rss_2.0New Trends in Production Engineering FeedSciendo RSS Feed for New Trends in Production Engineering Trends in Production Engineering Feed Economy – Challenges for Mining and Power Generation as Exemplified by Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The publication analyses and evaluates the impact of the implementation of circular economy on the economy and especially on its mining and power generation sector in Poland. Circular economy is a relatively new concept concerning an innovative economic development model. The publication briefly describes the concept of circular economy. Among other things, the basic economic processes that make up circular economy are discussed. In addition, history is presented as well as examples of legislation that have had the strongest impact on the implementation of circular economy in the EU are identified. Further on in the paper, the impact that circular economy will have on the mining and power generation industry in Poland is discussed. Areas have been identified that will need the most attention in relation to the implementation of circular economy. It was pointed out that in the mining and power generation sector the scale of use of current and landfill waste should be increased as a priority. Attention has been paid to the necessary reduction of water demand and rational water and sewage management. Examples of use of mining gas and ventilation air have been discussed. The publication provides examples of a number of measures taken in accordance with circular economy. It was pointed out that there is still a need to popularize the existing ones and to look for new technical and organizational solutions conducive to the introduction of this new economic model. An important aspect of the impact of the circular economy on these sectors will be the decrease in energy demand resulting from the widespread implementation of the new economic model. For those already struggling with a number of problems of some of the mining and power generation sectors based on coal mining and combustion in Poland, the implementation of circular economy will pose another challenge.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Vibration Measurement and Reduction Possibilities in Linear Infrastructure for Vacuum Rail Technology<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents the concept of vibration measurement and reduction system for rails in hyperloop technology. It is based on the experience of measuring vibrations in high-speed rail, the first commercial magnetic rail, and vibration reduction systems for these rails. The authors outlined a conceptual vibration monitoring system based on the MQTT protocol and the vibration reduction method. The vibration reduction systems based on variable-characteristic silencers and solutions used in research centers, especially in CERNie and LIGO, were de-scribed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Points of the Management System for the Safety of Passengers Travelling with Low-Pressure Trains<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Due to the innovation of transport means based on hyperloop technology, the correctness of its functioning should be investigated in relation to many technical, economic and operational factors. This paper presents an analysis of the hyperloop technology from the point of view of ensuring safety of passengers while travelling in a low-pressure rail tunnel. The main subject of research was the design of hyperloop station infrastructure and the safety management system that will ensure the safety of passengers at the station in the sphere of atmospheric pressure, despite the station’s interaction with low-pressure tubes during entry and exit of the capsules. The safety management system also includes evacuation of passengers from low-pressure tubes in an emergency situation. The paper reviews the key issues of passenger safety in the hyperloop transport system, which are the source of justified and unfounded people’ fear of using this transport means despite its obvious advantages. The authors’ original achievement is the identification of critical points of passenger safety during their stay in the station area and during their journey through a low-pressure tunnel, as well as the design of a double airlock that can be used in the hyperloop tunnel at repeatable intervals with the aim of evacuating passengers to the atmospheric pressure zone. The designed solution allows to eliminate one of the significant weaknesses of the transport system using low-pressure rail.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Energy Efficiency by Periodical Energy Audits<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The publication focuses on assessing the energy efficiency in residential and to some extent commercial applications. An energy audit is always the first step in addressing energy efficiency. The purpose of the publication is to present the benefits of using an energy audit. It explains a “do-it-yourself” procedure for an energy audit. The publication also focuses on calculating the potential energy saving by updating low-efficiency electric appliances with high-efficient alternatives. The environmental benefits of addressing the energy efficiency of households is also being discussed. An energy audit using a “do-it-yourself” procedure focuses on the economic, ecological and social impact to environment. The energy audit contributes to the implementation of the concept of sustainable development in our day by day life.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Picks for Undeground Mining<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Mechanical cutting in underground mining faces increasingly difficult challenges. Deteriorating working conditions result in the development of automation and robotization, and the insufficient durability of cutting tools remains a serious problem. In addition to drilling, the technology of cutting provides a huge market for tools. Currently, mainly conical picks are used in the process of cutting. The cutterheads of shearers are equipped with at least several dozen conical picks, which, due to their workability and abrasiveness, sometimes work for merely a few hours. Hence the interest of users and manufacturers in the development of tools with increased durability. The article briefly presents the applied solutions of conical picks, their construction, dimensions and materials used. Attention was paid to the issues related to the protection applied and its marking. A review and analysis of commonly known construction solutions for picks and holders have also been carried out, and proprietary patent pending solutions for the pick and holder have been presented.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Installing a Photovoltaic Power-Generation System for a Warehouse Facility<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Sustainability and eco-friendliness of the chain of supply is a subject of interest among many researchers. New eco-friendly solutions are being implemented in production, storage, and transportation of the entire chain of supply. This study focuses on pro-environmental solutions related to warehouse management. The publication describes a project of installing a solar photovoltaic (PV) system to generate electric power at the H&amp;W Warehouse in New Brunswick, New Jersey. The purpose of this publication is to demonstrate the financial and environmental benefits of using sustainable forms of energy. The environmental benefits were calculated from the perspective of lowering the amount of carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>) released into the atmosphere. The financial benefits were determined by calculating the net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and profitability index (PI) as well as regular and discounted payback. A computer simulation was being used as the research method. Calculations included in the publication have proven that the project being considered is beneficial from the financial and environmental perspectives.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Gas-Geodynamic Phenomena During the Preparatory and Mining Works in Seam 358/1 at KWK “Budryk”<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The nature of gas-geodynamic phenomena is so complicated and unpredictable that it forces the necessity of continuous search for new principles of identifying the outburst threat and ongoing monitoring of this threat with view of current conditions in the mine. After the incidents in JSW S.A, the mines carrying out works in seams threatened with outbursts, upon their own initiative introduced additional rigours and increased the frequency of measurements and tests regardless of the existing legal requirements. Incidents that have taken place in KWK “Budryk” in recent years show how important is continuous verification of knowledge related to the forecasting of the outburst threat on the basis of ongoing observations of works. The local occurrence of a zone characterized by high methane-bearing capacity in the coal seam, even after taking preventive measures and introducing additional rigorous did not allow for the complete elimination of gas-geodynamic phenomena and avoidance of danger to employed people.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Efficiency of the Central Air-Conditioning System on the Selected Example<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the particularly significant threats during exploitation is the climatic threat, which is associated with an increase in the overall costs that are allocated to combating it. The rise in the virgin temperature of the rock mass by 1oC increases the demand for the required cooling capacity to be taken from the air. The publication assesses the effectiveness of the air-conditioning installation by testing its operation on a selected example. The assessment of the efficiency of the air-conditioning installation for a selected hard coal mine showed that none of the five tested coolers achieved the maximum assumed rated power. The use of total power (7.5 MW) in mining excavations was less than 50% and amounted to η = 0.472%. The research showed that the main reason for obtaining low cooling parameters is the inability to locate them in the place of the highest air temperatures. The other problem is an insufficient airflow rate of cooling water supplied to the coolers at too high temperature. The above considerations indicated that the cooling power from built-in air- conditioning systems is not properly and effectively used. Improving the efficiency of its functioning is possible by proceeding research that will eliminate the above factors and by using air conditioning equipment, taking into account the periodic audit of their work to reduce electricity consumption.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Activities of Urban Transport Policy in the Context of Sustainable Development<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The growing number of cars cities is worsening the quality of life of our citizens, aggravating their problems with mobility, social inequality, health and ecology. The implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals implies carrying out measures aimed at reducing the impact of urban transport systems in three interrelated directions. The aim of this chapter is describe the conditions and measures to reduce the negative impact of these problems combined into transport policy measures in two ways. The method of expert assessments allowed to rank these activities in order to establish the sequence of their implementation in cities in order to bring their state closer to the “livable city”.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue for Tunnel Technology in the Development of Hyperloop Vacuum Rail<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Hyperloop is a new concept of transport system the main assumption of which is to use hermetic tunnels where air pressure is very low compared to atmospheric pressure. It enables significant reduction of traffic resistance and, as a result, energy consumption. One of the most important elements of this system is land infrastructure with transport tubes. This system component has a significant impact on the construction costs related to the whole system and affects its functional parameters (e.g. capsule travel speed). Appropriate configuration of the route of a new transport system will require the use of all possible ways of leading transport tubes, including tunneling. The paper presents the key premises that prove a large potential application of tunnel technologies in the development of a new transport system.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Value of the Segment Reporting in the Polish Energy Sector<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Conventional energy sources dominate in the Polish energy sector, which is a huge risk to meeting environmental protection requirements. Polish energy companies are facing challenges related to meeting the requirements of the European Union and the National Energy Policy. The paper attempts to answer the question whether the ongoing discussion on the future of the energy sector, dealing with such issues as development of renewable energy sources is reflected in the annual financial reports of companies listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange and covered by the WIG_ENERGY index. This study contributes to the extant literature on financial disclosures in several ways. First, the examination of compliance of segment reporting of selected companies listed on the Polish stock exchange with International Reporting Standards (IFRS) was carried out (particularly IFRS 8 – Operating Segments). Second, the information value of disclosures for investors in the energy industry was assessed. The empirical part was preceded by a description of segment reporting principles in accordance with IFRS 8 and the summary of challenges facing the energy sector in Poland.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Stoppages in the Process of Roadway Drivage Caused by Exceeding the Maximum Allowable Level of Methane Concentration<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Methane is one of the most dangerous gases occurring in mining production. Being inseparably connected with the rock mass, it presents a serious risk to occupational safety and reduces the effectiveness of mining production. A particularly high methane hazard occurs directly during exploitation in longwall headings and the drivage of roadways. Exceeding the maximum allowable level of its concentration in these headings makes it necessary to disconnect all machines until this concentration level is reduced. This leads to unscheduled downtimes of such machines, thus increasing the costs of their operation and decreasing their effectiveness. The paper demonstrates the results from the analysis of machine downtimes in the drivage of roadways, caused by excessive methane concentration levels. The analyses were based on the indications from the system for automatic monitoring of the ventilation parameters in this heading. The results obtained clearly demonstrated that exceeded values of methane concentration caused a series of unexpected downtimes in the drivage process. As a result, the process was disturbed and its effectiveness reduced. The presented analyses are one of the first to address the issue of how methane emissions affect machine downtimes. However, this phenomenon represents a major problem that needs to be addressed comprehensively in order to minimise the losses arising out of the necessary disruptions to the exploitation process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Methods as a Tool Supporting Revitalization of Industrially Degraded and Post-Mining Areas<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Post-industrial and post-mining areas have often been under strong anthropogenic pressure for a long time. As a result, such areas, after the ending of industrial activity require taking steps to revitalize them. It may cover many elements of the natural or urban environment, such as water, soil, vegetated areas, urban development etc. To carry out revitalization, it is necessary to determine the initial state of such areas, often using selected chemical, geophysical or ecological. After that it is also important to properly monitor the state of such areas to assess the progress of the revitalization process. For this purpose a variety of change detection technics were developed. Post-industrial areas are very often characterized by a large extent, are difficult to access, have complicated land cover. For this reason, it is particularly important to choose appropriate methods to assess the degree of pollution of such areas. Such methods should be as economical as possible and time-effective. A very desirable feature of such methods is that they should allow a quick assessment of the entire area. Geostatistics supplemented by modern remote sensing can be effective for this purpose. Nowadays, using remote sensing, it is possible to gather information simultaneously from the entire, even vast area, with high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution. Geostatistics in turn provides many tools that are able to enable rapid analysis and inference based on even very complicated often scarce spatial data sets obtained from ground measurement and satellite observations. The goal of the article was to present selected results obtained using geostatistical methods also related to remote sensing, which may be helpful for decision makers in revitalizing post-industrial and post-mining areas. The results described in this paper were based mostly on the previous studies, carried out by authors.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Influence of an Operating Conditions on the Friction Coefficient in Transportation Machines Drives<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The publication presents the construction of the station for testing the friction coefficient under high pressure and low slip velocity values. These conditions of cooperation of friction pairs occur in the drives of transport machines such as belt conveyors and suspended monorails. The value of the friction coefficient, depending on the operating conditions such as moisture and rock or coal dust pollution, has a significant impact on the correct and efficient operation of such drives. The features of the station allow mapping the operating conditions on a laboratory scale. As part of the research, appropriate friction samples made of rubber or polyurethane were prepared. Referring to the conditions of conveyor operation and conditions of contact of the conveyor belt with the drive drum, the values of unit pressures and values of slip speed occurring in the drum drive of the belt conveyor were determined. A series of laboratory tests were carried out for the friction pair rubber drum lining – conveyor belt cover. The tests were carried out for four different states of friction vapor surfaces, namely for dry and wet samples, as well as for samples in clean or contaminated with stone dust. As a result of the tests, the values of friction coefficients for various surface states were determined, which will be valuable information for designers of friction drive systems of transport devices.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Hydrogen from Coke Oven Gas in JSW Group<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The publication analyses the possibility of separating hydrogen from coke oven gas for further use in the transport sector in the FCEV segment (fuel cell electric vehicles). The construction of the separation installation using the PSA (pressure swing adsorption) method guaranteeing high purity of hydrogen was assumed, according to the requirements of ISO 14678-2:2012 and SAE J-2719 standards. The PSA technology is widely used in industrial gas separation processes, however, due to the composition of coal gas, which apart from hydrogen and methane consists of impurities in the form of hydrocarbons, sulphur compounds, chlorine, etc., it needs to be adapted to the needs of separation of hydrogen from coke oven gas. The study shows the total possible hydrogen production potential and then, in agreement with the JSW Group’s Coking Plants, limits were set for hydrogen production in PSA technology at Przyjaźń, Jadwiga and Radlin Coking Plants, without the negative impact of the separation installation on technological processes associated with coke oven battery firing, operation of existing power units, gas compression systems and taking into account securing the needs of external customers for coke oven gas. Additionally, in order to determine the Polish market demand for high-purity hydrogen, an analysis was carried out which indicates that in 2030 the share of FCEVs will be 2%, so the demand for hydrogen in this segment would be negligible compared to the supply of hydrogen produced in a large-scale installation. Due to the need to build such a market and adapt the parameters of the installation to the variable parameters of coke oven gas, the pilot scale of the installation and the target location of the installation at the Przyjaźń Coking Plant were indicated as the most optimal.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Temporal Variability of Air Pollutants’ Emissions – Case Study of Residential PM Emission in Silesian Metropolis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper summarizes previous studies associated with carrying out of the air pollutant emission inventories. There are presented three approaches for obtaining monthly distribution of PM<sub>10</sub> air emission: using expert’s judgement, modelling of the heating demand, and temporal disaggregation using the heating degree days (HDD). However some differences due to not considering hot water demand, it can be effectively used for obtaining temporal, and spatiotemporal distributions of air pollutants’ air emissions necessary for air quality modelling.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue as Financing Opportunities – the Development of Renewable Energy Sources in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As Poland is considered a coal country, renewable energy resources still do not have a significant share in energy production. Further, 14% contribution of renewable energy to total primary energy production in 2020 is endangered. Thus, in order to speed up with renewable energy sources new actions should be stimulated. The aim of the article is to describe the most popular renewable energy installations in Poland and further to search for a case study indicating that an investment in renewable sources is profitable without financial support. The results indicate that prior literature does not present any analysis of profitable renewable energy investment without financial support. It states the need for regulators to implement additional financial support not only on the European Union level but also on the national one.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Cutting Resistance of Rock Salt in Function of Temperature<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Currently over then 16 percent of the total worldwide salt production is excavated in underground mines. Salt deposits often lie at great depths up to 1000 m, where the temperature of the surrounding rocks reaches 50°C and even exceeds it. A large part of it is exploited using mechanical methods, mainly with the use of road headers and continuous miners. When excavating salt rock, the cutters of the road header mining head come into contact with the rock. This generate friction and in consequence a rise in temperature. In AGH University of Science and Technology the laboratory tests were carried out to determine the effect of temperature on cutting resistance and selected mechanical properties of rock salt. On the special laboratory test stand the rock salt sample was cutted at three different temperatures - 20, 50 and 80°C. The cuttability index and the side chipping angle were measured for each temperature. Additionally the same tests were performed in the case of salt sample after cooling to room temperature. The selected mechanical parameters of rock salt - compressive, tensile and shear strength were also measured for the same temperature values. The obtained results were compared and described in the paper.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Prognoses of Methane Concentrations for the 102 Longwall in the 325/1 Seam in the “W” Coal Mine Operating in a Continuous System<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The first part of the paper concerns the natural deposition conditions of the 325/1 seam in the “W” coal mine, in the 102 longwall mining panel. It also presents the most important technical conditions regarding the exploitation at this longwall. To characterize the methane hazard in the longwall area, the parameters of ventilation and total methane concentrations as well as the volumetric flowrate of methane captured by the methane removal system, have been presented graphically. A significant part of the methane flow in the longwall area was released to the air flowing to the longwall. The most significant part of the article is the presentation and analysis of the results of prognoses of mean methane concentrations at the exhaust of the longwall area. The accuracy of the prognoses of methane concentration was verified using two methods: while not considering the release of methane to the air flowing to the longwall and while considering the total flowrate of methane to the ventilation air in the area of the 102 longwall. The method of forecast presented in the article has so far been checked for a 5-day and 6-day work day, as well as for walls operating in a non-regular mode. The article refers to the wall operating in a continuous mode, which required adaptation of the proposed method to this mode. The application of the one-day forecast proposed in the article allows for undertaking temporary methane prevention measures enabling safe use of the wall.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Permissible Longwall Face Advance in the Protective Pillar Conditioning the Liquidation of a Mining Shaft<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The presented research subject involved the assessment of the possibility of mining operations within the area of shaft protection pillar with simultaneous liquidation of the shaft. In such a situation, the basic condition is to avoid damage to shaft lining, which can hinder or even prevent safe liquidation of the shaft by backfilling. The procedure to follow in order to assess the possibility and scope of mining exploitation within the shaft protection pillar is demonstrated on the example of shaft X. The applied assessment method involving the possibility and scope of mining exploitation within the protective pillar of the shaft was based on the forecast of rock mass deformation at the shaft site, which was the basis to calculate vertical stresses in the shaft lining and then to compare them with permissible values. The carried out calculations allowed us to determine the permissible face advance of longwall No. 5 at which no damage to the lining and its equipment would occur, ensuring the planned safe liquidation of the shaft by backfilling.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue