficiency and decarbonisation of economies in the European Unionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mmcks-2022-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>People have always been interested in improving their quality of life. But how is this possible when the population is constantly growing, and the planet’s resources are dwindling? The efficient use of resources is not only believed to increase the general quality of life but also to contribute to the creation of a cleaner environment. But what is the relation between resource efficiency and a cleaner environment? The European Commission and the United Nations have been dealing with this key issue for many years now and the EU has forced member countries to meet certain targets. This paper presents some of the UN and EU’s policies with regard to climate change and resource efficiency and offers an independent evaluation of the achievements of Member States. We assumed that the implementation of the objectives of the EU climate and energy package improves the resource productivity and reduces its negative impact on the environment, relation analysed with the help of a linear regression model. Further, we have performed a critical study on the performance of EU-member states in meeting their GHG-emission targets correlated with the resource intensity of their economies, modelled using Microsoft Excel. Resource efficiency and the low-carbon economy have emerged as central themes in global discussions on the transition to a sustainable economy, and this paper sheds new light onto the connection between the two subjects.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The change in e-commerce in the context of the Coronavirus pandemichttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mmcks-2022-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As COVID-19 had been posing unprecedented challenges, the economic agents as well as the individuals had to adapt to a new lifestyle. The preventing measures against the spread of the virus determined an increase in e-commerce activity in general, and in mobile commerce in particular. In this regard, sellers redefined their strategies revolving around smartphone applications for online shopping, which will gradually become the global shopping standard. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to evaluate the current situation of e-commerce, focusing on the main transformations since the beginning of the pandemic. The methods used in the paper consist in both qualitative research of the literature regarding e-commerce and a quantitative analysis that captures two aspects: on one hand it highlights the change determined by the pandemic in online commerce, and on the other hand it shows an X-ray of the EU states positioning in terms of e-commerce evolution. The latter consists in a comparative Hierarchical Cluster Analysis that aims to provide an image on the situation of EU states, before and after the pandemic has been installed. The Cluster Analysis was carried out in SPSS software and it is based on a series of chosen indicators from Eurostat database. This comparison provides an image of how changes among the clusters take place in terms of e-commerce indicators. It is noted that in countries where the digitization was more developed, the value of the change in online commerce was less considerable, comparing to the Eastern and Balkan states, which had a more significant increase. However, there are significant limitations based on the small number of indicators taken into consideration in this paper. Future work needs to be done in order to explore new ways to address the challenges identified in the development of e-commerce and online shopping.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Market orientation and corporate performance in the health industryhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mmcks-2022-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study examines the market orientation and corporate performance of domestic enterprises in the health industry. The aim of the study is to explore the existence and the nature of the connection between market orientation adapted by SMEs in the domestic health industry and the subjective, perceived success, and competitiveness of these businesses. Market orientation was measured by the internationally standardised MKTOR scale. Corporate performance was tested by means of a scale based on subjective perception, during which the relative weight of particular performance categories for the enterprise was taken into consideration. With regard to corporate performance, two categories were examined: competitiveness and effectiveness. The basis for the primary research was provided by personal interviews, including 251 items, conducted with marketing specialists (for lack of them, general managers) of businesses in the health industry. Data collection was carried out in 2018 in collaboration with a market research company. The connection between market orientation and corporate performance was assessed using linear correlation and regression analysis. The results of our primary research revealed a positive, medium-strong relationship between market orientation and corporate performance. With a more detailed examination of the dimensions of market orientation, customer orientation, and competitor orientation were found to significantly explain competitiveness and effectiveness. It has been shown that with the increase in rival spirit, the market orientation of companies accounts for the dispersion of competitiveness to an increasingly lesser extent. This means that, for some businesses with good capacity to compete, the propensity to compete is obviously the result of market orientation. All the while, as regards the rest of those businesses, other factors may play an important role (such as social capital, production structure, and strategy). Their precise result is that these companies are not ‘forced’ in the market to adapt the market orientation. Since the increase in market orientation leads to better corporate performance, companies should lay more emphasis on the improvement of their market orientation, especially in the cases when other factors of competitive ability are not possible for the company to acquire or the costs are too high.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Applying the fuzzy analytical hierarchy process for classifying and prioritizing healthcare quality attributeshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mmcks-2022-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In any country, the healthcare system is an important sector whose major goal is to provide high-quality medical services and goods to maximize patient satisfaction. The purpose of this research is to introduce an analytical approach for presenting and classifying healthcare quality aspects which might have an impact on patient satisfaction. Therefore, this perspective is achieved by implementing an integrated Kano and fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) Model which will grant the support for creating better and improved business strategies, as well as an efficient resource allocation. Our contribution to the literature focuses on the advantage of using an integrated Kano Model and a fuzzy analytical hierarchy process in classifying patients’ needs based on healthcare quality attributes regarding the healthcare staff and clinic’s facility design. Furthermore, this contribution represents a base for further research and completes with the efficiency and sustainability of the fuzzy analytical hierarchy process applied to the healthcare system. The results suggest that healthcare providers should focus more on performance attributes, to increase patient satisfaction.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Employer brand: key values influencing the intention to join a companyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mmcks-2022-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Among the efforts to create a company brand, the development of a successful employer brand is today not only a sign of a socially responsible business, but also a tool to achieve competitive advantages in the labour market, expand employment opportunities, and retain the best employees. The key values that influence the intention to join a company vary among different groups of employees, which must be taken into account when creating a successful employer value proposition (EVP). The purpose of this study is to assess the differences between the key values of employed and potential workers whose work is most on demand in the labour market (generations Y and Z, with higher education and those who obtain higher education). The research was conducted on the basis of a sociological survey of a representative sample of respondents (510 respondents). The main differences in the perception of the employer’s brand are identified by gender (higher value of safety in the workplace for women, and opportunities for personal development for men), as well as in the groups selected by the availability of experience: pay is valued highest by respondents with work experience; for those who have no work experience, the employer’s brand reputation is a more important factor. There are also significant differences in assessments of the importance of workplace safety, professional development, comfortable environment, and work-life balance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00The differences in the impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial knowledge: a cross-country analysishttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mmcks-2022-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nowadays, entrepreneurial knowledge is assessed as having a significant role in supporting and promoting entrepreneurs in the process of starting and running businesses. In addition, the issue of effective entrepreneurship orientation, promotion, and support has become one of the significant tasks of education systems in many countries over the years. Therefore, developing the characteristics, capabilities, and knowledge of entrepreneurs is an essential part of the development policy of each country. A country with good education and adequate entrepreneurial knowledge will contribute to improving the knowledge of entrepreneurs. Furthermore, it will help solve the difficulties and risks facing entrepreneurs. This paper will research and analyze the differences in the influence of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial knowledge of entrepreneurs. This entrepreneurial knowledge is necessary and significant for each entrepreneur. The countries considered for this study are Eastern European countries, including Poland, Bulgaria, Croatia, Latvia, and the Slovak Republic. The study was carried out based on data collected from the global survey provided by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor ‒ National Expert Survey ‒ Individual-Level Data in 2017. The research results show that there is some difference in the influence of entrepreneurship education on the entrepreneurial knowledge of entrepreneurs. In the case of the five studied countries, the level of education, human development, and national development cannot adequately explain the influence of entrepreneurship education on the entrepreneurial knowledge of entrepreneurs. The reasons are the difference in awareness, operating environment, and the need for entrepreneurs to have entrepreneurial knowledge. The results obtained contribute to promoting research on the influence of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial knowledge of entrepreneurs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00The influence of brand experience on brand equity: the mediating role of brand love in a retail fashion brandhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mmcks-2022-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Based on a retail fashion brand, this article investigates how brand experience affects brand equity when it is mediated by brand love. Actual consumers are well-informed, demanding, and prefer brands that can surprise them over time. As such, offering emotional signals, meaning development, and strategic planning are critical to success when it comes to building strong and enduring relationships with customers. Based on 560 responses to a survey conducted in-store, this study tests the influence of brand experience on overall brand equity, through brand love, using a model of structural equations. The findings imply that brand experience dimensions play a different role in eliciting emotional reactions, such as brand love, which helps to reinforce brand equity. Research on the paths to consumer-based brand equity in the retail environment is still scarce. Exploring this pathway using the customer-brand relationship theory and integrating brand experience and brand love has fascinating potential, but it is still unexplored. Finally, another strength of this research is the test of brand experience dimensions (sensory, intellectual, affective, and behavioral), thus offering more operational insights for theory and practice. The results are based on the study of one brand in one specific country, which limits generalizations. Managers should pay special attention to the emotional impulses provided by a brand to its customers. Building on these triggers via experiences strengthens strong emotional reactions like brand love, which contributes to brand equity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Trading using Hidden Markov Models during COVID-19 turbulenceshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mmcks-2021-0020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Obtaining higher than market returns is a difficult goal to achieve, especially in times of turbulence such as the COVID-19 crisis, which tested the resilience of many models and algorithms. We used a Hidden Markov Models (HMM) methodology based on monthly data (DAX returns, VSTOXX index Germany’s industrial production and Germany’s annual inflation rate) to calibrate a trading strategy in order to obtain higher returns than a buy-and-hold strategy for the DAX index., following Talla (2013) and Nguyen and Nguyen (2015). The stock selection was based on 26 stocks from DAX’s composition, which had enough data for this study, aiming to select the 15 best performing. The training period was January 2000 - December 2015, and the out-of-sample January 2016 - August 2021, including the period of high turbulence generated by COVID-19. Fitting the best model revealed that the following regimes are the most suitable: two regimes for DAX returns, two regimes for VSTOXX and three regimes for the inflation rate and for the industrial production, while the posterior transition probabilities were event-depending on the training sample. Furthermore, portfolios built using HMM strategy outperformed the DAX index for the out-of-sample period, both in terms of annualized returns and risk-adjusted returns. The results were in line with expectations and what other researchers like Talla (2013), Nguyen and Nguyen (2015) and Varenius (2020) found out. We managed to highlight that a strategy calibrated based on HMM methodology works well even in periods of extreme volatility such as the one generated in 2020 by COVID-19 pandemic.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Consumer engagement in value co-creation within virtual video game communitieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mmcks-2021-0022<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>With the emergence of the gaming industry as the most empowering form of entertainment, video game online communities have become a refuge for many users who are looking to fulfil specific needs, leading them to participate in creating their own experiences. Drawing upon the uses and gratifications theory, this research aims to understand the motivations behind consumer engagement in value co-creation within digital game distribution services (exp. Steam), and how it affects loyalty. To the extent of the author’s knowledge, little research has addressed this question within the gaming industry. We conducted an online survey administered to video game platforms users, through which 195 valid answers were collected. Findings suggest that hedonic along with personal and social motivations have positive influence on user’s engagement to co-create value, which in return increases their loyalty behavior.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Is control still an important managerial function? An examination of structural and control process factors in strategic allianceshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mmcks-2021-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this paper we aimed to find an answer to the question: is control still important for modern organization in order to favor achievement of superior performances? We have tried to find answer to this question through an empirical investigation in the field of strategic alliances. Thus, we have analyzed the relationship between alliance monitorization and control and various measures of alliance performances. Based on a statistical analysis of data provided by 46 best performers medium and large companies operating in Romania, we found that control is still important for superior performances, whether productivity (e.g. revenues growth) or innovation related performances (e.g. new product development). We used multiple multilinear regressions and found positive associations between alliance monitorization and control, structural control factors and productivity, respectively innovation related performances. Surprisingly, we found that control process factors are not associated with superior innovation performances and for productivity related performances there is only a low intensity association. In terms of explanatory potential of regression models, in five models out of six, the control factors significantly explained why some companies extracted higher value from their portfolio of strategic alliances, as compared to companies extracting more modest value. The various measures of alliance performances (revenues growth, competitive position, customer satisfaction, operations improvement, product improvement, new product development) were also separately investigated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Organizational diversity and competency-based performance: The mediating role of employee commitment and job satisfactionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mmcks-2021-0021<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Diversity amongst the workforce within central Europe has experienced some form of evolution. This occurrence will incessantly manifest even further in the not-too-distant future. As a result, citizen-dominated societies are gradually tilting towards an increasingly diverse and minority population, broadly of African and Asian descent. Again, demographers suggest the influx of women, minorities, people of different ethnic backgrounds, aging workers, and people with alternative lifestyles within the European employment space, just as the various organizations and schools are filled with these groups. Studies on organizational diversity abound, however, findings from past research on diversity and performance relationships have been equivocal. Thus, the main objective of this study is to assess the mediating role of commitment and job satisfaction in the relationship between diversity and performance. Results from 237 samples drawn from the Czech Republic, Europe and analyzed through partial least square structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM) suggest that diversity does not have a significant relationship with competency-based performance. However, both commitment and job satisfaction play notable roles in the relationship between diversity and competency-based performance. Given these results, we discuss the theoretical and managerial implications.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Antecedents of social media usage intensity in the financial sector of an emerging economy: a Pls-Sem Algorithmhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mmcks-2021-0023<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this paper is to offer a critical understanding of the motivations and benefits of social media usage by small and medium financial enterprises with an empirical study from an emerging economy such as Ghana. Based on previous studies, the current study hypothesizes that customer-firm relationship, financial expectation, firm’s visibility and growth, and market share expectation drive social media usage intensity in the financial industry. Quantitative data was gathered from management and staff of SMEs, specifically, financial institution outlets (having social media channels i.e., Facebook, Instagram, YouTube, LinkedIn, etc.) was used to investigate the proposed conceptual framework. Using structural Equation Modelling, the research showed that customer-firm relationship, financial expectation, firm’s visibility and growth, and market share expectation are positively associated with social media usage intensity within the financial sector. Moreover, it was discovered that financial firms that offer physical products only were equally employing social media networks for marketing communication purposes based on cost-effective motives. At the same time, we found that SMEs are more likely to consider ‘market share expectation’ as a key motivation for social media adoption by the financial industry. The findings from this study have provided some solutions to potential research issues specific to strategic management practices. Limitations and future research directions are discussed in the concluding remarks.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Connecting the Dots: Exploring the Knowledge-based Antecedents of SMEs’ Profitability and Development via International Ventureshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mmcks-2021-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As shifts occur on the global market and business models adapt to a dynamic environment, the process of business internationalization, as performed by small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), maintains its relevance for academics, professionals, international organizations, and authorities. Studies in the field have emphasized the strategic component of internationalization, linking it to cultivating (sustainable) competitive advantages, to stimulating strategic innovation, to the pursuit of profitability, and to an overall improved performance, taking into account the activities conducted on foreign markets. Based on a survey carried out with over 100 European SMEs in the steel field, this study examines the influences of strategic collaborators (from international business networks), intermediaries (as organizational links to the target stakeholders), and strategic innovation on SMEs’ profitability resulted from international operations, and on the level of business development on foreign markets. The results have shown positive influences among most of the considered factors (i.e., direct collaborators, strategic innovation, international profitability and development), whereas intermediaries have a significant influence only on international profitability and not on SMEs’ development on foreign markets.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Does the Degree of Urbanisation Affect Sustainable Household Consumption? (Some Empirical Evidence)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mmcks-2021-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper is aimed at identifying the factors that shape consumers’ interest and propensity for sustainable consumption. It is focused on the differentiation of households in regard to their stated willingness to comply with the principles of sustainable consumption, as well as the identification of differences in the forms of manifestation of sustainable consumer behaviour among the households from different-sized urban areas. To achieve these objectives, first, we have evaluated a second-order factor model of CSC. We have also proposed a CSC Index model at an individual level. Second, we have conducted cluster analysis using the factor scores of the CSC Index model while considering households’ socio-demographics and the size of the urban area. We have identified two segments, ‘Sustainable conscious’ versus ‘Sustainable unconscious’. Finally, we have identified the environmental dimension as the most significant predictor of consciousness for sustainable consumption using a path model of CSC Index.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-01T00:00:00.000+00:00The influence of ecological concern on green purchase behaviorhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/mmcks-2021-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present paper seeks to address a gap in the literature regarding green marketing and examines the relationship between ecological concern, inward and outward environmental attitudes, purchasing behavior and environmental behavior as antecedents of green purchasing behavior. The data was gathered through an online survey carried out in Portugal with 530 valid answers. Structural Equation Modelling Partial Least Squares (SEM-PLS) was used to evaluate the model. A t-test was applied to identify differences between men and women. The results show that ecological concern, environmental attitude, environmental behavior and purchase intention are good predictors of green purchase behavior. Women scored higher than men on all variables, meaning that they are indeed superior environmentalists than men. Green purchase behavior is strongly influenced by both purchase intention and environmental behavior, so green brands should focus on targeting individuals that already take some actions in what concerns the environment, or to those who intend to do so.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-01T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1