rss_2.0Organization, Technology and Management in Construction: an International Journal FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Organization, Technology and Management in Construction: an International Journalhttps://sciendo.com/journal/OTMCJhttps://www.sciendo.comOrganization, Technology and Management in Construction: an International Journal 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/60060269e797941b18f2d349/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20220927T212316Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20220927%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=0a6fbc1f464852043d1db05f07cf842d905cc3689905a4019bc5b933aa715a0e200300Manageability of complex organisational systems – system-theoretical confines of controlhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/otmcj-2022-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The task of organisation is based on breaking up complex systems into a number of less complex subsystems where the interfaces are well-determined leading inevitably to hierarchical structures. Therewith, the principle need of precisely predefined targets regarding quality and time frames becomes necessary, which in turn enforces establishing controlling procedures. Meanwhile, it is well accepted that controlling processes are demanding resources and therewith form the cost of organisation. Rarely quantitatively regarded is, however, the need of having further resources ready to repair for detected quality deviations. This paper points out where the system-theoretical limits of control lie, based on a mathematical approach of delayed control where a second-order approximation leads to the introduction of terms of perseverance as well as of dissipative terms. On this background, delayed integral controlling meets the characteristics of a harmonic control system and also suffers it's confines determining the fundamentally limited reaction time. The focus of the article presented here is on the development of realistic scenarios of limited quality deviation situations and their relevance in the light of a fundamental criterion of stability derived from the differential equation of the harmonic control. In this context, we find evidence that partly self-determining concepts, such as e.g. maintained in lean construction, SCRUM and similar others, become favourable, if not superior, to hierarchical approaches.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Parsimonious process model of energy retrofit of buildingshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/otmcj-2022-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Building information modelling (BIM) technology has been focusing on the creation, sharing and use of a comprehensive digital twin of the facility under construction or renovation. It is believed that a more comprehensive, structured and complete model would be better. The aim of this paper and the underlying research is to reaffirm the view that the essence of information is to inform the user and that the main purpose of information models is that they are informative – that they contain the necessary information. Parsimonious information is information that is necessary but as simple as possible. Our hypothesis is that in many cases simpler models could be more useful, as they do not introduce technological barriers with the usually involved low- and medium-level contractors. One such case is the energy retrofitting of existing buildings. Many public and residential buildings with poor energy performance are located all over the world, especially in Eastern and Central Europe, as well as in China. They are an efficient target for a significant improvement in their energy performance by improving the building envelope and openings. The paper presents an economical process model for the modernisation of existing buildings. This model provides a basis for a parsimonious product model, which is currently under development. The broader objective of the research presented is to examine cases where a heavy information model may not be necessary and where a detailed process definition – as described in the BIM implementation plan and related documents – would lead to over-specification that would limit the free dynamics of a workflow.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-10T00:00:00.000+00:00A structured literature review on construction conflict prevention and resolution: A modified approach for engineeringhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/otmcj-2022-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the face of several uncertainties in the construction industry, conflicts and disputes seem inevitable. The aim of this systematic literature review of methodologies for prevention and resolution of conflicts was to develop an updated guidance for conflict management in the construction industry. To achieve this, we developed a novel tool termed Modified Reporting Items for Structured Reviews in Engineering and Technology (MORISE) that considered a modified tool from the original literature review method Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). Three databases, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and American Society for Civil Engineers (ASCE), were searched and 61 articles were shortlisted. In terms of frequency of reasons cited as causes for disputes, payment regimes and delays rank first, followed by written agreement interpretation and changes in projects. Acceptable approaches to resolution of disputes include negotiation, arbitration, facilitation, and dispute resolution boards. This study were able to make a clear distinction between methodologies adopted by various researchers for the prevention and resolution of conflicts and show that in addition to prevention of conflicts, there are comprehensive and suitable techniques to resolve conflicts, which can be adopted in practice.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Knowledge management by construction management template for sustainable entrepreneurshiphttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/otmcj-2022-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article is devoted to the development of a new information and communication concept – “construction management template (CMT)”. This concept changes the way knowledge management in construction is due to: taking into account the most effective modern and traditional methods of management; use of information technologies; end-to-end integration of different solutions into one information and communication tool.</p> <p>CMT is an information and communication model in the form of a three-dimensional parametric part of a building or structure and the associated resource schedule of works used to plan and control management, architectural, technological, operational, and economic decisions throughout the construction project.</p> <p>Combining different construction solutions and including management innovations, the developed information and communication concept is the latest way to manage knowledge in construction. Development of the information and communication concept CMT takes into account the use of modern software, innovative and most effective traditional methods of managing enterprises of the full investment construction cycle. The practical significance of the results lies in the development of recommendations for: finding and using efficiency reserves in construction management with the help of modern information technologies; development and use of construction management templates for knowledge management.</p> <p>The obtained results allowed establishing the new method of management in construction increases the accuracy and speed of management influences, while reducing the cost of management. Thus, more sustainable development of construction entrepreneurship is possible.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigation of the poor-quality practices on building construction sites in Malaysiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/otmcj-2022-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Poor quality occurs in &gt;80% of building projects. They can increase the cost of a building by up to 50% and can delay a project by up to 50%. This research investigated the determinants of poor quality on building on-sites. The research developed a questionnaire instrument that included 20 determinants of poor-quality buildings on construction sites based on literature and site visits. The survey forms were administered to construction sites operatives through hand delivery. A total of 80% of the respondents measured that the poor quality of buildings was caused by the 20 determinants. Poor workmanship, non-compliance with requirements/standards, inadequate site management, failure to achieve high-quality standards, and poor-quality materials/components were the major determinants of the poor quality of buildings during construction. This research provides fresh information on the causes and impact of poor quality on the performance of the building sector.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Mapping the capabilities and benefits of AR construction use-cases: A comprehensive maphttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/otmcj-2022-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The construction industry has undergone a radical transformation in its design and documentation process as it evolved from the days of the drafting board to today’s Building Information Modeling process. Despite the progress, a paradox of designing 3D in 2D space remains, calling for new visualization technologies that leverage the use of information in construction. Augmented Reality (AR) is an emerging technology that can serve as an information aggregator and a data-publishing platform, allowing users to view and interact with information while collaborating with others in real-time from remote locations. While AR holds the key to advance the construction industry, no research project has yet comprehensively investigated the holistic integration of AR in construction. Thus, this paper presents a comprehensive map that provides a holistic framework to understand the integration of AR into the construction phase. To achieve the research objective, the paper identifies and describes 23 use-cases of AR in the construction phase, nine AR capabilities, and 14 AR potential benefits. Then, four AR applications in construction are explored, where the underlying use-cases are discussed and mapped as a function of their corresponding AR capabilities and potential benefits. These AR applications provide an example to illustrate the concept behind the comprehensive map. Finally, the map is developed by outlining the relationships between the identified AR use-cases, capabilities, and potential benefits. The findings of this paper are crucial for the AR implementation roadmap as it provides industry practitioners an understanding of the capabilities and benefits of integrating AR into construction tasks.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Linking life cycle BIM data to a facility management system using Revit Dynamohttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/otmcj-2022-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Facility management (FM) requires multidisciplinary activities, and thus has extensive information requirements. Much of that information is created during the design, construction, and commissioning phases of a project. Providing the owner of a facility with usable life cycle asset information after construction has been a challenge to the industry. Traditional methods of manually inputting data into FM systems are time consuming and error prone. Various automated approaches and workflows continue to be developed to respond to specific owner needs. This research developed a unique workflow that uses Dynamo within Revit to automatically extract asset management data from the model and export the data to a proprietary format required by the facility owner. The formatted spreadsheet allows for direct linking of the data to the owner's FM system, hence eliminating time wasted in manual data entry and avoiding missing any maintenance cycles that would result if the FM system is not populated with critical information in a timely manner. This article utilizes a case study approach to demonstrate this novel Dynamo workflow. The required case study asset data identified and captured include asset groups, their properties and attributes, and corresponding metadata. A basic three-dimensional representation of the facility and all its equipment are modeled in Revit and asset data are input to corresponding model elements. This article also describes the complexity of the owner's proprietary information needs and the resulting automated workflow that extracts and exports data from Revit into an Excel format that can directly link into the FM system.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of lagging projectification in the public sector on realizing infrastructure projectshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/otmcj-2022-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The public sector in Germany lags behind the economy in terms of projectification, i.e., the prevalence of projects and experience in applying project management. This has significant implications for realizing complex infrastructure projects in which the public sector is involved as one of the main actors. Nowadays, projectification represents a particular way of thinking about how to embrace a series of dynamic and challenging changes, design them, and implement them effectively for the benefit of society. A quantitative study of projectification in society in Germany was the starting point for our research, the results of which we compared with data from earlier studies of projectification in the economy. Using an interpretative case study drawing on insights from the Berlin Airport, we analyzed the impact of lagging projectification in the public sector in Germany on realizing infrastructure projects to propose suitable approaches. The results of this case study reveal significant effects of lagging projectification in the public sector of Germany on realizing infrastructure projects. In the case of the Berlin BER Airport, an inadequate governance system led to a 9-year delay in the completion date and a 250% overrun of costs directly attributable to the project. This could have been avoided by involving the private construction industry more collaboratively, by building on previous experiences gained, and by a more cooperative way of project planning and implementation. To guide future research, hypotheses are derived that can be used to analyze the underlying problem in greater depth and to derive recommendations for action.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-01T00:00:00.000+00:00A state-of-the-art review of built environment information modelling (BeIM)https://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/otmcj-2016-0030<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Elements that constitute the built environment are vast and so are the independent systems developed to model its various aspects. Many of these systems have been developed under various assumptions and approaches to execute functions that are distinct, complementary or sometimes similar. Furthermore, these systems are ever increasing in number and often assume similar nomenclatures and acronyms, thereby exacerbating the challenges of understanding their peculiar functions, definitions and differences. The current societal demand to improve sustainability performance through collaboration as well as whole-system and through-life thinking is driving the need to integrate independent systems associated with different aspects and scales of the built environment to deliver smart solutions and services that improve the well-being of citizens. The contemporary object-oriented digitization of real-world elements appears to provide a leeway for amalgamating the modelling systems of various domains in the built environment which we termed as built environment information modelling (BeIM). These domains include architecture, engineering, construction as well as urban planning and design. Applications such as building information modelling, geographic information systems and 3D city modelling systems are now being integrated for city modelling purposes. The various works directed at integrating these systems are examined, revealing that current research efforts on integration fall into three categories: (1) data/file conversion systems, (2) semantic mapping systems and (3) the hybrid of both. The review outcome suggests that good knowledge of these domains and how their respective systems operate is vital to pursuing holistic systems integration in the built environment.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Innovation of education for the development of key competencies of university graduates https://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/otmcj-2016-0019<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Competency-based education is a new trend in the process of teaching to support and develop the competencies of graduates. This challenge of the European Union aimed at changes in learning processes contributes to improvement in the educational qualifications of the population. Recently, in Europe and Slovakia, several research studies aimed at key competencies of graduates have been conducted. This paper provides the results of the study aimed at identification of key competencies of graduates of the study program Construction Technology and Management. A proposal for innovations in learning forms is presented as an output of the national project “Universities as Engines of Knowledge Society Development”. The innovations will influence the development of profession-specific and transferable competencies of graduates of the afore-mentioned study program at the Faculty of Civil Engineering in Technical University of Košice, Slovakia.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-09-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Modeling of the Time Structure of Construction Processes Using Neural Networkshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/otmcj-2016-0018<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of this research is to develop a methodology for calculating the standard time using neural networks. The paper presents research questions and proposes a methodology. In addition, the methods used to calculate the standard time in the Czech Republic and in other parts of the world are presented, and the basics of the mathematics of neural networks are shortly explained. The paper also provides an example that represents a simple application of a neural network. This example is designed to confirm some assumptions and to arrive at the basic conclusions regarding the operation of models created using neural networks.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparing three scheduling methods using BIM models in the Last Planner Systemhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/otmcj-2016-0024<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article presents strategies for teaching scheduling methods such as takt-time, flowlines, and point-to-point precedence relations (PTPPRs) using building information modeling (BIM) models in the Last Planner System. This article is the extended version of the article entitled “Teaching <italic>Takt</italic>-Time, Flowline and Point-to-point Precedence Relations: A Peruvian Case Study,” which has been published in <italic>Procedia Engineering</italic> (Vol. 196, 2017, pages 666–673). A case study is conducted in final year students of civil engineering at the Pontifical Catholic University of Peru. The mock-up project is an educational building that has high repetitive processes in the structural works phase. First, traditional tools such as Excel spreadsheets and 2D drawings were used to teach production system design with takt-time, flowlines, and PTPPR. Second, 3D and 4D models with Revit 2016 and Navisworks 2016 were used to integrate the previous schedules with a BIM model and to identify its strengths and weaknesses. Finally, Vico Office was used for the automation of schedules and comparison of the methods in 4D and 5D. This article describes the lectures, workshops, and simulations employed, as well as the feedback from students and researchers. The success of the teaching strategy is reflected in the survey responses from students and the final perceptions of the construction management tools presented.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00An integration of spreadsheet and project management software for cost optimal time scheduling in construction https://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/otmcj-2016-0028<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Successful performance and completion of construction projects highly depend on an adequate time scheduling of the project activities. On implementation of time scheduling, the execution modes of activities are most often required to be set in a manner that enables in achieving the minimum total project cost. This paper presents an approach to cost optimal time scheduling, which integrates a spreadsheet application and data transfer to project management software (PMS). At this point, the optimization problem of project time scheduling is modelled employing Microsoft Excel and solved to optimality using Solver while organization of data is dealt by macros. Thereupon, Microsoft Project software is utilized for further managing and presentation of optimized time scheduling solution. In this way, the data flow between programs is automated and possibilities of error occurrence during scheduling process are reduced to a minimum. Moreover, integration of spreadsheet and PMS for cost optimal time scheduling in construction is performed within well-known program environment that increases the possibilities of its wider use in practice. An application example is shown in this paper to demonstrate the advantages of proposed approach.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Construction mediation and its hybridization: the case of the Hong Kong construction industryhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/otmcj-2016-0015<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In view of the sophisticated nature of construction disputes, specialized dispute resolution mechanisms are of pivotal importance to the satisfactory settlement between disputing parties. Among the various construction dispute resolution mechanisms, mediation has been increasingly gaining recognition and acceptance. Its hybrid, namely mediation–arbitration (med-arb), has also emerged and has started receiving attention and appreciation. With special reference to the construction industry practice in Hong Kong, a commentary on the respective merits and demerits of construction mediation and construction med-arb, as well as the ways forward, are presented in this article.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Achieving competitive advantage through the integration of disabled architects in architectural design firms in Egypt https://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/otmcj-2016-0017<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The 2030 strategy of sustainable development in Egypt is based on integrated goals, including Human Resource Development. Egypt has ~9,540 disabled architects, who can play an important role in achieving competitive advantage through their integration in Architectural Design Firms (ADFs). By neglecting the benefits of integrating disabled architects, ADFs encounter the risk of losing unique skills and competent personnel. This article investigates the integration of disabled architects in ADFs as an approach for achieving competitive advantage. To achieve this aim, a research methodology consisting of literature review, case studies, and survey questionnaire has been adopted, and it is designed to achieve five objectives. First, literature review is used to investigate the concepts of disabilities and competitive advantage, as well as the relation between integrating disabled architects and the achievement of competitiveness in ADFs. Second, six case studies are presented and analyzed to investigate the role and process of achieving competitive advantage in ADFs through employing disabled architects. Third, the results of a survey questionnaire are analyzed to examine the perception regarding and application of employing disabled architects as an approach for achieving competitive advantage in ADFs in Egypt. Fourth, a framework is developed to facilitate the integration of disabled architects in ADFs with the goal of achieving competitive advantage. Finally, the research findings are summarized and recommendations are put forth. The value of this research stems from the need to address the issue of lack of employment of disabled architects in ADFs and the benefits of making better use of their unique capabilities and skills toward achieving competitiveness. In addition, this research covers a controversial topic that receives scant attention in construction literature, especially in Egypt.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Cost and time performance of traditional-, direct labour- and management-procured public projects in Ondo State, Nigeria https://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/otmcj-2016-0022<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Procurement method over time has proven to have significant influence on the successful delivery of construction projects. Making the right decision in the selection of a procurement option to adopt is therefore crucial if a project is to succeed. This study therefore assessed the cost and time performance of selected public building projects procured using traditional, direct labour and management procurement options in Ondo State, Nigeria. A pro forma was used to gather cost and time data from government procuring entities in the state. In addition, a structured questionnaire was used to obtain information from construction professionals in these procuring entities, in order to ascertain the factors influencing the choice of procurement options adopted. The cost and time data gathered were analyzed using percentages and the paired-samples <italic>t</italic>-test, while those gathered on the factors influencing the choice of procurement options were analyzed using mean item scores and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results revealed that although there is no significant difference between the initial and final costs of the assessed projects, some measure of cost overrun still exists. In addition, a considerable amount of time overrun was experienced on projects executed using the three different procurement options. The most significant factors influencing the choice of a procurement option are price competition, speed, time certainty and complexity of the project. It is believed that the findings of this study will provide public procuring entities with insight on the cost and time capability of these procurement methods and aid them in selecting the procurement option that will help in delivering public building projects within the budget and on schedule.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of stigmatized propertieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/otmcj-2016-0025<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Stigmatized property is real estate burdened with an external negative effect. Individual cases are spread along a broad spectrum, along many dimensions that include the rational and the irrational, the acute and the chronic. Examples for the stigmatizing effect are a nearby airport, ground water contaminated by chemicals, presence of a high-voltage power line, and so on. Evaluation of these properties needs special methodology. Stigma can reduce the property’s market value through a particular, multi-layered filter. The author systematically examines the professional literature’s cases of evaluation of stigmatized properties. The research aims to organize and compare the cases in order to calculate the market value of stigmatized properties. Based on the analysis, six significant dimensions are identified. A focus group of 19 experts examined and individually evaluated the stigmatizing effects along these different dimensions. The author suggests that it is possible to estimate the stigma’s effect and compare different cases to one another effectively. The results allow the international methodology of valuation to be processed.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessing the influence of project management on quality during the early phases of construction projectshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/otmcj-2016-0029<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Although the quality of a process affects the quality of the end product, there is currently an insignificant amount of knowledge about the quality of project management (PM) processes that directly affect the quality of the delivered product (constructed building). This study presents a proposal for modeling the impact of the quality of the PM process on the quality of the constructed building. The quality of the PM process is represented by the main quality factors and product quality indicators. It presents the results of the interviews that were conducted and study cases that were analyzed in Bosnia and Herzegovina with a variety of project participants (with different managerial perspectives) in terms of the indicators of quality of the delivered product. All participants, regardless of managerial perspective, believe that the most important indicator of the quality of products for each phase of the project is “customer satisfaction in the end phase”, the measurement of which is different for each project phase that is presented. The results of the factor analysis of the definition and the planning phases show that 11 variables, namely, the quality factors of the PM process, can be grouped into three new factors, which is described as 66.61% (77.046%) of the basic set of variables.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of highway infrastructure projects in Latin America and Perú from the competences point of viewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/otmcj-2016-0016<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>It is stressed that Latin America and Perú should become more competitive. Under the actual development scenarios, attention to competences of programme managers and project managers related to public transportation infrastructure projects has risen substantially.</p><p>An inefficient bureaucratic system is related with deficiencies of people skills and competences. On the other hand, an excellent system demands quality of the system and quality of people working in it.</p><p>Thus, it is important to have excellence in administration and excellent administrators in the public sector. Three main lacking elements have been identified: i) lack of good education; ii) absence of fair salaries in the public sector; and iii) lack of incentives. Many misconceptions and disputed consequences have been observed and analyzed. It is clear that there is lack of competence among infrastructure transport project managers and teams, which causes trouble with the main goal of Peru getting benefits from these investments and achieving sustainable development. Furthermore, the right way to achieve these benefits is through a new model of education for project managers and programme managers in Perú. This education should be based more on competences than on qualifications. Thus, the International Project Management Association (IPMA) competence baseline, which is the standard that best fits to these needs, needs to be implemented to achieve the real contribution and benefits of these projects to society.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Innovation enablers: A review of Turkish contractors’ collaborative activities and sources of informationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/otmcj-2016-0002<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This study attempts to examine the differences in the collaborative activities between the Turkish contracting firms that are listed as the “Top 225 International Contractors” by <italic>Engineering News Record</italic> (ENR), according to their international revenues, and other large contracting firms that are not on this list. For this purpose, 30 large-scale Turkish general contracting firms, including 15 listed by the ENR, have been examined in terms of their collaborations during the innovation process as well as the levels of significance for the sources of information that serve as the means of “sources of innovation”. Results show some remarkable differences between the top-listed firms and other largescale contracting companies. The levels of importance indicated for the collaborations made with “universities and research institutions” and the sources of information “conferences, fairs and exhibitions” and “scientific/technical publications” show remarkable differences between the two groups of companies. Contractors who are not ENR listed are more active in making collaborations. While the number of collaborations is increasing in the timeline, both groups of contractors indicate the most important collaborations as “consultants, private R&amp;D institutions” and “suppliers”. Findings also show a decreasing interest against collaborations with universities. Finally, findings of the research are discussed in the context of innovation, expecting to contribute to international contracting firms in evaluating their innovation approaches to their competitive advantage.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-03-14T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1