rss_2.0Musicology Today FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Musicology Today Today Feed Mass Song Seminar at Nieborów, June 1950<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The seminar on mass songs held in Nieborów, Poland in June 1950 is notable for what it did not accomplish: Amid a diversity of opinions voiced by poets, composers, and cultural officials, no firm guidelines for this seemingly new type of song emerged. What we can draw from examining the proceedings of this three-day session are an enhanced understanding of mass song as an evolving, not a static phenomenon and fresh insights into the political and logistical complexities that faced composers at this time.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Music Education in a Multi-Ethnic Context, on the Example of State-Run Schools in Poland between the World Wars<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper concerns the presence and ideological identity-building function of Polish folk music in Polish state-run schools between the World Wars, and the experiences of Jewish children and teenagers in this regard. The young Polish state brought together populations from the former three partitioned territories, which included numerous national minorities. The need for bond-forming, powerfully symbolic elements supporting a collectively developed national identity was soon strongly felt. Polish folk music, with particular emphasis on its regional varieties, perfectly fitted into the ideological current of patriotic and civic youth education in both state-run and private schools. Dances and songs which children learned at music and PE lessons familiarised them with the wealth of traditions, imbuing them with pride and the love of national culture. The paper quotes examples of young Jews’ experiences in this context, as they encountered Polish folksongs and dances in state-run schools: their responses to this issue and the impact of such contacts on their identities. The source material comes from pre-WWII press, in which we hear the voices of the children themselves, reporting their experiences.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue (1925) The Importance of Historical Accuracy in Reconstructing Scores to Silent Films Based on the Mirskey Collection<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Collections of silent film music constitute valuable sources for historical research on the musical practice in the silent film era. The musical prints preserved in the Mirskey Collection were previously used by the author to reconstruct a score for the movie <italic>A Kiss for Cinderella</italic> (1925, dir. Herbert Brenon). This article describes the historical context considered during the reconstruction and discusses the workflow applied by Nek Mirskey (Bronisław Mirski) as a musical director of movie theatres. A comparative analysis of sheet music from the Mirskey Collection accompanied by handwritten notes, original cue sheet compiled by James Bradford for the Paramount Pictures, and a digitised copy of the film, have led to conclusions that are applicable not only to Mirskey's methods of compiling scores, but also to the more general rules for the development of musical accompaniments to silent films in the 1920s.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue‘The Whiteness’ of Music Analysis. A Gloss on Philip Ewell's Lamentation over Schenker<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article is a polemic with the views formulated in 2020 by Philip A. Ewell in the <italic>Journal of the Society for Music Theory</italic>. His text is a critique of European music theory, mainly as represented in the writings by Heinrich Schenker. Ewell's main claim is that European music theory is based on racist concepts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue to ‘Discover the Beauty of Life’ in / against the Disease? Musicology in the Therapy for the Elderly with Oncological Illnesses<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cooperation between the Institute of Musicology of the University of Warsaw and ‘Jestem’ Foundation began in 2013. The Foundation aims to support adults (especially elderly people) with chronic or terminal illnesses. The so-called ‘hour on beauty’, the Foundation's innovation introduced as part of the schedule of activities for patients, takes the form of weekly meetings with interesting persons (journalists, actors, travellers, etc.), and in the last several years – also with students of musicology. Cooperation involves regular facultative classes at which teams of musicology students prepare educational-therapeutic projects subsequently implemented at the Foundation's seat as part of the ‘hour on beauty’. The paper presents the model of cooperation worked out over the years and examples of original projects implemented by musicology students. The diversity of topics has been discussed here along with effective methods of patient activation (such as task-oriented listening, joint singing, and improvisation using everyday objects). The Foundation's work fills a gap in the Polish health care system resulting from the National Health Fund (NFZ) only financing stationary and home-based hospices but not designating any resources for day-care hospices targeting those oncological patients who need not be permanently hospitalised. The Foundation strives to prevent their exclusion and to improve the quality of their lives as well as their well-being. The benefits of the cooperation are invaluable. There is no doubt that this project (innovative on the Polish scale) reveals a new and potentially surprising function of musicology in the contemporary world.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Last Works in Zygmunt Mycielski's Oeuvre<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In his concept of a composer's creative work Mieczysław Tomaszewski distinguishes the late and final phases. Edward W. Said, on the other hand, devoted his last publication to reflections on the late style in music and literature, referring to the existing body of research on the subject. What is the position, in the context of both these perspectives, of three important works for voices and instruments by Zygmunt Mycielski: <italic>Three Psalms</italic>, <italic>Liturgia sacra</italic>, and <italic>Fragments</italic> to words by Juliusz Słowacki, written in the last few years of the composer's life? The author discusses these works and attempts to answer that question in her conclusion.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Imagosphere of Myroslav Skoryk's Opera<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper is dedicated to the eminent Ukrainian composer Myroslav Skoryk's opera <italic>Moses</italic>, which has been researched here from the standpoint of musical imagology for the first time. The methodology of the paper is based on the complex imagological concepts of Manfred S. Fischer and Jean-Marc Moura, in which they propose to analyse literary phenomena in national comparative contexts in terms of imagemes, imagothemes, and imagotypes. This triad in its totality makes up the imagosphere, that is, the world of artistic images which are both a cultural representation of a given national identity and its reflection in the artist's work. It has been found that one of the central images of Skoryk's opera and entire output is the national character of his music, which is defined by references to Ukrainian folksongs as well as the nation's operatic and choral tradition. The imagothemes of Skoryk's opera are related to a wide range of ‘eternal’ philosophical problems, such as good vs evil, faith vs its lack, human vs God, etc. By developing the ideas of Ivan Franko, the author of the opera's literary prototype, the composer presents a whole complex of ‘eternal’ themes, which he refers to the contemporary Ukrainian context: freedom and faith, liberation from centuries-long slavery and dependence, as well as the theme of the nation's spiritual leaders’ responsibilities and their relationship with the people. The main imagotypes of the opera: the God Jehovah, the prophet Moses, a lyrical young couple, and the Poet – correspond to the main qualities of Ukrainian mentality and national character, namely: patriotism, spirituality, piety, ‘cordocentrism’, and a lyrical-poetic worldview.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Pleasure. (Venice 1729)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Operatic pasticcio and the need for experiencing pleasure were inseparable in eighteenth-century operatic theatre, as can be demonstrated on the example of <italic>L’abbandono di Armida</italic>, a pasticcio that was performed in the Venetian Teatro San Giovanni Grisostomo on the last day of the 1729 carnival and gained considerable success. The article discusses the ingredients of pleasure derived from experiencing the pasticcio, which seems to have been multi-layered (the word ingredients used here perfectly reflects the <italic>haute cuisine</italic> roots of the pasticcio). The librettist Giovanni Boldini re-used for <italic>Armida</italic> arias from successful operas by Nicola Porpora, Tomaso Albinoni (?), Leonardo Leo, Leonardo Vinci, and Benedetto Marcello. Five arias have been analysed in order to exemplify the diversity of musical pleasure that the audience could experience. The final question is whether the pleasure drawn from a pasticcio is limited to one historical period, or possibly it presents a more universal appeal.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue as Artistic Research: / (Brussels, 2006)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>On 6 December 2006, students of the Royal Conservatoire of Brussels performed two one-act pasticci arranged by the author of this article: <italic>Ifigenia</italic> and <italic>Ipermestra</italic>. Assembled as experiments in the young discipline of artistic research in music, both ‘cut &amp; paste’ operas offered opportunities to explore issues of music-dramatic syntax in <italic>opera seria</italic>. In this article, I explain how individual arias and recitatives were combined into two meta-compositions that sometimes respected, and sometimes overrode eighteenth-century generic conventions. By revisiting the scores, libretti, archives and first-hand memories pertaining to this venture, I will show that ‘pastiching’ (<italic>pasticciare</italic>) is more than a historical form; it is a transhistorical method, involving a broad network of agencies, operators, and stakeholders whose strategies can be artistic and non-artistic, convergent and divergent. Pastiching does not necessarily result in ‘works’, fixed in time and space, but rather produces meta-compositional assemblages, the transience and formal instability of which provide opportunities to showcase neglected repertoire and tackle outdated musical ontologies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue for the Ladies? Compilation, Knowledge Practice and Pasticcio in England around 1720<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In 1719, the Royal Academy of Music was founded with the purpose of setting Italian opera in England on solid ground. Previously, at least two thirds of the Italian operas staged in London had been pasticci. Much of the criticism of the Italian opera before 1719 concerned stylistic fickleness. This is just one reason why it seems likely that the declining number of pasticci after 1719 can be interpreted as an effect of the move against stylistic compilations in music. In fact, in the first period of the Academy’s opera management (from 1720 to 1728) the share of pasticci fell to approximately 10 percent or even less – depending on where the dividing line is placed at a time before the English definition of the operatic pasticcio was established. My paper focuses on some experiments between ‘opera’ and ‘pasticcio’, staged in the Royal Academy’s first period (particularly <italic>Muzio Scevola</italic>), presented against the backdrop of the audience’s more general cultural knowledge practices and the works’ appeal to female members of the audience.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Roads. Tracing Back the Reception Paths of Apostolo Zeno’s Libretto (1703–1754)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>During the fifty years that mark the historical reception of Apostolo Zeno’s libretto <italic>Venceslao</italic> (1703–1754), no less than forty-two opera productions based on this text were staged throughout Europe. In most cases, these performances are documented in the form of printed libretti. As far as I was able to establish, the text of <italic>Venceslao</italic> was reproduced <italic>verbatim</italic> only once: the Kraków print of 1725 is identical with the Venetian one of 1722. Otherwise, Zeno’s <italic>Venceslao</italic> was subjected to constant changes; new elements were appearing in the successive versions along with older ones, which led to the emergence of <italic>sui generis</italic> literary pasticci.</p> <p>I have attempted to single out the versions which were crucial for <italic>Venceslao</italic>’s reception and determined its stages of development: 1. the Milan edition (1705/06), based on the Venetian <italic>editio princeps</italic> (1703) and the Florentine variant (1703/04); 2. the Neapolitan edition (1714/15) based on the Florentine version and, indirectly, on the Milanese one as well, 3. Domenico Lalli’s edition from Venice (1722); 4. The Turin-Prague version (1720/21–1725/26), which provided the lifeblood for later <italic>Venceslao</italic> operatic productions by the Mingottis’ troupe in Graz, Linz, Hamburg, and Copenhagen in the late 1730s and 40s. Subsequently, I have outlined the key characteristics of several unusual late <italic>Venceslao</italic> versions from Florence, Venice, and Genoa.</p> <p>Finally, I have distinguished two main phases in <italic>Venceslao</italic>’s reception. The first, incorporating the first three stages, lasted till the late 1720s / early 1730s. It was characterised by strong interconnections between the successive <italic>Venceslao</italic> versions. The new editions were built on the principle of continuous elimination and accumulation of elements taken from earlier variants, mixed with new ones. The second phase, from the 1730s onwards, was characterised by loose interconnections, especially on the level of so-called numbers (arias and ensembles). It seems that Zeno’s own original versions definitely played a minor role in <italic>Venceslao</italic>’s reception on European stages as compared with editions prepared by third parties.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue impasticciato: Performing, Researching and Reviving London operas from 1730–1731<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study discusses practical and aesthetic aspects of the pasticcio principle, which characterised London's Italian operas of 1730–31 and still concern revivals, source research, and editions today. Twentieth-century revivals of Handel's opera <italic>Scipione</italic> pose the question of how to evaluate the original version of 1726 vs its pasticcio-like revival of 1730. Details of the 1730–31 season under Handel, concerning for example the status of the vocal soloists, reveal a multiplicity of agencies (singers, composer, impresario, librettist, patrons/audiences) which influenced the artistic outcomes. Handel's decision-making role for the entire season as the company's music director is re-asserted, although the proposal of John H. Roberts (2016) that another musician composed the recitatives for the pasticcios <italic>Ormisda</italic> and <italic>Venceslao</italic> will be accepted. This musician, however, may have been the tenor Annibale Pio Fabri rather than the concert-master Pietro Castrucci, suggested by Roberts. The aesthetic question that concerns us today is the dichotomy between a unified author-work-concept and a discursive pasticcio principle, of which the former is observed in critical editions, the latter in (post-) modern stage productions. It is suggested that a similar contrast already characterised eighteenth-century theatrical practice and aesthetics, although fluctuations between the two principles and, generally, multi-agency in creating theatrical works were negotiated with considerable freedom.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue’s Pasticci between Music History and Current Music Practice at the Handel Festival in Halle<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Looking back on the first Handel Festival in Halle in 1922, it is argued that a close connection between science and practice has been characteristic of the Halle Festival from the very beginning. Arrangements of Handel’s works were made both by performing musicians and by recognised musicologists. Despite this common editing practice, the opera-pasticcio group of works has been disregarded until the early twenty-first century. Since 2012, the Stiftung Händel-Haus in Halle has been considering a reassessment of this group of works. Alongside performances, editions were to be produced. The positive results of this initiative are listed, but its failures are also pointed out. It is believed that the pasticci and Handel’s composition practice will ultimately only receive a suitable appreciation if a new aesthetic of the music work is applied as a foundation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue ‘insignificant’ bars to significant social relations: Elisabeth Teyber and Laodice's in (1763)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Allowedly, singers of Baroque opera could influence the final musical and dramaturgical shape of the work. In our paper, we will focus on a case study of Hasse's compositional process, which will serve as a platform for presenting the digital outputs of the research project ‘Pasticcio. Ways of Arranging Attractive Operas’. The 1763 version of Hasse's opera <italic>Siroe</italic>, re di Persia featured the novice Elisabeth Teyber in the role of Laodice, whose dramaturgical weight seems to have been reconsidered several times by the composer, particularly in one instance: The seventh scene of Act I was written out twice by Hasse, once as an <italic>accompagnato</italic> and once in a <italic>secco</italic> version. In the first part of this article, the background and reasons for such measures, which carry crucial information regarding compositional practices in Hasse's self-pasticcio, will be discussed. Particular emphasis will be placed on the dramaturgical changes and their presentation in the project's synoptical overview of the textual sources of <italic>Siroe</italic>. The second part enters into detail about Teyber and her vocal peculiarities, which prompted the composer's new concept of this scene. The third section is devoted to another digital humanities tool, namely the database, which serves to visualise relations between sources, singers and composers and to picture the complexity of 18<sup>th</sup>-century pasticcio practice.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue‘Collected’ Pages for the (Teatro San Carlo, 1763)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>During the 1763–64 season, numerous intersections and connections occur behind the scenes of the principal Neapolitan opera house of Teatro di San Carlo. On the one hand, the focus on Metastasian repertoire persists without interruptions – a long and boundless tradition which will only fade towards the end of the century; on the other hand, Hasse’s world still exerts its fascination.</p> <p>Along with Metastasio’s <italic>Olimpiade</italic>, <italic>Issipile</italic> and <italic>Didone abbandonata,</italic> Migliavacca’s <italic>Armida</italic> was also staged. This libretto had been set to music by Traetta in 1760 for Vienna, a city which played a significant role in the annual schedule of the Teatro di San Carlo due to the presence of the ‘virtuosa’ Caterina Gabrielli. The singer had made her debut in that role in the Habsburg capital; the opera was presented with the same music composed by Traetta for the imperial opera house.</p> <p>In the Neapolitan context Cochetta revealed herself in all her splendour, yet also giving a hard time to all those who were in charge of the San Carlo. The selected repertoire was thus a kind of compromise, a diplomatic act aimed to ‘tame’ the stubborn soprano through an offer of operas suited to her voice and skills, and in all likelihood they were works proposed by herself. While the scores of <italic>Armida</italic> and <italic>Didone</italic> arrived in time, Scarlatti’s <italic>Issipile</italic> did not; in order to prevent the diva’s anger, another negotiation started under the guidance of Pasquale Cafaro, working at the San Carlo, who would ‘conduct’ the repertoire operas, and who offered to adapt them to the hired cast.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue‘Per desiderio di farsi onore’: Singers and the Adaptation of Arias in Italian of the Early Eighteenth-Century Italy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Within the aesthetic framework of the work concept and author-centred approach to music history, the practice of aria substitution in the eighteenth-century Italian <italic>dramma per musica</italic> has frequently been viewed as hostile interference with the composer’s authorial intention and attributed to singers’ vanity, laziness and ignorance. However, the substitution of both the texts and musical settings of arias constituted the default production practice in a period in which scores were not conceptualised as fixed texts but functioned as performance materials for specific productions. Moreover, the practice of aria substitution was deeply rooted in the socio-cultural context of opera production and the arts consumption practices of the social elite. A manifestation of period preoccupation with displaying and gauging rank and status, it was crucial to singers’ professional success.</p> <p>Analysing the reasons for the substitution of three specific arias in revivals of settings by both Hasse and Vinci of Metastasio’s <italic>Artaserse</italic> in 1730 and 1731, this paper accounts for typical scenarios for this practice in opera production. Rather than focusing predominantly on the arias’ musical parameters, it also evaluates their dramatic features, scope for stage action and potential for engaging period audiences. Brief consideration is also given to two unusual <italic>drammi per musica</italic> of 1734 featuring an exceptionally high number of <italic>arie di tempesta.</italic></p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue, Arrangement, or Adaptation? Georg Philipp Telemann's Pasticcio Based on Fortunato Chelleri's<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In musicological research on the eighteenth-century operatic pasticcio it has often been discussed how pasticci can be distinguished from <italic>dramme per musica</italic>. The article examines the evolution of Fortunato Chelleri's opera <italic>Innocenza difesa</italic> in the course of its adaption for several performance venues (Florence 1720, Venice 1722, Kassel 1725, Wolfenbüttel/Brunswich 1731), as well as pasticcio projects based on Chelleri's score (Hamburg 1732). By analysing the surviving libretti, scores, and sheet music related to Chelleri's opera, it can be shown that Chelleri as well as the arranger of the Hamburg pasticcio-production, Georg Philipp Telemann, paid attention to the overarching dramaturgical principles as well as to new forms of music publishing in large metropolises such as London. Telemann not only chose some arias by George Frederic Handel from among the most celebrated numbers in the opera <italic>Lotharius</italic> (composed by Handel, printed by John Walsh in London, 1730), but he also fostered Chelleri's focus on Judith as a main character. Within these musical-dramaturgical perspectives, based on very loose networks of connections between librettists, composers, singers, and probably stage designers, requests for specific arias from individual singers could also be accommodated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Art of ‘Cooking’ a Pasticcio: Musical Recipes and Ingredients for Pasticcio Operas<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Despite the rather pejorative implications that the musical pasticcio has today, it may have been an appreciated art form in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. The term <italic>pasticcio</italic> is clearly derived from the culinary pasticcio, which was a highlight at aristocratic banquets in this time. The mixture of tastes and the spectacular presentation which characterises the culinary pasticcio, as well as the contemporary concept that culinary as well as painted ‘pasticcios’ are distinguished by ‘unity amidst variety’, can equally be found in the musical pasticcio. Several layers can be perceived, exemplified by the pasticcio <italic>Arione</italic> (Milan 1694) and those which George Frideric Handel and the Mingotti opera troupe staged in London and other places. The ‘noble’ pasticcio may be defined as characterised by a musical idea which, like a pastry, covers the entire piece and relates the individual elements to the whole. If it is lacking, the pasticcio becomes a conglomerate of music, like a dish whose ingredients are all thrown together.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue