rss_2.0Management Systems in Production Engineering FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Management Systems in Production Engineering Systems in Production Engineering Feed Future of Automotive Quality Control: How Cloud-Based Reporting is Changing the Game<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The automotive industry faces challenges in maintaining quality control while at the same time reducing costs and improving efficiency. Outsourcing has emerged as a potential solution. Such an approach can create issues such as communication barriers, quality control problems, and limited visibility into the manufacturing process. This study proposes a cloud-based quality reporting solution to overcome these challenges by providing real-time data analytics, facilitating proper communication, and enabling visibility into quality control processes. This solution significantly reduces waiting times for information regarding product quality status and allows interested parties to access data immediately. The outsourcing company, product producer and customer receive flexible, traceable, mobile cloud-based analytics in real-time. Challenges of this solution are the need to secure data, manage access and ensure the appropriate quality of data by persons performing control. The paper provides practical recommendations for implementing cloud-based quality reporting systems. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Advanced Technologies for Environmental Management Systems<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Environmental management systems (EMS) are essential in promoting sustainable practices and mitigating the adverse effects of human activities on the environment. As technology continues to advance, there is an increasing opportunity to utilize advanced technologies to improve environmental management systems. This article examines the potential of different advanced technologies, such as artificial intelligence (AI), blockchain, big data, and the Internet of Things (IoT), within the context of environmental management systems. This article intends to offer valuable insights to researchers, practitioners, and policymakers by examining the potential uses of AI, blockchain, big data, and IoT in environmental management systems. The goal is to demonstrate how these advanced technologies can be leveraged to enhance sustainability, boost environmental performance, and yield favourable environmental results across different sectors and industries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Decision Support Model for Mitigating Supply Chain Risks Based on a Modified FMEA, Multi-Objective Optimization and Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Approach<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Recent years have seen a huge development in the subject of supply chain risk management. In this increasingly uncertain world, the use of practical and effective tools for decision making and risk mitigation has become more necessary than ever. In this research, mitigation strategies for a tier one multinational company operating in the automotive industry and providing an assembly operation to final customer Renault Tanger and Renault SOMACA were prioritized according to their effectiveness, as well as their implementation costs. Based on research in the literature and the opinions of experts in the field. 44 risks and 55 mitigation strategies were identified. FMEA (Failure Modes and Effects Analysis) method was used based on the latest AIAG 2019 edition to filter and identify the risks to be prioritized, we used then a multi-objective optimization approach to identify the mitigation strategies that constitute the Pareto front for each of the risks and finally used the EDAS method for the final ranking of the strategies. Our case revealed that strategies like ensuring elaborating a contingency planning and defining the responsibilities, imposing contractual obligations on subcontractors, applying a flexible supply contract were found to be relevant risk mitigation strategies for the company. Managers interested in mitigating risk can deploy this model to prioritize risk mitigation strategies. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Incubators in Morocco: Overview of the “Forsa” Program<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The research investigates the role and significance of incubators in Morocco’s entrepreneurial ecosystem, specifically in relation to the FORSA-2022 program. It focuses on how incubators establish mutually beneficial relationships with entrepreneurs to overcome obstacles to sustained innovation. As a crucial link between entrepreneurs and the external environment, incubators provide essential support. This is a case study, which presents a comprehensive exploration of a prominent regional incubator situated in Casablanca. The investigation delves into the intricacies of executing the government’s FORSA-2022 program, closely analyzing the challenges faced by accelerators. Additionally, the study delves into the hurdles experienced by project initiators, which act as barriers to the successful realization of their endeavors. This analysis marks an initial stride towards strengthening the role of incubators for more performance and profitability in order to create strategies that can effectively improve the competitive strength of start-ups in Morocco. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Balance in SME Sector and Large Enterprises<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The concept of Work-Life Balance (WLB), which involves finding a harmonious equilibrium between work and personal life, has gained considerable importance across the European Union. In 2019, the European Parliament adopted a directive that requires all member states to integrate the principles of WLB, aiming to promote gender equality and fair treatment in the labor market (Directive on transparent and predictable working conditions in the European Union and Directive on work-life balance for parents and carers). This perspective offers significant opportunities and potential, while also posing challenges for entrepreneurs. An analysis of the literature on the subject indicates that the issue of WLB should be analyzed in the context of company size. The main objective of the research is to analyze and evaluate WLB among employees in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and large enterprises in Poland. The main results reflect that employees of companies in Poland (both SMEs and large enterprises) indicate a wide range of tools as having, in their opinion, an impact on WLB. Companies in Poland most commonly utilize tools such as flexible working hours and hybrid work. Findings confirm that WLB is less frequently implemented in the SME sector compared to large enterprises, and that employees in large enterprises have a better maintained WLB compared to employees in the SME sector. Implementing WLB is a challenge for the SME sector. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Era of Digitalization in Education where do Universities 4.0 Go?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Digitalization has revolutionized one of the most significant industries in the modern world, which is education. It has proven to be a successful and renowned strategy throughout the entire spectrum of the education industry. It has dissolved the distinction between physical and virtual distance and integrated more scientific methods for instructors to teach pupils. In order to select the most relevant studies in the digitalization field, bibliometric analysis was used, with the principal source of scientific articles selected being the academic platform Scopus. The content of 3836 research articles has been taken into consideration since 2019 and 2023. The search documents related to the “digitalization” issue are in title, abstract, and keywords. In order to highlight the structure of the scientific field, we used a content analysis, inspecting the most common words and the relationships between words. Additionally, a network of co-occurrences was taken into account. The analysis was performed using the WOSviever program. In the next part of the research, the term “digitalization” was examined in more detail. The Scopus search engine uses filters, including the terms “digitalization,” “higher,” and “education,” but is limited to key words. The content of 104 research articles has been taken into consideration since 2019 and 2023. The research results showed that the fields of technology, education, and management provide the theoretical basis for research on the digitalization of higher education. The findings also demonstrate the topic’s interdisciplinary character (as seen by publications published in several fields) and its strong relationship to concepts like online learning, digital transformation, and sustainable development. Based on the literature analysis, it can be concluded that University 4.0 will go to the smart fully digital University (University 5.0), will take care of aspects of sustainable development, and will develop teachers’ soft skills, especially emotional intelligence. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Possibility of Modeling Gas Separators using Computational Fluid Dynamics<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Today, gas-liquid separators are usually used for the purification of gas mixtures from droplet liquid, and there are many designs of which. However, in order to improve the efficiency of their work, increase throughput, reduce mass and dimensions, they are constantly being improved. Usually, developing a new or improving an existing separator design is a long-term and relatively expensive process. Today, computer programs that implement the finite element method make it possible to speed up and reduce the cost of designing both a gas separator and other equipment. FloEFD program is one of these programs. However, it is more convenient during design to use one computer program that allows you to build 3D models (CAD) and in the same program to use a module for simulating the movement of gas and liquid flows (CFD). Such a program is SolidWorks with the FlowSimulation application module. As for the physical processes that occur during the operation of gas separators, they are quite complex, since a multiphase gas flow with an existing liquid phase is simulated. In the article, simulation modeling of the C-2-1 separator was carried out and the values and distributions of velocities and pressures in its various cross-sections were determined. Special attention was paid to the following cross-sections of the separator: along the axis of its inlet pipe; in the middle is the spigot of the blade screw; on a block of blinds. The difference in pressure at the outlet and inlet of the separator was determined, which is 20267 Pa. Based on the simulation results obtained, recommendations are given for further research and optimization of the separator design. The main parameter that characterizes the degree of separation of liquid from gas in the separator is the efficiency factor, which depends on the design of the separator, thermobaric conditions, parameters of the technological scheme, composition and physical and chemical properties of the gas-liquid flow. As a result of simulated modeling of the separator, its efficiency coefficient was determined when it extracted droplet liquid from the gas-liquid mixture in its various fractions (from 0.01 to 0.1 mm). The efficiency factor is about 100%. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Impact of Selected Lean Manufacturing Tools on the Level of Delays in the Production Process. A Case Study<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Organizing manufacturing work in a way that minimizes delays in individual production operations is a key factor in a highly competitive market. One of the key factors to prevent delays is their correct identification and proper definition of methods to reduce their impact on selected parameters of the production process. The study presents the impact of Lean Manufacturing tools (5S, standardization and Total Productive Maintenance) on delays in the manufacturing process. A statistical analysis of the level of delays was performed, which was aimed at showing the essence of using Lean Manufacturing tools to improve the efficiency of the production process. In the example analyzed, the implementation of selected LM tools allowed for a reduction of delays related to failures by approximately 18 hours. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Workload Control Methods for Shops with Re-Entrant Flows<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The re-entrant flow with an unpredictable nature of arrival would apparently harm production plans and schedules in flow type of shops. The re-entrant flow with varied arrival frequencies in rotor blade manufacturing is quite complicated and results in disproportionate workloads. Hence, an attempt has been made to study the significant influence of disproportionate workloads and research on an innovative order release method to enhance performance. The manufacturing process was observed thoroughly to incorporate the uncertain events that cause disturbance in the production. A simulation model was developed on a discrete event simulation platform by analysing problem phenomena right from the conceptualization phase. The model has been verified and validated to ensure the accuracy. The model was subjected to 288 experiments representing different scenarios that a flow shop undergoes in reality. The factors considered in the experimentation were re-entrant frequency, re-entrant proportions, order release methods and priority dispatching rules. A refined load release policy for disproportionate loads has been proposed to judge its effectiveness in terms of profit computation by comparing it with other relevant policies. Results of the experiment revealed that the order release methods contribute 95.93% to throughput performance, in addition, the use of the new re-entrant method policy in the above scenario was productive in improving the overall shop performance. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Analysis and Systematic Literature Review in Social Manufacturing<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aims to map out social manufacturing research and the distribution of social manufacturing research, which can be used as a reference for social manufacturing research. Various studies on social manufacturing have been carried out to explore various insights on social manufacturing in different domains. This study was conducted in 2021, and explored the social manufacturing literature using bibliometric analysis methods. The approach used in the bibliometric analysis is the citation analysis to see one article cited by another article, and the co-citation analysis approach to find two or more articles cited by one article. In this study, the data source used is from the Scopus database, with social manufacturing keyword. The results show the types of analysis that have been processed include co-authorship (authors, organizations, countries), citations (authors), and co-citations (sources, cited authors). This research still has limitations, because it use the Scopus database only, so for further research, it could be added with other sources, such as Web of Science, PubMed, Crossref, etc. In addition, there are still many visualization results using VOSviewer software that could be explored further, such as the type of analysis citation-document, citation-organization, bibliographic coupling, which has not been discussed in this study. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Green Innovation of Companies of Countries with Different Levels of Technological Development of Production<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the conditions of the transition to higher technological systems in the conditions of the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals, the companies of the world face the question of effective management of green innovative development in their economic activities. The goal of the research is the formation of effective organizational and economic support for green innovations of companies of countries with different levels of technological development of production. This research contains: to describe the known positions of scientific schools regarding the managerial aspects of green innovations of companies of the world; to form the economic support of this administration, by developing an assessment of the potential of green innovations of companies of the world (the data of the Global Innovation Index Report were taken as a source of empirical data), to form criterion values of the potential of green innovations of companies of the countries for the purpose of their clustering. The research methods used include: system method; bibliometric analysis; method of assessing competitiveness; criterion method; method of generalization. The objects of evaluation include companies from five countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The main results of the study include: development of management theory; forming an assessment of the green innovation potential of companies from countries of the world with different levels of technological development of production (the data of the Global Innovation Index Report were taken as a source of empirical data); formation of criterion support for the results of evaluation of the green innovation potential of the countries’ companies. The conclusions of the study should include establishing the actualization of managing green innovations by companies of the world by involving the results of the assessment of the green innovation potential of companies of the world to the formation of the criterion values of this assessment in order to make effective management decisions on the part of all interested stakeholders. For further scientific research, to focus on the formation of effective communication links between different groups of stakeholders, the basis of this scientific direction is the criteria developed by the authors to ensure the level of green innovation potential of companies of countries in order to make effective decisions on the part of stakeholders (state bodies, investors, manufacturers, suppliers, clients, financial institutions) regarding organizational, social, economic support of green innovations of companies of countries with different levels of technological development of production. This study can be useful for the governments of countries in the development of international and national programs for the innovative development of the economy in terms of the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals; to company managers when forming strategic and tactical plans for green innovative business development; to students and scientists in the implementation of scientific and educational programs. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the State of Innovative Activity of Machine-Building Enterprise<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The innovative activity of machine-building enterprises is the main guarantee of their sustainable and effective development, which makes it possible to compare technical and technological innovation in the production of products in different periods and between different enterprises in points. Quantitative numerical assessment of the innovative component of the enterprise is a prerequisite for developing a strategy for further effective production management. After all, in addition to financial performance indicators, technical innovations play a decisive role in the modern market environment, although little attention is paid to them. In the work, based on organizational and technical modeling and logical methods of exploratory evaluation, the author’s method of establishing a quantitative comparative level of innovative activity of a machine-building enterprise was built. The developed methodology for evaluating the innovative component of machine-building production is based on three basic criteria: mastering new machines, mastering technological processes, and the effectiveness of implementing design and technological solutions. The first two criteria take into account the nomenclature, novelty, the risk of introducing a new solution and the technical level of products. To determine these criteria, several levels of novelty of machines and technologies are proposed and the author’s understanding of their content is given. The third criterion, the effectiveness of implementation, is evaluated by indicators that take into account the intensity of adjustments at various stages of design. The result of the study is a method of comparative assessment of the level of innovative components of the development of machine-building production with a set of indicators that provide professionals with a tool for monitoring the processes of introducing new equipment and technologies into production and the subsequent formation of an effective innovative strategy for the development of a machine-building enterprise. The capability of the proposed methodology is presented in the given example of evaluating the innovative development (state) of an abstract machine-building enterprise. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Capital and Entrepreneurial Performance of SMEs: The Mediating Role of Access to Entrepreneurial Resources<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study is conducted to explain entrepreneurial support resources of firms based on social network theory in developing countries, the case of Vietnam. Partial Least Squares Structural Modeling (PLS-SEM) was conducted with a sample size of 220 entrepreneurs in SMEs. The results supported the positive link between formal and informal networks and entrepreneurial firm performance. Second, the study explored the partial mediating role of access to entrepreneurial resources between formal networks, informal networks, and entrepreneurial firm performance. In addition, the results also provide practical value to entrepreneurs in actively building relationship networking in the entrepreneurship ecosystem. Finally, the study proposed some implications for entrepreneurs, limitations, and further research. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Multi-Skilled Resource-Constrained Project Scheduling Problem: A Systematic Review and an Exploration of Future Landscapes<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Multi-skilled Resource Constrained Project Scheduling Problem (MS-RCPSP) is a complex and multi-faceted problem that involves scheduling activities whilst considering various resource constraints. These constraints include limited availability of workers, equipment, and materials, with each activity requiring a minimal set of skills to be executed. Furthermore, for a better resemblance to reality, workers/machines are assumed to be multi-skilled/multi-purpose posing another dimension of complexity to the problem. The objective is to minimize project duration, cost, or other relevant criteria while accounting for the inherent resources flexibility. This paper provides a systematic review of the literature pertaining to MS-RCPSP, and an in-depth analysis of 171 papers published between 2000 and 2021 inclusive. The conducted bibliometric analysis identifies the top contributing authors, most influential papers, existing research tendencies, and thematic research topics within the field. In addition, this review highlights different aspects of the MS-RCPSP, spanning the significance of performance measures, solution approaches, application areas, and the incorporation of time constraints. While project completion time, cost, and tardiness are common performance indicators, other measures such as multi-skilled staff assignment and schedule robustness are also deemed important. Although various methods have been employed to solve the MS-RCPSP including exact and approximate approaches, the selection of the most-suited approach depends on the problem’s scale, complexity, and constraints, necessitating careful consideration of each method’s strengths and weaknesses. Interestingly, several studies have jointly addressed resource and time constraints in the context of MS-RCPSP, often considering tardiness, and have proposed different algorithms, models, and metaheuristics to tackle these challenges. This paper clearly highlights research gaps and promising avenues for future research. This work provides valuable insights for project managers to effectively schedule tasks in the presence of multiple flexible resources. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Risky Behaviors Based on the Indicator Analysis of Statistics on Accidents at Work<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the paper was to analyze risky behaviors in the mining industry on the example of the indicator analysis of the statistics on accidents at work. Selected criteria of generic analysis (structure index – causes of accidents) and indicator analysis (intensity index – frequency indicator of accidents) were used in the research. The source of data for the analysis of accident rate were the publications of the Statistics Poland entitled “Accidents at work” in Poland for 2010-2021. The study aimed at human causes, which included the following five groups: lack or improper handling of a material factor by the employee, failure to use protective equipment by the employee, improper willful behavior of the employee, improper mental and physical state of the employee, improper behavior of the employee. For the analysis of risky behaviors, the proposition of the frequency indicator of accidents at work was used in the form of the probability indicator of accidents caused by risky behaviors per 1,000 working people. Based on the indicator analysis of risky behaviors, a comparative analysis of statistics on accidents at work in the period 2010-2021 according to the criterion of human causes was developed for Poland and mining. The research is based on the data of the Statistics Poland (GUS), but can be extended with other data, e.g. industry data according to the State Mining Authority (WUG). The results of the research can be used for a comparative analysis of the statistics on accidents at work in relation to other sectors and sections of economic activity of the NACE (PKD). The publication contains the original results of the indicator analysis of the statistics on accidents at work according to the criterion of human causes in the mining industry, and they can be addressed to persons managing of mining plants and managers of mining supervision authorities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Industry 5.0 To Effectively Harness Production Capacities<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The dynamic evolution of the economy and the evolving demands necessitating adaptability are primary catalysts for the emergence of Industry 5.0 which, building on the foundations of Industry 4.0, is oriented towards meeting human needs and expectations while ensuring the responsible functioning of the workforce. This is particularly salient in sectors experiencing rapid advancements in manufacturing concepts, characterized by the integration of advanced IT, information and data utilization, automation, and the deployment of collaborative robots, often referred to as “cobots”. The study outlines the key prerequisites concerning the development and operation of Industry 5.0, as specified in European Union guidelines, and evident in research literature. Three critical facets pertinent to the effective implementation of Industry 5.0 are extensively addressed, encompassing the imperative to effectively cater to human-related requisites and highlighting the potential benefits therein. The paper offers an overview of openly accessible, previously published materials on the subject. The author’s examination encompasses studies regarded as milestones, which build on the foundations of Industry 4.0 to advance the conceptual framework of Industry 5.0. Rather than centering on statistical analysis, this research attempts to explore relationships that warrant further in-depth investigation to ascertain existing correlations. The paper seeks to outline factors to be considered in the course of implementing Industry 5.0. Its conclusions may be of use in supporting people responsible for organizational development and specifically in helping them to identify potential issues so as to give their organization an edge in the global competitive environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Study in Hypothesis Prioritization with Ishikawa Diagrams<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of this paper is to explore a multidisciplinary problem-solving team investigating a customer-reported failure using an Ishikawa diagram with a spreadsheet for prioritizing and tracking investigation actions in a manufacturing organization. A case study methodology is used with the actions taken to investigate a customer-reported failure explained. The highest priority failure hypothesis was found to be unrelated to the failure. Two medium-rated hypotheses were found to be causing the problem; leakage was occurring at the connection between two components due to a diameter deviation of one of the components. Identifying and prioritizing hypotheses from the Ishikawa diagram provided structure to the investigation and gave the investigation team leader a tool for tracking the investigation actions. This approach is suitable for all types of failure investigations in which an Ishikawa diagram is used to list hypotheses.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Operational Characteristics of the Impulse Gas-Barrier Face Seal<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The problem of reducing leaks along the pump or compressor shaft of pumped liquids and gases into the environment is very urgent. Serious difficulties have to be faced when sealing the shafts of machines that pump aggressive, toxic, explosive and fire-hazardous environments. According to modern occupational safety requirements, such pumps and compressors should use double seals with a barrier medium whose pressure exceeds the sealed one by 0.05-0.2 MPa. Currently, liquid-lubricated double mechanical seals are widely used in chemical production equipment, however, over the last decade of the 20th century, leading companies have developed a number of designs of double gas mechanical seals for pumps and chemical production devices, which significantly exceed liquid-lubricated seals in their performance characteristics. The vast majority of these seals use a gas-dynamic principle of operation, i.e. spiral, logarithmic, T-shaped or other micro grooves are made on the sealing faces of their rings, which, when rotated, create an additional gas dynamic force that ensures the functioning of these seals with a micron gap between the sealing pair. In this paper, the design, principle of operation and engineering methodology for calculating the main characteristics of a impulse gas barrier face seal, in which one pair of sealing rings performs the functions of a double mechanical seal, is considered. The design is simple, compact and, thanks to the more advanced principle of creating a gap between the sealing pair, is able to maintain operability in a wide range of sealing and barrier pressures. The existing experience of operating seals of this type on chemical production pumps has confirmed their high efficiency, reliability and safety.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Analysis of User Preference for Old Vs New Fintech Technology Using SVM and NB Algorithms<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study is to use sentiment analysis to compare the efficiency of old and new fintech technologies by collecting data from various sources and analyzing it using the SVM and NB algorithms. The study seeks to identify opinions or feelings from text in order to provide a clear picture of public opinion and the direction of the debate regarding old and new fintech technologies. The results of the study show that the SVM algorithm has an average accuracy of 87.32% and the NB algorithm has an average accuracy of 81.56% in testing the sample data in a comparison of old and new fintech technology on the internet. The study tested data in a comparison of two specific arguments, namely the debate about which technology is more efficient in old and new fintech on the internet. Despite many unresolved arguments, the study successfully proved that new fintech is more preferred than old fintech, with 71% positive sentiment directed towards new fintech. However, the dataset also found that 62% negative sentiment is directed towards new fintech, indicating that although new fintech is more preferred, there are still some issues that need to be addressed. One reason for negative sentiment towards new fintech may be the continued concerns about security and privacy of user data. Furthermore, other factors that may cause negative sentiment towards new fintech include a lack of understanding about how the technology works.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Exploratory Data Analysis: An Empirical Test of Run Chart Utility<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper explores Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA). Graphical methods are used to gain insights in EDA and these insights can be useful for forming tentative hypotheses when performing a root cause analysis (RCA). The topic of EDA is well addressed in the literature; however, empirical studies of the efficacy of EDA are lacking. We therefore aim to evaluate EDA by comparing one group of students identifying salient features in a table against a second group of students attempting to identify salient features in the same data presented in the form of a run chart, and then extracting relevant conclusions from such a comparison. Two groups of students were randomly selected to receive data; either in the form of a table or a run chart. They were then tasked with visually identifying any data points that stood out as interesting. The number of correctly identified values and the time to find the values were both evaluated by a two-sample t-test to determine if there was a statistically significant difference. The participants with a graph found the correct values that stood out in the data much quicker than those that used a table. Those using the data in the form of a table too much longer and failed to identify values that stood out. However, those with a graph also had far more false positives. Much has been written on the topic of EDA in the literature; however, an empirical evaluation of this common methodology is lacking. This paper confirms with empirical evidence the effectiveness of EDA.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue