rss_2.0Organization, Technology and Management in Construction: an International Journal FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Organization, Technology and Management in Construction: an International Journal, Technology and Management in Construction: an International Journal Feed cost estimation of a building structure: An example of partition walls<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The growing pressure to optimise construction investment costs from the life-cycle perspective inevitably leads to efforts to seek new solutions that will facilitate informed decision-making in the early stages of the construction project. Awareness of the importance of considering future operation and demolition costs emphasises the shortcomings related to the possibility of making accurate predictions/estimations of such costs, which will become apparent in the future. To address this research gap, an innovative approach of life-cycle cost modelling on the level of individual structures of the building is presented. The model provides users with information on the costs of available technical solutions resulting from the requirements of the investor at a specific stage of the construction project. In this way, it helps investors optimise their building projects and to find the most economical solutions. Specifically, this model is assembled for the purpose of selecting a suitable partition wall and, therefore, it takes into consideration specific characteristics relating to this particular type of structure. The results indicate diversity in partition wall structural design variants at the early stage of the project. Since the ability to influence future costs decreases as the project progresses, the model allows capturing LCC perspective even if only a construction study is available without more detailed technical and economic information. The presented model aims to contribute to the higher performance of construction projects in the planning phase from the perspective of LCC and investors’/owners’ point of view.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue method for managing BIM design and construction using Kanban<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Companies in the construction sector need effective information management. In particular, the transmission of information within a company is key to improving its management and competitiveness. Currently, many companies in the construction sector are making a great effort to implement the building information modelling (BIM) methodology. Such implementation requires collaborative work through the Cloud between the different agents in the construction process of any project. In fact, information management in BIM projects is related to the creation, storage, transfer and efficient application of information within a three-dimensional (3D) virtual model of the project. The size of the project also determines the optimal management approach. The main problems resulting from poor information management may be a lack of coordination between actors, loss of information or misinterpretation of information. This work has two stated objectives. The first objective is to carry out a literature review of the applications of BIM technology and the importance of managing knowledge according to International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)- 19650. The second objective is to propose a disruptive method based on the Kanban tool to properly manage BIM information in the design and construction phases. This paper has practical implications for the improvement of BIM application for project managers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue role of competency-based certification in ensuring sustainable project delivery<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An increasing number of organisations are basing their operations on temporary forms of work such as projects to cope with the needs of the modern business environment, which consequently leads to a significant growth in the demand for competent individuals who can not only adequately manage projects, but also seize the opportunities that this new way of doing business brings in the creation of strategic value for organisations. To be considered competent in the field, individuals should therefore demonstrate a certain level of knowledge, skills and abilities that are assessed, developed or improved through certification systems. Although professional certification was previously driven exclusively by the aspirations of individuals for improvement in a business context, to ensure a more professional project practice, the conditions for performing this type of work are starting to be more formalised at the level of employers (requirements in job advertisements) or the state (regulation of certification bodies or legally prescribed requirements for project positions). With the aim of examining the attitude of project professionals towards the competency-based certification in the field of project management and its legal regulations, as well as its role in ensuring the sustainable project delivery, quantitative empirical research was conducted among 246 certified project, programme and portfolio managers in Croatia. The obtained results not only indicate the importance of certification in project delivery and continuous professional development of individuals, but also emphasise insufficient recognition of certification within organisations, its connection with career progress and compliance of practices at the state level.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue technology for repair of vertical surface of concrete bridge elements<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A large number of concrete bridges need to be repaired due to durability problems. This research focuses on evaluating the bond quality of the repair material, which has the highest influence on the durability of the repair. Onsite experimental research is performed on the vertical surfaces of the column of the Klara Jug bridge, which is located in the southern part of the Zagreb. Since the experimental research is carried out in parallel with the ongoing repair works on other bridge elements, the experimental conditions correspond to the real construction site conditions. Simulation of the actual site rehabilitation process was carried out on the test fields, which included removal of the damaged concrete by hydrodemolition at a depth of 1.5–2 cm, washing of the concrete by roto nozzle and wet spraying of the repair mortar. The results of the pull-off tensile bond strength show that there is an optimum period for spraying of repair mortar after washing the concrete surface. Optimal time for application of mortar is 90 min after completion of washing of the vertical concrete surface by the roto nozzle. In other weather conditions, the application time