rss_2.0NISPAcee Journal of Public Administration and Policy FeedSciendo RSS Feed for NISPAcee Journal of Public Administration and Policy Journal of Public Administration and Policy 's Cover Streams Framework as Scientific Research Program and Tool for the Analysis of Public Policy Issues<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Multiple Streams Framework (MSF) is currently one of the most widely used frameworks in policy process research. It explains how policy agenda develops in the policy process with emphasis on policy adoption. This article examines MSF from the perspective of the history of science and Lakatos’ methodology of scientific research programs. In this respect, we consider MSF a “semi-strong theory” that uses a form of subsumption under theory for scientific explanation. This differs from a “strong” explanatory theory (e.g., physics), which uses explanations in the form of subsumption under scientific law. From the point of view of Lakatos’ methodology, MSF represents a scientific research program.</p> <p>The basic element is a hard core given mainly by the MSF hypothesis for the framework as a whole and MSF assumptions and key structural elements. Around the hard core there is a protective belt of auxiliary hypotheses. They correspond to hypotheses related to the framework’s key elements and to the hypothesis for the framework as a whole. MSF has negative heuristics (prohibition of the use of the modus tollens rule) and positive heuristics, which are represented by a set of theoretically and empirically progressive theories that further develop the MSF research program. An analysis of studies on MSF reveals that single hypotheses are only exceptionally tested using “hard” data and quantitative methods. Qualitative analysis (case studies) predominates, which contributes to the development of MSF theory. Therefore, we can consider a progressive shift in theory.</p> <p>In this respect, MSF can be considered a successful research program. However, in terms of the methodology of scientific research programs, MSF has a number of other opportunities to develop hypothesis testing further and use various modelling methods with data sets. Thus, MSF represents an interesting scientific research program, which needs to be further developed and specified in the spirit of the methodology of scientific research programs, It is a challenge for interdisciplinary research in the field of social sciences.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Citizens’ Attitudes to Nudges in the Maintenance of Public Spaces and Waste Management<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Behavioural interventions, or nudges, can be seen in public policy as a tool to help local governments in a variety of areas. The main advantages of nudges include the low costs associated with their implementation and, on the other hand, the relatively high effect if the factors acting on individuals are correctly identified (e.g., the salience factor associated with the individual’s bias, social norms, or how the individual’s surroundings react). Before implementing a behavioural intervention, it is necessary to know, the motives or causes of the behaviour of the inhabitants in the city.</p> <p>The paper is specifically devoted to the nudges that can be implemented in the maintenance of public spaces and waste management. The aim of the paper is to find out the attitudes of citizens towards the problems in maintenance of public spaces and waste management caused by human behaviour as well as possible solutions in the form of selected types of nudges.</p> <p>The paper identified several reasons that can contribute to an increase the level of citizen participation in waste separation and improve the quality of maintenance of public spaces, such as where the nudging is implemented (factor of affect), attractiveness of the nudge (factor of silence) and the commitment of individuals. The selected behavioural interventions show that there is a willingness on the part of the citizens in a local municipality to accept nudges and the citizens tendency to change behaviour in the desired way.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Editorial: COVID-19 Pandemics and Politics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This short editorial proposes a specific topic for comprehensive research in COVID-19 in the CEE area, namely the role of politicians and politics during the pandemic. The text includes three short country case studies (Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia), describing different aspects of the politics/political fighting relationship and the COVID-19 pandemic. The experts’ arguments suggest that the “motto of the day” should be working together and not fighting each other. However, nothing (“almost nothing”) like this is visible in our region – or at lease in our three case studies, the only positive aspect from this point of view is the joint call of all parliamentary group leaders for vaccination in Slovenia. By its content, the editorial calls for comprehensive research on the aims of the current antagonistic situation and possible actions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Usability of Municipal Performance-based Budgets within Strategic Planning in Slovakia: Perception of Elected Local Representatives<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article aims to present the concept of performance-based budgeting at the local government level with a focus on its importance for strategic management at the local government level. The original intention of introducing programme budgeting, which is clearly linked to performance management and results, was to improve strategic-oriented public management, in particular by focusing on objectives and using performance information as well as performance measures. Much more attention has recently been paid to the importance and use of performance information and performance measures. Based on case studies, the authors analyse the significance of the performance information provided in the newly established performance budgets of municipalities, while the findings were supplemented by a perception of the current situation in the form of semi-structured interviews with elected representatives of selected local governments. The results of the article seek to highlight the advantages of implementing this concept, the appropriate ways and obstacles often encountered, and important recommendations for improving its use, summarised on the basis of more than a decade of experience since the introduction of this budgetary innovation on the basis of legislation as mandatory budgetary policy instruments in Slovakia for all self-governing regions and local governments in municipalities with more than 2,000 inhabitants. This leads to the conclusion of whether PBB, among other approaches, is an option or a real necessity for today’s economic challenges, but at the same time to the actual need for changes in the methodology of this strategic management tool at the local government level.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of Qualification and Working Conditions on Civil Servant Pay Levels in Russia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article is devoted to the assessment of qualification and working conditions which influence civil servant pay levels. The paper analyses two groups of measures: qualification and professionalism measures (e.g., level of education, work experience, etc.) and working conditions measures (e.g., work location, working hours, etc.). The empirical base of the research is the survey conducted by the Russian Public Opinion Research Center (VTsIOM) in 2017. The results of the regression analysis show that there are distinctions in measures determining civil servants’ pay differentiation in comparison with the average pay in the economy and with the civil servants’ expected pay. Civil servant pay levels should be more explained by qualification and professionalism than it is now. The research results would be useful for the optimisation of the civil servant pay system in Russia.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Implementation of Sustainable Public Procurement in the Rail Transport in the Czech Republic and a Comparison with the Other Members of the Visegrad Group<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper focuses on sustainable public procurement (SPP) and its role in public procurement of the members of the Visegrad Group (Hungarian, Poland, Slovakia, Czech Republic). Sustainable public procurement is a current trend in public purchasing around the world. The European Union’s sustainable development policy, which respects the objectives of the 2030 Agenda, seeks to influence the public procurement policies of the members of the European Union. Every country, including the Visegard Group countries is trying to implement sustainable development criteria in its procurement process and to change legislation.</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to compare the implementation of public procurement in the Czech Republic with other members of the Visegrad Group (Poland, Slovakia, Hungary) and analyse how the public procurement (tenders) respects the criteria of sustainable public procurement in the case of the selected public procurements (tenders) in rail transport. We analyse the public procurement process and investigate the possibility/appropriateness of using social responsibility criteria in the individual phases of the procurement process (award criteria).</p> <p>The results show that there are different methods of implementing SPP in the V4 countries. There are significant differences between the regions. Based on the results of our research and analysis of the selected tenders, we concluded that the principle of social responsibility needs to be reflected in all steps, i.e. in the formulation of the subject of the public contract, the preparation of the contractual terms and the selection of evaluation criteria in their qualitative form.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-14T00:00:00.000+00:00The Impact of Trust in Government – Young Voters’ Behavioral Intention to Use I-voting in Slovenia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In order to create public value and meet the demands of the modern information society, governments and public administrations strongly rely on information technology and e-government, but its acceptance is significantly influenced by the level of citizens’ trust in government. This study explores the issue of citizens’ trust in government in relation to i-voting in Slovenia, a country with existing interest in i-voting but a low level of trust in government, especially among the young population. The authors analyze how such distrust impacts behavior intention towards i-voting, decomposing trust into a political component and an administrative component, and into local and state levels. Based on a modified version of the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology, the results of 194 respondents show that young student voters’ trust in politicians and electoral committees does not affect their intention to use i-voting. However, they trust the local level of government more than the state level, and electoral committees more than politicians.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Municipal Solid Waste Management in the Czech Republic and in Slovakia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Contracting waste management services is one of the most commonly used approaches to the delivery of this service and this topic is clearly in the focus of frequent academic research.</p> <p>The goal of this article is to examine trends in the area of solid waste collection and disposal on the municipal level for the Czech Republic and Slovakia in terms of developments over the past 20 years with a focus on the share of inter-municipal cooperation in the delivery of this service. In contrast to Western European countries, which are undergoing re-municipalization, the data obtained for Slovakia and the Czech Republic over 20 years show that the municipal solid waste management service is dominated by contracting, which has increased over the examined period. This fact is apparently a reflection of the high rate of fragmentation in municipal structures and the low willingness among municipalities to cooperate. The data obtained also indicate that using external suppliers seems to bring marginal savings that could certainly be substantially larger; potential increases in efficiency via contracting are unequivocally limited by the low quality of contract management. Regarding our core question, we found that the proportion of inter-municipal cooperation between service delivery modes did not significantly increase during the investigated period. The experts interviewed almost uniformly agreed on three critical limits related to the issue of inter-municipal cooperation in MSW management delivery – transaction costs of different types, non-existent regular comparisons of best solutions, and limited motivation to select optimal service delivery modes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-14T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effect of Academic Discipline on Policy Attitudes: The Case of Czech University Students<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>While the effect of academic discipline on political attitudes has long been acknowledged, much less is known on how disciplinary background affects policy attitudes. Linder and Peters (1992) argued that attitudes to policy instruments correspond with discipline: lawyers are assumed to tend to be partial to legalistic regulatory instruments, economists to favor economic tools such as loans or taxation. Nevertheless, relevant empirical evidence is almost non-existent. The paper attempts to bridge this gap by comparing policy instruments attitudes in different academic disciplines on a sample of Czech university students (N = 8820). We inquire whether students in different academic fields (with special emphasis on economics, law, education, political science, and mass media/journalism) differ in their political and policy views. In line with previous research, students pursuing economics and law (as well as education) are found to be more right-wing oriented than students of political science and mass media. Students also differ in terms of their overall acceptance of policy instruments, with those of political science being the most accepting of all types of instruments. However, we find little support for the correspondence thesis proposed by Linder and Peters.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Effectiveness of Administrative Appeal in Slovenia and Croatia – Between National Traditions and EU Standards<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The administrative appeal is a multifunctional legal remedy whose purpose is to protect the rights of the parties vis-à-vis the authorities and provide – through a generalisation of cases – a regulatory feedback loop leading to better sector-specific regulations. The administrative appeal is thus a constitutional guarantee of democratic governance, as well as mechanism of good administration and effective public policies, as long as it is implemented in line with the purpose of regulation. To examine the theoretical and regulatory objectives of the administrative appeal in Slovenia and Croatia and test its compliance with EU trends, a comparative analysis of the key provisions of the systemic laws on the general administrative procedure (APAs) was carried out. In such context, specific effectiveness criteria were developed, focusing on the admissibility, devolution and suspensiveness of the administrative appeal, as well as on the duration of the administrative appeal procedure. The achievement of the regulatory objectives of the APAs in both countries was further examined through interviews with experts in administrative procedural law and, for Slovenia, through an analysis of administrative case law. The finding suggest that the most challenging issues are the (non-)suspensiveness of the appeal and the duration of procedure. Hence, the administrative appeal may well be a fairly suitable safeguard of the constitutional rights of the parties in individual cases, but on a systemic level, its potential for good administration is not fully exploited. This instrument should therefore be further developed, e.g., through a mutatis mutandis application of the APA in all administrative acts and an even more consistent application in the most disputable administrative procedures, particularly in terms of the suspension of enforcement pending administrative finality and the still reasonably long procedures.</p> <p><bold>The key points for practitioners are:</bold> • The administrative appeal has various functions, such as protecting international and constitutional safeguards of the parties to the procedure and ensuring a coherent administrative-legal system; • In the EU, procedural issues in individual Member States can largely be regulated autonomously; however, there are certain characteristics necessary to define the appeal as an effective tool; • Slovenia and Croatia regulate the administrative procedure in a rather similar way, yet there are some crucial differences in effectiveness of the administrative appeal both in law and, particularly, in practice; • Experts, especially from the CEE region, can learn about the gap between theory and practice in the selected countries, which enables them to compare other similar national systems in line with the EU standards.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Unanticipated Consequences of Reforms in School Governance<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article argues that policy development and evaluations should not only incorporate whether and to what extent the policies achieve the intended goals, but should also take the unintended consequences of the policies into account. Based on the classic work of the sociologist Robert Merton, this article addresses the side-effects of attempts that have been made by the Lithuanian national government to improve on the governance of basic and high-schools. The intended goals of the policies concerned the increase of autonomy of school governance through the decentralization of responsibilities; increasing autonomy of and control over school governance; increasing market-driven governance, inducing competition and collaboration between schools, and altering the relation between service providers and recipients.</p> <p>An in-depth analysis shows that there were serious side-effects. Due to the limited knowledge and capabilities at the local level the policies resulted in sub-optimal decision-making at the school level. As the transfer went hand in hand with national laws and strict regulations, stipulating the financing and content of education, setting standards and uniform requirements this reduced the ability of schools to make autonomous decisions and rather turned them into bodies implementing national standards. A decrease in cost-efficiency is visible as every school has to make its own plans; administrative burdens increase, and insufficient funding results in a transfer of shortages instead of transferring the responsibility to find solutions for those shortages, and instead of becoming more collegiate, the relation between schools becomes competitive resulting in distrust with all the expected negative consequences.</p> <p>The plans to increase the autonomy of school governance could have developed rather differently if these unintended consequences had been taken into account beforehand. If such side-effects would be anticipated, that could have resulted in more realism, less one-sided and unfounded optimism and in the end, less frustration and demotivation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Opportunities and Barriers of Using Blockchain in Public Administration: The Case of Real Estate Registration in Kazakhstan<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Blockchain technology has a great potential for improving public administration – its transparency and efficiency. It is also discussed as an instrument for reducing corruption and transaction costs. This paper discusses the potential use of block-chain technology in public administration. It is based on a case-study approach focusing on real estate registration in Kazakhstan. Particular attention is paid to identifying factors hindering the development of the blockchain technology. The paper indicates that the main barriers to further use of blockchain technology in Kazakhstan are insufficient legislation and also the complexity of the technical implementation of blockchain projects and integration with existing systems.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Rapid Public-Private Partnership Deployment in Kazakhstan: Enablers and Implications<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Public-private partnerships (PPPs) are a relatively new phenomenon in Kazakh-stan – their development began in 2005 in the transport and energy sectors. Initially sluggish growth transformed into rapid PPP deployment from 2016 to 2019 when hundreds of PPPs were launched in many industries (infrastructure, hospitals, schools), which was in sharp contrast to just a handful of PPPs formed prior to 2016. Rapid PPP deployment raised deep concerns whether the government’s supporting schemes and PPP launch procedures are appropriate and whether they may backfire for the government in the form of increasing debt. This paper aims to investigate the enablers and implications of accelerated PPP formation. The study is based on semi-structured in-depth interviews with a range of actors in the field, including PPP operators (railroad, energy company, kindergarten), regional and local governments, national and regional PPP centres, lawyers and private investors, which afforded an opportunity to mitigate bias in opinions. The study has identified three principal enablers: simplified procedures for a PPP launch, pressure exerted on regional governments, and extensive government financial support to PPPs. By making use of agency theory, property rights theory and the value-for-money concept, the paper offers a conceptualisation of rapid PPP growth in Kazakhstan in recent years and argues that growth was disproportionally fast and unintended. Policy implications include a need to re-establish the value-for-money approach to PPP formation, a significant increase in government liabilities to PPPs, and a misconception regarding the role of PPP collaborative governance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-02T00:00:00.000+00:00E-Government in European Countries, a Comparative Approach Using the Principal Components Analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The digitalization of public administration is a necessary condition for the economic and social development of each country. In this context, e-government is developing and diversifying its forms of implementation, contributing significantly to the efficiency of public administration, to increasing the degree of transparency and to reducing corruption in public institutions. The aim of the research was to know how the states of the European Union evolved from the point of view of e-government and what influence it had on the economic development of the analyzed states and on the European citizens during the analyzed period. For this we selected ten research variables from several databases: Eurostat, the World Bank and the United Nations E-Government Development Database (UNeGovDD) of the United Nations. The period for which we did the analysis is 2010 – 2019. Using EViews 12 we applied panel Principal Component Analysis to reduce the 10-variable panel into a lower dimension of 3 principal components to find the underlying simplified structure. The three principal components retained explain about 76.5 % of the initial information. The research results show significant differences between the states analyzed, in terms of e-government, but also in terms of the impact it has on government effectiveness, controlling corruption, e-participation of European citizens and the economic development of Member States. In countries with a high level of e-government implementation, governance is efficient, corruption is low, citizen involvement is higher and economic development is faster.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Mismatch of Policy Theory and Policy Practice in Eastern Europe: Cross-Sectoral Comparison of Croatian Policymaking<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the paper is to improve empirical policy theory by examining Eastern European policymaking, using Croatia as a case for analysis. Data sources are published studies that describe 11 sectors from diverse policy areas. The whole material was coded by the rules of qualitative content analysis. The results show 15 basic features of Croatian policymaking combined into six policymaking types: administrative, analytical, economic, external, incremental, and political. All detected policymaking types were successfully connected to several policy concepts, theories, frameworks, and approaches. The analysis revealed three points of theory-practice mismatch that are fruitful for theoretical improvements: the need for mainstreaming Europeanization and policy transfer into policy theory; the need to modify rationalistic approaches for more empirical studies on obstacles and barriers to rationality in policymaking; and the need for adapting actor-centered approaches for a more broad application and empirical research of policymaking in Eastern Europe.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Measuring Whistleblowing Perceptions among the Civil Service of the Republic of Kosovo<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In 2018, the Parliament of the Republic of Kosovo approved the Law on the Protection of Whistleblowers, setting up the foundations of the whistleblower protection system for the public and private sectors in the country. In line with the international principles for drafting legislation for the protection of whistleblowers, the law provides three channels for reporting wrongdoing and grants protection against any form of retaliation for whistleblowers.</p> <p>Noting the absence of institutional data on whistleblowing in the public sector, for this research article, a survey was implemented with individual members of civil service in Kosovo (n=400), during the period from September to November 2019, to collect primary data related to factors incentivizing and / or discouraging the decision to whistleblow. Data were collected at the national and local levels of state administration, as per the scope of the definition of the civil service by Kosovo legislation.</p> <p>In this contribution, research results reveal that the protection against any form of retaliation guaranteed by the law is not sufficient for members of civil service in Kosovo to support the decision to whistleblow, as concerns arise for the security and physical integrity of their respective family members. Law does not provide financial incentives for civil servants to whistleblow. Data reveal that a satisfactory level of trust is missing on organizational indicators such as trust in the responsible officer, protection of data confidentiality and anonymity, across different levels of categories of civil service.</p> <p>In line with the concerns voiced by members of civil service and international standards for whistleblower protection, the following actionable recommendations are proposed to advance the whistleblowing system in Kosovo: 1) Improve the provision of training for members of civil service on whistleblowing legislation, organizational procedures, whistleblower protection, and rights; 2) Establish strategies to support employees for whistleblowing. Such strategies would include programs enabling whistleblowers access to professional services such as stress management, counseling, and legal services; 3) Enhance security measures for the physical integrity of whistleblowers and their respective family members; 4) Establish incentives to encourage whistleblowing, such as financial rewards.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Study on Citizen Participation in Local Governance in Vietnam<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Reform to establish a democratic, citizen-centered government is an important orientation in the world and in Vietnam today. For Vietnam, how to promote and strengthen democratic governance must be one of the most crucial issues in order to achieve sustainable development goals. Based on the theoretical framework and survey results, this study evaluates citizen participation in local governance in Vietnam on seven main dimensions, including: (i) Transparency aims to ensure citizens’ right to know; (ii) Participation in elections; (iii) Outlining of policy initiatives; (iv) Policy discussion, social criticism and referendums; (v) Voluntary contributions and cooperation with the government in public-service delivery; (vi) Social self-governance; (vii) Supervision of the social realm. Research shows that the dominance of local government is very evident in the process of citizen participation. The policy implications for countries in transition like Vietnam are that, in order to increase citizen participation in local governance, the openness of local government should be enhanced. Of course, doing this well needs a certain social basis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Inter-Regional Cooperation in Waste Management: New Trends in Moscow and the Moscow Region<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Globalization metrics rank Moscow as an <italic>alpha global city</italic> and the second most populous city in Europe. The city’s rate of urbanization and population growth has increased over the past decade triggering outward urban sprawl and the attendant need for spatial development within the city’s suburb – the <italic>Moscow Region</italic> municipality. This study focuses on internal factors and trends facilitating the need for inter-municipal waste management cooperation between the Moscow metropolis and the Moscow Region municipality. The paper reviews the policies driving this partnership and the inter-sectoral network facilitating waste management. Partnership effectiveness is evaluated via a multi-indicator approach, alongside qualitative thematic analysis comprising public surveys and the review of legal, administrative and operational documents. The findings reveal that cooperation between the municipalities is primarily driven by the convergence of socio-cultural factors, common territorial boundaries, the provision of public utilities and urban spatial constraints.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Leadership Discourses on Bureaucracy: Continuity over a Century<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Politicians in all types of regimes require bureaucracy to extend their rule over society. To prevent administrators from becoming too powerful and publicly signal independence, they seemingly arbitrarily criticize public officials. But when and how do political leaders blame bureaucracy – and when do they praise it ? This study uses Russia as a case to illustrate the complex and ambiguous politics-administration relationship in non-Western regimes. We argue that public statements about bureaucracy accommodate two different legitimation strategies. We provide a content analysis of 311 public statements, from 1917 – 2017, on the role of administration in the country’s development. We find that attention to administrative affairs coincides with major political changes and periods of political instability in the history of Soviet and post-Soviet Russia. Over a century, the rhetoric of Russian leaders oscillated between blaming and praising bureaucracy to secure stability and overcome obstacles in implementing governing strategies. The strategic interplay between assertive rhetoric and praising bureaucracy is part of an effective political leadership survival strategy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Health Technology Assessment of the Medical Devices: A Case Study from the Czech Republic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Health technology assessment (HTA) has become the systematic evaluation of health technology’s properties and effects that inform decision-makers. The implementation and expansion of HTA can contribute to slowing down burgeoning healthcare costs. In the Czech Republic, elements of HTA are quite standardly used in pharmacoeconomics, but questions arise on the use of HTA of medical devices. The theoretical framework developed is followed by a case study of the Czech Republic to assess whether the use of HTA of medical devices in the Czech Republic is implemented. This study uses publicly available resources, mainly public health acts and public notices related to HTA. We examined the institutionalisation of HTA for medical devices (HTA applied only at a selected area of medical devices) in the Czech Republic and compared Czech’s HTA principles of medical devices to the HTA Core Model. It was found that the HTA process used for medical devices is very limited in the Czech Republic. Our data show that HTA was officially established, but in reality, the medical devices have not been assessed following HTA principles.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-02T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1