rss_2.0Nordic Concrete Research FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Nordic Concrete Research Concrete Research 's Cover of an Improved Empirical Model for Rheology Prediction of Cement Pastes Modified with Filler from Manufactured Sand<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There is a need for simple but precise prediction models for proportioning concrete with manufactured sand, for use in ready-mix concrete production. For the last two decades, the particle-matrix model has been used in Norway for proportioning and prediction of concrete flow based on the properties and proportions of two concrete phases: coarse particles and filler modified cement paste (matrix). This paper presents experimental testing of 117 cement pastes of which 107 contain filler, i.e. particles &lt; 125 microns, from manufactured sand. Based on compositions and properties of ingoing materials in these mixes, an empirical equation is developed that predicts the rheological properties plastic viscosity, yield stress, flow resistance ratio and mini slump flow. Optimization by regression analysis provides a practical microproportioning equation that readily can be used as input in concrete proportioning with the particle-matrix model. The equation provides a coefficient of determination <italic>R<sup>2</sup></italic> = 0.98 for plastic viscosity, <italic>R<sup>2</sup></italic> = 0.95 for mini slump flow, <italic>R<sup>2</sup></italic> = 0.91 for flow resistance ratio and <italic>R<sup>2</sup></italic> = 0.80 for yield stress.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls Using Nonlinear Layered Shell Approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study discusses nonlinear modelling of a reinforced concrete wall utilizing the nonlinear layered shell approach. Rebar, unconfined and confined concrete behaviours are defined nonlinearly using proposed analytical models in the literature. Then, finite element model is validated using experimental results. It is shown that the nonlinear layered shell approach is capable of estimating wall response (i.e., stiffness, ultimate strength, and cracking pattern) with adequate accuracy and low computational effort. Modal analysis is conducted to evaluate the inherent characteristics of the wall to choose a logical loading pattern for the nonlinear static analysis. Moreover, pushover analysis’ outputs are interpreted comprehensibly from cracking of the concrete until reaching the rupture step by step.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Resonant Frequency Ultrasonic P-Waves for Evaluating Uniaxial Compressive Strength of the Stabilized Slag–Cement Sediments<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Marine sediments can be stabilized by ultra high-strength binders: cement, Cement Kiln Dust (CKD) and slag. The properties of the stabilized soil indicate potential to their reuse. This study investigated the performance of the unconfined compressive strength (UCS) in the marine sediments stabilized by binder (cement, CKD, slag), tested by ultrasonic P-waves. Materials include 194 specimens collected from the port of Gothenborg. The experiment was performed in Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI). The UCS of specimens stabilized by different ratio of binders (cement, CKD, slag) was tested by resonance frequencies of the elastic P-waves. The significant increase in the UCS (&gt;1500 kPa) was recorded for the highest values of CKD and cement, and low values of slag. The correlation profiles of low water/high binder (L<sub>W</sub>/H<sub>B</sub>) cement/slag (40/60%) were controlled by curing time. The slag–cement–CKD simplex tests demonstrated UCS of samples with low/high water content and various binder ratio of cement (kg/m<sup>3</sup>). The ratio of cement binder and curing time play a critical role in the increase of UCS followed by mechanical properties of specimens and intensity of stress. The highest values exceed 1000 m/s in P-waves. The results shown high accuracy (97%) and non-contacting approach for testing UCS of sediments. Seismic methods can be applied to test the UCS of the stabilized sediments, and also <italic>in-situ</italic> via seismic CPT, surface testing or cross hole seismic testing.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Visible Corrosion Damage in Carbonated Reinforced Concrete<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study discusses visible corrosion damage due to carbonation in concrete balconies and facades. The focus of the study was to find out how the age of the structure, cover depth of concrete, carbonation coefficient, capillarity of concrete and the climate affect visible corrosion damage. The research data consist of condition investigation reports of existing concrete balconies and facades built between 1948 and 1996.</p> <p>Balcony slabs and brushed painted facades were the most prone to visible corrosion damage. None of the researched panels met the required minimum cover depth of reinforcement even at the time of construction. However, most of the visible damage on the database was localized damage and there was not much visible corrosion damage. The carbonation coefficient of balconies was higher than the carbonation coefficient of facades. Brushed painted facade panels had clearly higher carbonation coefficient than other facade panels. The carbonation coefficient was considerably lower on white concrete panels compared to other panel types.</p> <p>When capillarity of concrete raises, the carbonation rate of concrete increases slightly. However, no correlation can be seen. The capillarity of concrete and the carbonation rate of concrete had a major range.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Towards Efficient Use of Cement in Ultra High Performance Concrete<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents an investigation on substituting the cement content with an inert material, in a typical locally produced UHPC mix. A structured literature review was performed to enrichen the discussion and to benchmark the results towards already reported investigations in the research society. Investigations on cement substitution in UHPC are frequently reported. However, usually the cement is substituted with other binding materials – often pozzolanic by-products from other industries. Reports from investigations on the use of inert materials for cement substitution in UHPC seem scarce.</p> <p>An experimental program that included a total of 210 test specimens was executed. This program included evaluating several questions embedded to the problem on how to substitute cement while keeping all other variables constant.</p> <p>It is concluded that up to 40% of the cement can be substituted with an inert material, without significantly changing the flexural tensile strength or compressive strength of the hardened UHPC. Two preconditions were caretaken: the particle packing was maintained by securing that the substitution material had a Particle Size Distribution (PSD) near identical to the cement and that the water balance was maintained through preconditioning of the substitution material. Suggestions are made for improving benchmarking.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Static and Dynamic Four-Point Flexural Tests of Concrete Beams with Variation in Concrete Quality, Reinforcement Properties and Impact Velocity<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper discusses the results from three experimental test series previously conducted. The tests consist of quasi-static monotonic and dynamic four-point flexural tests on reinforced concrete beams. The effect of varying material and load parameters on the plastic strain distribution and energy absorbed by the reinforcement is discussed. The main findings are the significant effect of the post-elastic region of the steel reinforcement and the impact velocity during dynamic loading. The results will be used to validate and construct numerical models in future work, where the findings presented can be investigated further.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of Rapid Repair of Concrete Pavements Using Precast Concrete Technology: A Sustainable and Cost-Effective Solution<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Concrete and asphalt are the two competitive materials for a highway. In Sweden, the predominant material for the highway system is asphalt. But under certain conditions, concrete pavements are competitive alternatives. For example, concrete pavements are suitable for high-traffic volume roads, roads in tunnels, concentrated loads (e.g., bus stops and industrial pavement). Besides the load-carrying capacity, the concrete pavement has many advantages such as durability (wear resistance), resistance against frost heave, environment (pollution, recycling, and low rolling resistance leading to fuel savings), fire resistance, noise limitations, brightness, evenness and aesthetics.</p> <p>Concrete pavements are long-lasting but need final repair. Single slabs may crack in the jointed concrete pavement due to various structural and non-structural factors. Repair and maintenance operations are, therefore, necessary to increase the service life of the structures. To avoid extended lane closures, prevent traffic congestions, and expedite the pavement construction process, precast concrete technology is a recent innovative construction method that can meet the requirement of rapid construction and rehabilitation of the pavement. This paper evaluates rapid repair techniques of concrete pavement using precast concrete technology by analysing three case studies on jointed precast concrete pavements. The study showed that the required amount of time to re-open the pavement to traffic is dramatically reduced with jointed precast concrete panels.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Numerical Modelling of Heat Transport in Freezing Mortars with an External Liquid Reservoir<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Several studies indicate that the temperature distribution in concrete may affect the extent of frost scaling. This study presents a numerical model that describes the thermal response of freezing mortars in the presence of an external liquid reservoir, where the external liquid is either pure water or 3% sodium chloride solution. The phase transformation of supercooled external liquid is modelled in two stages: quick freezing, when the supercooled liquid starts to form crystals and slow freezing. The model is developed in two parts. In part I, the focus is the modelling of external liquid, and therefore a non-porous body with an external liquid reservoir is modelled and validated. In part II, the model developed in part I is developed further for a porous body containing different phases, i.e., unfrozen liquid and ice, in the pores. A comparison of simulated and experimentally measured temperature distributions shows a good agreement.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00From Waste to Resource – Utilising Residue from Ready-Made Concrete as New Aggregate<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>A new admixture is available, to reduce the sludge produced from the cleansing of production and transportation equipment in the fresh concrete industry. The result is agglomerations of hardening concrete, that might be utilised for aggregate. Utilisation depends on adequate properties. This paper reports from investigations on the physical and mechanical properties of the aggregate and discussions on the performance relative to natural and recycled aggregates and towards requirements for utilisation. The findings indicate substantial potential for utilisation, supporting the reduction of waste for deposit and development of the concrete industry towards a circular economy.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Service Life of Concrete Pedestal without Air Entrainment<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Service life of nine wind power unit pedestals, which concrete grades between C45 and C55, were studied with four different service life models. The exact service life could be calculated only with two of them with the initial data.</p><p>The service life models that were used in calculations: <list list-type="bullet"><list-item><p>• Factor method</p></list-item><list-item><p>• Deterioration and service life prediction of concrete subjected to freeze-thaw cycles in Na2SO4 Solution-method</p></list-item></list></p><p>Service life models that were considered only at theoretical level: <list list-type="bullet"><list-item><p>• FIB Bulletin 34 – Model Code for Service Life Design, and</p></list-item><list-item><p>• An equation for determining freeze-thaw fatigue damage in concrete and a model for predicting the service life.</p></list-item></list></p><p>The latter two methods are more theoretical, and they require laboratory tests to obtain more information before the calculations can be properly executed.</p><p>This article concludes that damage to concrete due to freeze-thaw cracking is still poorly known and a sufficiently accurate service life model has not yet been developed for its computational modeling. Therefore, there is a need to develop a service life model suitable for Finnish climate and concrete grades, which could be used for estimating the damage rate of an existing concrete structure.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Determination of the Stress Increase of the Unbonded Tendon in a Continuous Concrete Beam at Ultimate Capacity Using Nonlinear Analysis<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Predicting the stress increase of an unbonded tendon in a post-tensioned continuous concrete beam at ultimate capacity is more difficult than when bonded tendons are used. The failure mechanisms of the continuous beam are also different to that of the simple-span beam. The loading type, ductility of the support area and moment redistribution influence the behaviour of the continuous structures. In this research, the simplified nonlinear analysis was used for predicting the unbonded tendon stress increase at ultimate capacity in continuous two-span beams. The model is based on the moment-curvature relationships of the reinforced concrete cross-sections under different compressive forces and deformations of the continuous beam under loading. The results have been compared with the experimental results of recent studies found in the literature. In addition, 92 unbonded post-tensioned two-span beams with different reinforcements have been examined by using the model and compared to the results obtained from empirical equations from the literature. The results from the nonlinear analysis correspond well to the results from the other models up to the reinforcement ratio of 0.35. The calculated values of the maximum moment capacity at the centre support were close to the results from the test beams.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Locally Produced UHPC: The Influence of Type and Content of Steel Fibres<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Ultra-high performance concrete might be a competitive alternative to normal concrete for some purposes. But despite research efforts during decades, utilisation is still not widespread. Reasons include limited competence and material availability. This paper presents one step of a research initiative aimed at facilitating the use of UHPC in Norway. The step presented here comprises the accumulated results from investigations on the influence steel fibres (content, type, and hybrid combination) have on material strength and deformation behaviour of locally produced UHPC, made with constituents found in southern Norway. 231 specimens were tested, spanning nine UHPC mixes. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) was successfully used to study crack propagation. Compressive strength of 166 MPa and E-modulus of 46 GPa were obtained, not being influenced by fibre content. The flexural tensile strength was found to be strongly dependent on variations in steel fibre properties and mix design. The highest flexural tensile strength was obtained for prisms with micro straight steel fibres alone, or in 50% combination with macro hooked-end fibres. The experimental results are considered in a theory-informed discussion. Suggestions are made on the use of steel fibres in locally produced UHPC, potentially lowering the cost by 30%.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Shape and Size of Particles Scaled from Concrete Surfaces during Salt Frost Testing and Rapid Freeze/thaw in Water<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Thickness (<italic>T</italic>), Length (<italic>L</italic>), Width (<italic>W</italic>) and size distribution of scaled concrete particles in frost testing were measured. <italic>T</italic> (mm) increases with particle size surprisingly similarly for different concrete qualities and frost test methods. 2<italic>T</italic>/(<italic>L</italic>+<italic>W</italic>) reduces as function of size and is lowest for the largest particles of the salt scaling test: 0.1 – 0.15 but increases if large aggregate particles scale. Particle size distributions from salt frost testing peak for particles of 1-2 mm. The particles are flakier compared to particles from freeze/thaw in water which also have flatter size distribution no matter type of concrete or degree of damage. Scaling in water is not so efficiently reduced by air voids despite protecting very efficiently against internal damage and scaling in salt frost testing. Comparisons with <italic>T</italic> predicted by the glue spall model (≈3/4 × ice thickness) and the air void dependent (≈3× critical air void spacing) model proposed by Fagerlund are difficult due to the size dependent flake thickness. Image analysis could well describe shape. Further studies of concrete flake thickness scaled at varying thickness of ice layers are proposed.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Applicability of Existing Crack Controlling Criteria for Structures with Large Concrete Cover Thickness<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Widely used crack width calculation models and allowable crack width limits have changed from time to time and differ from region to region. It can be identified that some crack width calculation models consist with limitations for parameters like cover thickness. The current Norwegian requirement for cover thickness is larger than these limitations. The applicability of existing crack width calculation models and the allowable crack width limits must be verified for structures with large cover thickness. The background of crack width calculation models in Eurocode, Model Code 2010, Japanese code, American code and British code have been examined. By comparing the experimental crack widths with the predictions of the aforementioned models, the existing codes can be identified as requiring modification. Considering the durability aspect, it can be identified a long-term study proving that the allowable crack width can be increased with the increase in cover thickness. When considering the aesthetic aspect, the authors suggest categorizing the structures based on their prestige level and deciding the allowable crack widths accordingly. The paper proposes potential solutions for future research on how to improve both crack width calculation methods and allowable crack width limits to be used effectively in structures with large cover thickness.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Decreasing Carbon Footprint of Block of Flats – Concrete Technology Possibilities<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Construction business along with other businesses have set carbon neutrality goals in the following years. To reach these goals a lot needs to be done fairly quickly. The high impact of concrete production on carbon emissions has been known for years and solutions for this problem are studied in this paper through supplementary cementing materials.</p><p>Ordinary Portland cement can be replaced partly but not completely with cement replacing materials since the strength properties are lost at replacement level higher than 80%. These replacing binders can be pulverized fly ash, blast furnace slag or silica fume.</p><p>The use of the new low-carbon products can half the embodied carbon for the bearing frame of the building. The total area of a certain structure type is important since replacing its cement can have much higher impact on the total carbon footprint than replacing it for a single structure type that has fairly small area in the building.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-17T00:00:00.000+00:00A Comprehensive Summary of Available Legislation and Practices in Demolition and Construction & Demolition Waste Management in the Arctic Region<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The need for better natural resource use is currently increasingly recognised, and high emphasis is given to the circularity of building materials and the reduction of activities with negative environmental impact. Legislation, guidelines, and other documentation play an important role in improving demolition activities and construction and demolition waste (CDW) management. Good practices in CDW handling is not achievable without knowledge about CDW recovery techniques described in guidelines and other documents.</p><p>Demolition activities in arctic regions could be more challenging due to harsh climate conditions, and therefore the cooperation between Russia, Norway and Finland was established to boost the uptake of good practices in demolition activities and CDW management. The main subject of this article is an overview of presently used demolition practices, CDW management, and verification of areas where practices with lower environmental impact and increase of material circularity could be utilised. Two fundamental documents, namely “EU Construction &amp; Demolition Waste Management Protocol” and “Guidelines for the waste audits before demolition and renovation works of buildings” [1, 2], were published by the European Union (EU) in 2019 and serve as a foundation for changes in demolition activities and CDW management in EU and adventitiously also in the Russian Federation and Norway.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of Slag Addition and Mechanical Pre-Processing on the Properties of Recycled Concrete in Terms of Compressive Strength and Workability<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Concrete waste as crushed concrete aggregates (CCA) in structural concrete prolongs the technical life of the reference concrete accomplishing closed loop recycling. CCA concrete reaches the reference concrete compressive strength and workability by the densification of CCA and cement paste. Our previous study demonstrates CCA densification by mechanical pre-processing, aggregate quality improvements discerned by increased packing density giving reference concrete strength and workability. This study addresses paste densification with blast furnace slag (GGBS) to replace 30 (wt.%) of Portland cement at reference concrete w/b ratio 0.5 and a lower w/b 0.42. Two CCA replacements are investigated: fine aggregates, CCA50; overall aggregate replacement, CCA100.</p><p>Compressive strength results show that both CCA50, CCA100 mixes achieve reference values at w/b 0.42, only CCA100 achieves reference value at w/b 0.5 as a climate-optimized concrete. The CCA50 mix-w/b 0.5 reaches reference strength when paste densification by GGBS is combined with CCA densification from mechanical pre-processing of aggregates. The 7-day strength of CCA100 with GGBS increases by 11% by mixing with pre-soaked GGBS. Statistical analysis of CCA100 strength results shows significant improvements with GGBS compared to mechanical pre-processing. Significant improvements are possible in CCA50 mix for a combination of mechanical pre-processed aggregates and GGBS replacement.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Salt-Frost Scaling of Concrete with Slag and Fly Ash - Influence of Carbonation and Prolonged Conditioning on Test Results<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>According to Swedish experience the slab method in CEN/TS 12390-9 is successful in predicting the salt-frost resistance of Portland cement concrete. However, doubts have been raised whether the same can be said when used on concrete with supplementary cementitious material, e.g. fly ash or ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS). Test results from concrete mixes with up to 35 % fly ash 65 % GGBS, with two different Portland cements and a water-to-binder ratio of 0.45 are presented in this paper. The tests were carried out with the standard method and with five modifications concerning the pre-conditioning of the specimens before freeze-thaw cycling. The age of the specimens at sawing was increased, the time in 65 % RH was prolonged and exposure to 1 % CO<sub>2</sub>-environment was used. The results show that for air-entrained concrete with fly ash or GGBS both prolonging the exposure to 65 % RH and exposure to CO<sub>2</sub> diminishes the salt-frost resistance. The influence increases with increasing amount of fly ash or GGBS. However, the type of cement also has a certain influence. The influence of exposure to CO<sub>2</sub> on the salt-frost resistance of concrete without entrained air was totally different from the influence on concrete with entrained air.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Preface Bauxite Residue as Novel SCM<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Bauxite residue is a major waste stream available in large volumes globally that can cause risks to the surrounding environment (e.g. ecotoxicity) when disposed and stored by conventional methods. There is yet no large-scale application and the utilization as supplementary cementitious material might be the best way to re-use bauxite residue. The main obstacle for the utilization of bauxite residue in the construction industry is the high alkalinity. This paper presents first results of a study on alkali reduction of bauxite residue by acetic acid treatment and the potential application of this alkali reduced bauxite residue as pozzolan in cementitious binders. A process of alkali reduction is presented that can help solving waste management problems of alumina refineries by transforming bauxite residue to a less hazardous waste, while producing a reactive pozzolan and Na-acetate that can find application in the construction and infrastructure market. 90% alkalinity reduction of bauxite residue could be achieved by simply washing with diluted acetic acid. Alkali-reduced bauxite residue showed good pozzolanic reactivity regarding portlandite consumption, bound water and 28-day compressive strength of mortars with 20% replacement of OPC.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1