depends on the expected evaporation of water from the surface. The tensile strength of the bond between concrete and the repair mortar is 62% lower if the concrete is not washed by the roto nozzle prior to the application of the repair mortar. This investigation can serve as a practical guide for the repair of vertical surface of concrete elements of bridges, overpasses and viaducts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of project procurement systems on performance of Rwandan building construction projects<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Delivering a construction project successfully is associated with the procurement system used. In other words, the selection of the appropriate system can guarantee the success of the construction project. Therefore, this paper evaluated and compared the effects of the most-utilised project procurement systems on the key performance criteria in the Rwandan building construction projects such as time, cost, quality and scope. A questionnaire survey was conducted among contractors, consultants and clients, and a total of 73 questionnaires were used for the analysis. The survey results, analysed by using statistic method, discovered that the traditional procurement system of design-bid-build (DBB) is the most-employed system in Rwanda. Also, it was revealed that in the Rwandan building construction industry, the construction management (CM) system was identified as a system that performs better for more objectives than others. Specifically, the results showed that owner direct force (ODF) is suitable for cost effectiveness, design and build (DB) system is better for time performance, and CM performs better for both scope and quality achievement. This study will facilitate Rwandan construction practitioners to be able to choose the appropriate option that suits the main objectives of their projects in order to reduce risks resulting from the use of unrelated procurement systems.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue pre-qualification systems – Are they essential for minimising delays on road projects?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The most significant and pivotal advance in each construction project is to choose the right contractor which is normally done by a pre-qualification system. Pre-qualification of contractor is a course of gathering data and evaluation that decides the contractor’s capacity as far as considering assets accessible, management processes and execution information. However, the current prequalification system witnesses many limitations such as contractor selection (CS) based on L1 bidder concept which may compromise with time, cost and quality of project; non-usage of a quantified mathematical model or software for selection of most competent contractor might as well compromise the system. The objective of this paper was to highlight the need of strengthening the existing pre-qualification system used in Indian roads and highway projects. To achieve the above stated objective of the research, the project-specific data were collected from 25 different road and highway projects. The analysis of the collected data showed that there was negative impact in terms of time and cost requirements, which was observed in all the projects even if the contractor was selected using the prequalification system. The main reasons identified for the delays and cost overruns were land acquisition issues, suspension of work during monsoon season and maintenance work of bitumen refineries, claims and disputes between contractor and clients, inefficiency of contractors while dealing with scope change, etc.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of ideal construction duration in tender preparation stage for housing projects<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Despite the potential of various methods for calculating construction duration, few studies have focused on the application of these methods in the tender preparation stage, and even fewer have focused on their application in public housing projects. Moreover, research related to construction duration in Turkey has indicated that considerable delays occur in public housing projects. Therefore, we investigated the factors affecting the construction duration of housing projects and developed a novel calculation method for estimating the ideal construction duration. Data on public housing projects were obtained from a major Turkish construction authority. Statistical data analysis was performed using multiple linear regression analysis, chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID), and classification and regression tree (CART) methods. The results revealed that several factors significantly affected the ideal construction duration for each statistical method. The cutoffs and standard errors were calculated to test the validity of all three statistical methods. The regression formula indicated statistical significance when the calculation method was tested. The implementation of the methods for other public housing projects significantly reduced the number of delayed projects. The findings of this study are expected to contribute by way of enabling senior project managers to estimate the ideal construction duration for housing projects during the tender preparation stage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of interorganisational conflict in building refurbishment projects using EFA and PLS-SEM<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>It is generally known that building refurbishment (BR) projects are more likely to face uncertainties than new building projects. Therefore, uncertainty is an element that may cause interorganisational conflict (IOC). This paper presents a study with three objectives: to evaluate the uncertainty levels, assess the IOC that may arise due to the uncertain nature of BR projects and examine the interrelated dependence relationship between uncertainty and IOC variables. A total of 188 refurbishment projects formed the database for this study. The study applied Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) based on Partial Least Squares (PLS) in the data analysis process. The findings show that uncertainty and IOC BR projects are moderate. Additionally, the uncertainty variable has a positive relationship with the IOC variable; in other words, the higher the uncertainty, the higher is the level of IOC. However, the three factors that emerged as being predictably more uncertain are inadequate space for storage of material and working, difficulty in access to the site and unclear scope of the work.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue approach to a lower limit of KPIs for controlling complex organisational systems<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The organisation of projects is commonly understood as a highly complex system that is to be developed from standardised processes serving a unique goal to be reliably achieved at the first attempt. The system’s development on the time axis determines a significant part of the quality of an organisation since the characteristic behaviour represents the system’s ability to follow a stable and predictable path through the space of states. Due to the well-acknowledged complexity of the system, the available options at each branching point are numerous, and the project’s success is not so much determined by a single decision as by the entirety of the complete decision path from the first incomplete model to the final goal. In particular, in the fields of construction and real estate management, the acceptable corridors of deviation are fairly narrow because the technical and the legal/economical margins are low, dictated by the tight markets. In order to keep the naturally given strongly varying development under control, generally, key performance indicators (KPIs) are defined, intended to unambiguously reflect the current overall behaviour of the system, to allow judging of the situation and to serve as a solid basis to initiate measures to control the development. This paper investigates the structure and the required minimal set of KPIs safely covering the development of a complex system on a system-theoretical basis. Against this background, we propose a certain abstract set of KPIs, in addition to pointing out the methods useful to identify these.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue supply chain drivers and their implementation on LEED-certified projects in India<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aims to identify the most critical green supply chain drivers and to explore the most prevalent drivers in the real estate industry in India. Through literature review, we identified 13 green drivers in the real estate sector in India. A structured questionnaire was administered to 280 potential participants, out of whom 150 responded by filling out the questionnaire. The respondents were working in reputed real estate companies comprising owners, contractors, consultants, architects, and project management companies in Delhi National capital region (NCR). The relative relevance index was used to rank the various green drivers in the real estate industry in India. Multiple regression analysis was used to establish the degree of linear connection between the variables. T-tests examine the differences between 13 decision factors and dependent variables. The cost–benefit of green supply chain drivers in a LEED-certified real estate project in India established the efficacy of green supply chain drivers in the real estate industry in India. The study’s findings indicate that senior management, developers, and the government are the most crucial drivers for implementing the green supply chain in the real estate sector. The study’s findings further confirm that green building approaches, i.e., green procurement, green transportation, building information modelling (BIM), building energy modelling (BEM), and prefabrication procedures, are underutilised in the real estate sector in India.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the ordinal priority approach for selecting the contractor in construction projects<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Effective decision-making process is the basis for successfully solving any engineering problem. Many decisions taken in the construction projects differ in their nature due to the complex nature of the construction projects. One of the most crucial decisions that might result in numerous issues over the course of a construction project is the selection of the contractor. This study aims to use the ordinal priority approach (OPA) for the contractor selection process in the construction industry. The proposed model involves two computer programs; the first of these will be used to evaluate the decision-makers/experts in the construction projects, while the second will be used to formulate the OPA mathematical model. The experts’ interview was used to identify the criteria of evaluation process of the decision-makers/experts, while Delphi survey with principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted to identify the required selection criteria of the construction projects contractors. The results illustrate that there are 20 criteria for selecting the construction contractor, and 7 criteria for evaluating the decision-makers/experts in the construction projects. Finally, the proposed model has been applied in a real construction project, and showed good results.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the intellectual property of built environment designs using blockchain technology<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Digital design and modelling for construction assets was an important step towards improving the construction process overall by improving its efficiency and productivity, reducing the time needed for design editing and rework. However, digital forms of designs are prone to cyber threats and misuse by unauthorised authors. This is a common problem in different industries wherein digital asset management is inefficient due to its centralisation and depends on humans following a certain procedure. Blockchain is an emerging technology capable of transferring digitally produced information into a transferable digital value by storing the information or an identifying signature for the information on a blockchain ledger. Information on the blockchain ledger is immutable and stored in a decentralised system, making it a permanent record. This article investigates the possibility of protecting the intellectual property of built environment designs using blockchain technology. The article presents a solution for generating a double-fingerprint identity for the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), a common format for built environment design exchange, followed by deployment of a smart contract on the Ethereum public blockchain to store the design fingerprint along with design meta-data, such as information about the the owner and version, as a non-fungible token, a unique asset format stored on a blockchain ledger.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the innovative skills and competencies required of construction management graduates<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The construction industry has been experiencing high waves of revolutionised innovative technologies globally. These resulted from the highly innovative demands of the 4th industrial revolution (IR), which does not exclude the construction industry. These technologies do not rely on traditional design and build principles, and they require sophisticated skills and competencies. Currently, the construction industry is still struggling to find professionals with innovative competencies and the skills needed to manage the building lifecycle process. These have been a major concern in developing countries’ construction industry sector. Employers in the construction industry are now looking for construction management graduates (CMG) who are academically qualified and also possess considerable construction-related innovative skills and competencies in related technological software or tools. This study investigates the expected core skills and competence required by CMG. The methodology entails a well-structured systematic literature review, wherein 13 expected core competencies and 27 expected core skills were identified. Based on these, primary data were elicited through an online Google Forms survey distributed to professionals in the Nigerian construction industry. A total of 330 valid responses were obtained. Relative Important Index (RII) and principal component analysis (PCA) were carried out and presented. The result reveals the industry’s expectations and provides guidance to CMG seeking employment in the construction industry. Understanding the industry expectations and possessing the required core competencies will enable the CMG to remain relevant in the dynamic built environments. This study contributes to building information modelling (BIM) knowledge and the current innovative competencies and skills required in the built environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue building maintainability through early supplier involvement in the design process<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The post-construction phase represents a critical milestone in the project lifecycle. This is because design errors and omissions as well as construction defects are examined during this phase. The traditional procurement approaches that are commonly adopted in construction projects separate design from construction, which inhibits contractors, suppliers and other parties from providing the design team with constructive comments and feedback to improve the project design. Consequently, lack of considering maintainability aspects during the design process results in increasing maintenance and operation costs as well as reducing building performance. This research aims to investigate the role of early supplier involvement (ESI) in the design process as an approach for enhancing building maintainability. To achieve this aim, a research methodology consisted of literature review, case studies and survey questionnaire was designed to accomplish four objectives. Firstly, literature review was used to examine the concepts of building maintenance, maintainability, the design process and ESI. Secondly, three case studies were presented and analysed to investigate the role of ESI towards enhancing building maintainability during the design process. Thirdly, a survey questionnaire was conducted with a representative sample of architectural design firms (ADFs) in Egypt to investigate their perception and application of ESI towards enhancing building maintainability during the design process. Finally, the research developed a framework to facilitate ESI during the design process in ADFs in Egypt. Data analysis showed that ‘Difficulty of trusting external parties and sharing information with transparency’ was ranked the highest challenge of ESI in ADFs in Egypt.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue competency framework for strategic planning managers in multi-business holding organisations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nowadays, the business environment is dynamic and constantly changing, which intensifies competition among companies. The complexity of competition in multi-business holding companies is higher than in other organisations due to the complexities of different industries and their uncertainties in terms of investment policies and corporate strategies. Such companies need a strategic plan to align business requirements with their various functions. In this regard, strategic planning managers (SPMs) have a significant role in analysing possible business scenarios and putting optimal plans in place to guarantee their implementation in a specific timeline. This study aims to identify and discuss the necessary competencies and capabilities of this cohort of managers. In the present article, a qualitative approach was adopted, and the findings are based on observations in a case study multi-discipline holding organisation. The viewpoints of the key managers were obtained, and a competency framework was developed. The results indicate that the professional competencies of SPMs can be explained in terms of the two aspects of (1) strategy formulation and (2) strategy implementation. A framework is presented in this paper that summarises the viewpoints of managers in the case study organisation on the requisite competencies of SPMs. Although prior studies explain the general competencies of managers from a universal perspective, this study steps beyond the borders of such models and extends the literature on the professional competencies of a specific and most influential cohort of business managers in holding organisations through an in-depth case study.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue perspective on site accidents and corporate reputation in developing countries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Brief introduction to the Problem</title> <p>Construction accident studies often overlook the internal perspective of employees on site accidents’ impact on corporate reputation.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Purpose</title> <p>This study investigates the effects of construction site accidents on corporate reputation from an internal viewpoint of stakeholders, focusing on employees. It also determines the extent of the association between site accidents and corporate reputation in middle-income economies.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Design/methodology/approach</title> <p>A quantitative approach was used, with 150 survey questionnaires administered to employees in construction firms using purposive sampling. Descriptive and inferential statistical tools, including the Pearson correlation and factor analysis, were used to analyse the results.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Findings</title> <p>Site accidents have 17 identified effects on corporate reputation, negatively impacting leadership, financial management, ethics, shareholder value, and sustainability.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Originality</title> <p>This study highlights the significant impact of construction site accidents on corporate reputation from an internal perspective of employees and identifies the need for more research on this issue. It has the potential to influence construction health and safety research focus, which has previously not addressed the issue of corporate reputation from an internal perspective.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue assessment of deterministic methodologies for estimating excavation productivity<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper investigates the prediction capability of deterministic methodologies in estimating construction productivity for earthmoving operations. Published literature includes several estimation methodologies stemming from (a) equipment manufacturers’ manuals, (b) editions from German contractors’ associations or individual researchers and (c) textbook editions. The purpose of this research is to assess the yielded productivity estimation results under the prism of 14 estimation methodologies. It is – to the authors’ best knowledge – the first research attempt for the comparative evaluation of such a diverse set of estimation methodologies, with the aim of quantifying their effects on the operations analysis in earthmoving works. A uniform mathematical modelling approach is used to formulate the relevant estimation equations and, subsequently, a real-case scenario of an earthmoving project in Greece is used as a benchmark against which the robustness of each methodology is assessed. A sensitivity analysis on main productivity factors concludes the research. The preliminary results indicate that equipment manufacturers’ methods are more optimistic and present higher sensitivity to specific productivity factors (e.g. swing angle, excavation depth), whereas the German-oriented approaches are more conservative with less variability due to differing productivity factors.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the social legitimacy of urban road PPPs in Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Public–private partnerships (PPPs) have become an effective and efficient contractual agreement between the state and the private sector for providing infrastructure services. Yet, their social acceptance and legitimacy are questionable. Communities accept such changes to their social contract with the government only if the PPPs are perceived to be legitimate as public institutions are not trusted by the communities. As a result, the disappointments and controversial underperformance of PPPs in Nigeria, like most developing countries, have been generally associated with community opposition due to any agency or competence-related failure. Hence, the need for this study. Drawing on data from two urban road PPPs in Nigeria, we identify the following three deeply internalised shared beliefs that shape a community group’s perceptions and attitudes towards an infrastructure built by PPPs in their neighbourhood: the public services should be provided for free, PPPs are created mainly to serve perceived ‘corrupt’ politicians and public institutions are not effective and efficient in service delivery. These beliefs, combined with the community’s structural power, explain why some community groups oppose (or support) infrastructure PPPs within their proximity, and the growing legitimacy challenge PPPs face. Our paper in this regard provides a guidance for designing effective and targeted community engagement strategies for PPP projects and contributed to PPP stakeholder management and mainstream stakeholder management research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue success and critical success factors of construction projects: project practitioners’ perspectives<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Project management is primarily practitioner-oriented and loaded with many critical success factors (CSFs), and although these are well-evidenced in theory, they do not deliver as efficiently as factors of interest to project professionals during execution. The present study explores the perceptions of senior project managers (PMs) about project success, CSFs and complexity in large construction projects. Data from project practitioners were collected through semi-structured interviews and analysed using content analysis. The participants were selected with convenience sampling method given the complex understanding of the domain and included highly experienced PMs from the global community with expertise in project management. PMs perceive a small number of CSFs in contrast to the large exhaustive CSFs listed in the questionnaire surveys. Though important, traditional constraints of the Iron Triangle are considered inadequate in defining project success. Project professionals are seen as relying more on other performance indicators for defining a project as a success. They perceive complex construction projects in terms of a large number of interfaces, complex working systems and uncertainty. The findings of this paper suggest that project practitioners perceive differently about the CSFs and project success.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and time performance of traditional-, direct labour- and management-procured public projects in Ondo State, Nigeria<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Procurement method over time has proven to have significant influence on the successful delivery of construction projects. Making the right decision in the selection of a procurement option to adopt is therefore crucial if a project is to succeed. This study therefore assessed the cost and time performance of selected public building projects procured using traditional, direct labour and management procurement options in Ondo State, Nigeria. A pro forma was used to gather cost and time data from government procuring entities in the state. In addition, a structured questionnaire was used to obtain information from construction professionals in these procuring entities, in order to ascertain the factors influencing the choice of procurement options adopted. The cost and time data gathered were analyzed using percentages and the paired-samples <italic>t</italic>-test, while those gathered on the factors influencing the choice of procurement options were analyzed using mean item scores and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results revealed that although there is no significant difference between the initial and final costs of the assessed projects, some measure of cost overrun still exists. In addition, a considerable amount of time overrun was experienced on projects executed using the three different procurement options. The most significant factors influencing the choice of a procurement option are price competition, speed, time certainty and complexity of the project. It is believed that the findings of this study will provide public procuring entities with insight on the cost and time capability of these procurement methods and aid them in selecting the procurement option that will help in delivering public building projects within the budget and on schedule.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue