rss_2.0Nordic Concrete Research FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Nordic Concrete Research Concrete Research Feed Experiments on Concrete Containing Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace Slag: Influence of Temperature, Air Entrainment And Salt<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Frost deterioration of concrete is an important durability issue for structures exposed to high degree of saturation, low temperatures and de-icers. The material can then be severely damaged with internal cracking and/or scaling of the surface, which can lead to e.g. reduced protection of the reinforcement and loss of load bearing capacity. Experiments with liquid uptake in concrete using different temperature cycles was made to study cryosuction. The material used was concrete with different air content and different replacement levels of ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS). The concrete samples were preconditioned by capillary suction. Three temperature conditions were used: constant temperatures of +20 °C and -20 °C, and temperature that cycled between -20 °C and +20 °C. As liquid medium, deionized water and a 3% NaCl salt solution were used. Air entrainment generally increased the liquid uptake. The amount of GGBS and the NaCl concentration in the liquid did not have any significant impact on the liquid uptake in these experiments.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Review on Fatigue Performance of Concrete Structures Part I: Loading Parameters, Current Prediction Models and Design Approaches<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This review paper highlights the most fundamental state of knowledge regarding the fatigue of concrete that is available through the literature over the last decades and reveals the areas that are needed for further investigation. The loading factors influencing the fatigue performance and the fatigue life estimation of concrete structures are taken into consideration. This review explores the impact of eight loading parameters on the fatigue life of concrete structures, and we aimed to be succinct in our investigation. Besides, we present a review on the deterministic and probabilistic approaches for fatigue life prediction. For example, in more recent studies, the utilization of machine learning techniques has been shown to outperform the traditional methods. The review gives adequate insight into the approach of some of the main current design codes for fatigue life prediction of concrete.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Ion Diffusion Resistance of Bulk Hydrophobic Concrete: Comparison of w/c and Dosages<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Post-cast application of hydrophobic agents onto hardened concrete is successful at reducing external ion diffusion into cement paste, this work examines pre-cast application of hydrophobic admixtures in fresh concrete. Concretes, with water to cement ratios (w/c) 0.45 and 0.50 (CEM I; low C3A), were mixed. Adding alkyltrialkoxysilane or triacylglycerol admixtures ranging from 1 to 3 wt%cem in these concretes were evaluated. Increasing the dosage of hydrophobic admixtures decreased the compressive strength. The usage of these admixtures did not hinder the further development of the microstructure as all concretes gained strength after one year, but not in the same percentage increase as the reference concrete. Chloride ion diffusion, after exposure to 3 wt% NaCl solution at 20 °C for 91 days, in concretes with 1 wt%cem admixture showed slight reductions in diffusion rate (8-17%) compared to the reference. At 3 wt%cem, triacylglycerol admixtures showed better hindering effects of inward chloride diffusion, this was especially evident in w/c = 0.45. Equivalent addition of alkyltrialkoxysilane-based admixtures increased the diffusion of chloride ions transferred into the cement matrix.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue for Test Series for Relative Humidity Measurements to Calibrate Drying Time Simulation Model<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There is a great need for an easy-to-use tool to simulate drying of concrete floors. In order to model practical situations, the tool should take into account changing conditions, especially wetting at worksite, but also temperature. For this purpose, a simulation program was developed for drying time estimations for concrete floors, which was published in 2021 and is named as the “by2020 Concrete drying time estimate”. This study presents the results of the laboratory test series conducted to calibrate the drying time estimations of the by2020 software. As all possible scenarios for practical situations were not possible to study in the test series, results from the literature were partly used for calibration and validation of the tool. A methodology for test series for calibration of the drying time estimation model is proposed based on this study. It was found that a model suitable for practical applications can be implemented based on relative humidity measurements only. However, the tests series of relative humidity measurements should take into account the influence of various factors such as wetting period and different temperature conditions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Effective and Minimal Slab Widths for Evaluating the Shear Capacity of RC Overhang Slabs<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The effective width is a relevant parameter for the design of bridge overhang slabs under concentrated loads. Experimental tests have been used to assess expressions for its calculation. However, the load capacity increases with the width until a transition area is reached. Test specimens may have lacked enough width to reach full shear capacity, affecting thus the evaluation of the results. On the other hand, within the transition area, a threshold value has been hypothesized to match the effective width. This paper aims to provide recommendations for minimal widths that guarantee the full capacity of overhang slabs and to assess the calculation of the effective width by means of the threshold value and other formulations. The effect of the edge beam is also considered. A campaign of validated non-linear FE-simulations based on experiments on range of width-span ratios was performed. The results suggest using a width-span ratio of at least 4.0 for slabs without an edge beam and 5.3 for slabs with an edge beam for the experimental practice. The efficiency of the formulation for the effective widths is diffuse and the use of threshold value leads to unsafe predictions. Instead, linear-elastic FE-analyses are recommended for the design practice.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Review on Fatigue Performance of Concrete Structures Part II, Material Parameters and Environmental Factors<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fatigue is a critical issue for concrete structures subjected to repetitive and varying loads, particularly in infrastructure and transportation systems. This review paper presents a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge on concrete fatigue and identifies areas for further research. Material and size factors that influence fatigue performance and life estimation of concrete such as concrete composition, internal moisture content and reinforcement are explored, along with environmental conditions such as presence of external moisture and seawater exposure. The paper also acknowledges the challenges associated with predicting concrete fatigue life accurately due to the heterogeneous nature of concrete and its complex behavior under cyclic loading.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Effects of ASR-induced Expansion in Reinforced Concrete and Their Consequences for Structural Assessment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper describes the structural effects of ASR expansion in reinforced structures. It proposes models and procedures for calculating the strains in the concrete caused by the reinforcement, the load effects in statically indeterminate structures and the cross-sectional capacities. Three models are described to include variations of the ASR expansion in a section. Model 1 for constant or linearly varying ASR expansion, Model 2 for an expansion variation in different parts of a cross-section and Model 3 for a particular case of different expansion in subsections of the cross-section. The models are exemplified by calculations based on input data from one relevant bridge, the 70 years old Elgeseter bridge in Trondheim, Norway. This is done to illustrate various aspects of the calculation methods and show the structural consequences of the ASR expansion. The results correlate with the bridge’s observed structural behavior and assumed expansion. This paper also illustrates the importance of coordinating inspection, material testing and structural strength analysis to obtain reliable assessment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Mechanisms of Fibre Reinforced Shotcrete: Numerical Simulations Considering Local Variations in Thickness and Bond Strength<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fibre-reinforced shotcrete is the most common support method for hard rock tunnels in the Nordic countries. The design of shotcrete is often based on empirical methods or simplified analytical equations, which neglect variations in mechanical properties and shotcrete thickness. Data collected from the field shows that significant variations in shotcrete thickness and bond strength should be expected during tunnel construction. However, how this affects the structural behaviour and capacity of the shotcrete lining is unknown. Moreover, the design philosophy for shotcrete assumes that the primary failure modes of shotcrete, i.e. bond and flexural failure, can be treated separately. This was derived based on observations of experiments in a laboratory environment. Therefore, the focus of a finalized doctoral project was to develop a numerical framework to simulate the structural behaviour of fibre-reinforced shotcrete in interaction with hard rock and rock bolts. The effect of variations in shotcrete thickness and bond strength was studied through numerical simulations to increase the understanding of its effect on the failure load of the lining. The results indicate that the most important parameter is the mean value of the shotcrete thickness and bond strength around a narrow perimeter of the block.’</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Modelling of Lithium Mitigation for Alkali-Silica Reactivity<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) is a deleterious concrete chemical reaction that has been studied a lot since its discovery in 1940. The reaction produces a highly hygroscopic silica gel that swells into the pores of concrete, resulting in the critical decrease of the mechanical performances of the affected structures. Some methods have been investigated to limit expansion under a certain limit, among them lithium mitigation. However, the mechanisms are not really understood yet and determining the right amount of lithium is still arduous. An attempt for a method in coherence with experience is presented in this study, using the chemo-mechanical model of Larive and curve-fitting. The results provide accuracy to experimental measurements from several protocols, and call for further research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Cement Paste Modified with Carbon Nanomaterials Capable of Self-Repair after a Fire?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This manuscript presents preliminary results on the cement paste potential, with and without carbon nanomaterials, to heal high-temperature cracks. Cement paste beams were subjected to thermal loading of 200°C and 400°C after 28 days of water curing. High temperature caused the formation of microcrack networks on the specimen’s surface. Self-healing was achieved by exposing the cracked samples to cyclic water immersion. The efficiency of the process was evaluated based on the crack closure and mechanical properties recovery after 24 days. The results indicated a distinct dependence of the healing on the loading temperature. Carbon nanotubes had a positive effect on self-repair efficiency.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Crushed Fine Materials<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As natural resources of sand and fine material used in the concrete industry are becoming more scarce, crushed materials are being used to a greater extent. Shape and texture of machine crushed materials differ from aggregates naturally ground, layered and sorted under the course of millions of years. It is assumed that crushed aggregates are more angular and of less smooth texture than natural aggregates, which will affect the flow behaviour of a suspension containing crushed material. In the mix design process of cementitous suspensions, an adequate rheology of the micro mortar (all constituents in the concrete being able to pass a 0.125 mm sieve, including the cement) is crucial. In this paper, the shape of fine particles is linked to the micro mortar plastic viscosity of the filler suspension including cement. The plastic viscosity here serves as an important quality assessment of the filler, since the micro mortar workability features are vital for the final mix design quality of the concrete workability.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of High-Pressure Washing on Chloride Ingress in Concrete – Development of an Accelerated Test Method<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Bridges constitute an important part of the infrastructure. For bridges to have the longest possible service life with minimum repairs, the maintenance is of great importance. One type of bridge maintenance that is rarely researched is the continuous preventive maintenance. The continuous preventive maintenance consists of removal of vegetation, cleaning of bridge joints and drainage systems as well as high-pressure washing of the structure. The effect of washing is discussed but not properly researched. A study on the effectiveness of high-pressure washing on concrete is therefore being conducted. An accelerated test method is being developed to mimic field testing. The method has been developed through tests on small concrete specimens subjected to fluctuating temperature, fluctuating moisture, and repeatable exposure to de-icing salt during several cycles. The specimens are of two recipes where one represents an old concrete bridge with rather high water-cement ratio (0.6) and the other one represents a new concrete bridge with a low water-cement ratio (0.4). The first two versions of the method are described. The second version shows promising results, but the method needs further development to incorporate additional factors.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Set Accelerator on Capillary Suction and Porosity of Concrete – Cast Samples with Constant Water/Binder Ratio<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Alkali-free set accelerators are added at the nozzle to ensure rapid set of wet sprayed concrete. The accelerator affects the strength development, porosity and transport properties, and hence the durability, of the sprayed concrete. We developed a method to cast samples with varying set accelerator doses to measure the effect of the accelerator on porosity, but with a constant effective water/binder ratio of 0.45 for each accelerator dose. Six cylinders of concrete were cast with set accelerator doses of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 % of effective binder mass. High workability was achieved to enable mixing before rapid stiffening occurred, though this high workability led to some aggregate settlement in the cylinders. Porosity was measured by capillary suction on dried specimens of hardened concrete and subsequent pressure saturation of macro pores (PF test). The samples cast with higher doses of set accelerator had higher suction porosities and higher rates of capillary suction. Using a modified Powers equation gave very low calculated degree of hydration values for concrete with set accelerator, indicating that the equation is not applicable for concrete with set accelerators, due to the higher suction porosity in accelerated matrices, caused by different hydration products.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Thermal Crack Risks Caused by Restraint in Young Concrete - A Case Study on Walls of Water Tanks<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Concrete cracks in structures such as water tanks and nuclear power stations cause anxiety to owners, contractors and engineers. These cracks may significantly increase the structure’s permeability and thus increase leakage, reduce durability, and eventually lead to loss of structural functionality. Therefore it is important to minimize their occurrence and size. To identify effective ways of minimizing cracking in young concrete segments, a parametric study was conducted using the finite element method (FEM). Parameters considered include casting sequence, joint position, wall height, and cooling. The study examined continuous and jumped casting approaches to the casting of a cylindrical reinforced concrete tank for a sewage-treatment plant, with and without the application of the ‘kicker’ technique in which the lower part of the wall is cast with the slab. The main cause of cracking is thermal change and restraint imposed by adjacent older structures, and the FEM predictions agree well with experimental observations. Continuous casting is most effective at minimizing cracking because it creates only two contact edges between newly cast and existing structures producing the lowest level of restraint. The kicker technique is shown to be very effective for reducing restraint and consider rephasing.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Concrete Research workshop: “Accelerated freeze-thaw testing of concrete”, Lyngby, 20 April 2022<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A one-day Nordic Concrete Research workshop on “Accelerated freeze-thaw testing of concrete” attracted approx. 30 participants. The workshop included presentations on various aspects, such as observed frost damage in the field and the importance of the temperature curve during testing as well as other interactions with the surroundings of the concrete. The workshop also included examples of recent research, which can improve our knowledge about the frost damage mechanism and therefore provide input to improving the standardised test methods. The present paper is a summary of the nine presentations and the discussion arising from the presentations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and How Should Chloride Profiles be Calibrated for Paste Fraction?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Due to stochastic and systematic variations in the paste fraction, data for total chloride content are occasionally calibrated using parallelly measured calcium content as a measure of the actual paste fraction − assuming non-calcareous aggregates and no calcium leaching. Data from concrete exposed at the marine Fehmarn Belt Exposure Site questions the latter assumption. In the outer zone experiencing calcium leaching (ten mm after ten years), errors will be introduced by calcium calibration. To account for the wall effect, calcium profiles from cores taken before exposure might be used to correct for the systematically higher paste fraction at cast surfaces.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Management of Existing Concrete Bridges Using Digital Twins and BIM: a State-of-the-Art Literature Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The need to optimize investments in bridge maintenance has created a demand for improved bridge management systems (BMS). Outdated practices in bridge inspection and constant advances in information technology have also contributed to this demand. The use of Digital Twins (DT), although well established in other industries, is still incipient for asset management and structural analysis of bridges. There is a great deal of research on Building Information Modelling (BIM) for bridge inspection, but its post-construction potential is still under-explored. This study presents a state-of-the-art review of the literature on asset management for bridges using digital models such as BIM and digital twins. The review was conducting using a systematic approach. Despite the rapid increase in research on DT and the amount of existing research on BIM, several gaps remain to be addressed, such as the lack of consensus about the definition of digital twins, which has led to wrongful categorisation of digital models as DT. The complex data flow and software compatibility required to develop a functional DT have hindered the exploitation of their full potential so far. The integration of BIM post-construction to BMS and existing automation technologies can also significantly improve current practices of bridge management.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue