rss_2.0Polish Cartographical Review FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Polish Cartographical Review Cartographical Review Feed sources on Finland in Polish documents prepared for the Paris Peace Conference<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article reinstates an understanding of cartography far beyond that of a strictly geographical discipline, primarily concerned with the depiction of space in various aspects of societies. Using the example of several manuscript maps preserved in Polish documents left over from the Paris Conference, depicting the area of the Finnish state that was being established, the author illustrates the role of the map as a tool helping to shape the political entities of European societies and bringing to light various premises related to their threats or security, but also indicating development opportunities for these new state organisms. The author’s subject is Finland, aspiring to be a state at the beginning of the twentieth century, seeking alliances and the support of closer and further neighbours. By discussing surviving (and lost) maps, the author adds to the knowledge of the involvement of Polish diplomats in Paris in Finnish affairs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue methodological problems of creating a digital thematic repository of historical cartographic and textual sources. Case study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper discusses the activities involved in the process of creating a digital thematic repository focusing on historical cartographic and textual sources. On the basis of the thematic repository created as part of the project “Shaping the borders of Independent Poland in the light of cartographic documents”, the author presents proposals for solutions aimed at effective management of the various materials, as well as allowing users easy access to specific information. It provides an overview of the issues identified in the context of identifying, selecting, digitising and sharing digital copies of sources of relevance to humanities and social sciences research. With regard to the digitisation of cartographic sources, the article examines the challenges of adapting the technology to meet the diverse needs of information retrieval. In addition, it addresses issues related to the development of metadata and the integration of different types of sources. The article also addresses issues related to maintaining and updating the digital repository, with a particular focus on ensuring the sustainability of the project. The conclusions of the completed project allow us to identify best practices in the process of creating and managing a digital thematic repository, which can be a valuable tool for researchers, students, and cultural heritage institutions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue issues on Polish maps prepared for the Paris Peace Conference 1919–1920<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The military and political outcome of World War I, and the deliberations of the Paris Peace Conference, offered a real chance for the rebirth of Polish statehood. A key issue was the justification of Poland’s future territorial shape, in which ethnic issues played a significant role alongside historical, economic and strategic criteria.</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to show and discuss selected archival nationality maps, often of an expert nature, produced by Polish scholars for the purpose of negotiating the territorial extent of Poland during the Paris Peace Conference. To what extent were they an attempt at an objective representation of the national reality of the Polish territory, and to what a subjective perception and experience of space by the authors of the maps? What were the aims and ideas of their creators, what did they want to achieve? To what extent did the political reality of the time determine their behaviour?</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Geographic Information Systems in analysing the selection of cichociemni drop zones based on a case study of the “Mewa 1” drop zone<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article discusses the possible use of GIS tools in detailed spatial analysis of materials and old maps showing the activities of Polish soldiers during World War II. The research was based on information regarding the military operations of the “Silent and Unseen” paratroopers (in Polish: cichociemni) in the General Government (GG), available in the archives of the Polish Underground Movement Study Trust (in Polish: Studium Polski Podziemnej) in London, as well as on prewar maps of the Polish Military Geographical Institute (in Polish: Wojskowy Instytut Geograficzny – WIG). The authors present the historical background to, and important details of the cichociemni airdrops. They also describe how these operations were organised and suitable airdrop sites selected. The main part of the article is devoted to an analysis and assessment of the extent to which selected drop sites of the cichociemni complied with the criteria contained in the instructions of the Staff of the Commander-in-Chief in London (in Polish: Sztab Naczelnego Wodza w Londynie). The article presents a case study of the “Mewa 1” drop zone located in the GG. The authors used calibrated WIG maps, which they then converted into vector versions. They also made use of modern DTM and a slope map created on its basis. All the criteria for selecting drop zones included in the historical instructions were analysed. Based on the example of the drop zone in question, as well as on the authors’ own spatial analyses, it was concluded that this particular drop zone met some of the criteria formulated in the guidelines of the Commander-in-Chief’s Staff, but only partially met others or failed to meet them at all. In addition, the authors noted a number of limitations regarding these criteria. For example, they did not take into account the locations of the occupiers’ garrisons or anti-aircraft positions, which are particularly important for the success of airdrop operations. The analyses and the results thereof constitute the first study of the armed operations of the cichociemni in GG areas using digital maps and spatial analyses based on GIS.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue simplification of the geometry of a cartographic line using contractive self-mapping – illustrated with an example of a polyline band<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present article is another attempt to adapt map geometry to automatic digital cartography. The paper presents a method of digital polyline generalisation that uses contractive self-mapping. It is a method of simplification, not just an algorithm for simplification. This method in its 1996 version obtained a patent entitled “Method of Eliminating Points in the Process of Numerical Cartographic Generalisation” – Patent Office of the Republic of Poland, No. 181014, 1996. The first results of research conducted using the presented method, with clearly defined data (without singular points of their geometry), were published in the works of the authors in 2021 and 2022.</p> <p>This article presents a transition from the DLM (Digital Landscape Model) to the DCM (Digital Cartographic Model). It demonstrates an algorithm with independent solutions for the band axis and both its edges. The presented example was performed for the so-called polyline band, which can represent real topographic linear objects such as rivers and boundaries of closed areas (buildings, lakes, etc.). An unambiguous representation of both edges of the band is its axis, represented in DLM, which can be simplified to any scale. A direct consequence of this simplification is the shape of the band representing the actual shape of both edges of the object that is classified in the database as a linear object in DCM.</p> <p>The article presents an example performed for the so-called polyline band, which represents real topographic linear objects (roads, rivers) and area boundaries. The proposed method fulfils the following conditions: the Lipschitz condition, the Cauchy condition, the Banach theorem, and the Salichtchev’s standard for object recognition on the map. The presented method is objective in contrast to the previously used approximate methods, such as generalisations that use graph theory and fractal geometry, line smoothing and simplification algorithms, statistical methods with classification of object attributes, artificial intelligence, etc. The presented method for changing the geometry of objects by any scale of the map is 100% automatic, repeatable, and objective; that is, it does not require a cartographer’s intervention.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue use of web-GIS and crowdsourcing in the acquisition of historical data on the example of Polegli1939 project<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The historical Polegli1939 geoportal is probably the first thematic portal using spatial-temporal databases to present information on people killed during the World War II. In this study, we address the problem of capturing, processing and sharing historical information by supplementing it with a spatial attributes. The aim of the study is to determine the role of crowdsourcing data and the use of web-GIS applications in the process of obtaining and verifying historical information. The study was carried out as part of the implementation of the “Spatial database of soldiers killed in warfare” project, which is also known as Polegli1939. In order to achieve this goal, we acquired information using three methods: manual, automated and Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI). Making spatial data available through the Polegli1939 geoportal enables users to popularize and verify it. The method includes a geospatial web platform (GeoWeb) as well as a VGI application with an integrated process for verifying submitted information. As a result of the project, nearly 35,000 records were obtained. Making the project available to a wider audience opens up the possibility of extending the presented research or replicating it in other countries, taking into account a wider chronological range than just World War II.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue copies of : may we talk about the second edition?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the earlier paper (Paprotny, 2022b) I have presented all known states of maps encountered in the 1750 (i.e. 1752) edition of <italic>Atlas Silesiae</italic>, together with the composition of several <italic>Atlas</italic> copies from this edition (in terms of states of included maps). The present paper for the first time compares this composition with copies of the <italic>Atlas</italic> published after 1800. It demonstrates that the latter are most probably compilations of the partially updated material available at the moment of publication, appearing irregularly at dates differing by years and in few copies only. For this reason, they should not be considered a genuine “second edition” of the <italic>Atlas</italic> as sometimes called in cartographical literature. The appendix with an update to Paprotny (2022b) presents newly identified states of two <italic>Atlas</italic> maps.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue first state of Georg Freudenhammer’s map of Palatinatus Posnaniensis from 1645<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The subject of this analysis is Georg Freudenhammer’s map of <italic>Palatinatus Posnaniensis</italic>, editions of which were published by all major publishing houses of the 17<sup>th</sup> century: the Blaeu family, Janssonius, Schenk/Valk or Janssonius van Waesbergen. The formerly unknown first state was dedicated to the new Queen of Poland, Louise Marie Gonzaga. The author hypothesises that it was probably a gift from the author of the map, who participated in Krzysztof Opaliński’s envoy to the future queen. The speed at which this work was produced did not allow for its final completion, so in the later state of the map, a number of additions were made, the addressee of the dedication was changed, and the text of the royal privilege to print it was added. Several features indicate that Freudenhammer’s original intention was changed over time, and the new addressee of the work became the author’s employer and mentor – Krzysztof Opaliński.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue for creating dynamic emergency vehicle availability maps<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the main priorities of emergency services is to minimize the response time to calls. In the process of proper allocation of emergency vehicles, maps of emergency vehicle accessibility are found to be helpful. These maps represent areas within which emergency services can reach the specified location within a certain time. Calculating travel times requires taking into account the rapidly changing current road conditions. This paper presents a method for dynamically generating maps of emergency vehicle accessibility, considering network models and irregular computational grids.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue me where you are and I’ll tell you what you learn. Investigating hidden curricula using GIS analysis of place names in a case study of an English language textbook published in Japan<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article aims to look for a way to geographically delineate the notion of target culture in the language textbook “The World We Live in” by Ogasawara et al. (2013) published in Japan for Japanese students and teachers. Looking at the textbooks as cultural artefacts, we identified geographical space within the scope of the sample textbook and analysed the pedagogical context the place names appeared in. By doing that we attempt to find the spatial bias of the book, which is a manifestation of values there inscribed, often called the “hidden curriculum”. The elaborated method, following a seminal study by Risager (2018), is an attempt to adapt the proposed content analysis of the textbooks into GIS tools in order to capture the geographic dimension of the content. The method serves as a stepping stone towards the creation of a model to analyse and identify the attitudes toward the cultural content of educational materials. This will not only enable a more authentic classroom experience responding to the needs of particular groups of students and teachers but also look for ways to make the textbooks more inclusive.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue analysis of selected works by Leonardo da Vinci<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This research presents the results of the cartometric analysis of two Leonardo da Vinci’s works, i.e. the <italic>Mapa mundi</italic> and <italic>A map of Imola</italic>. The analysis of the <italic>Mapa mundi</italic> was conducted by employing various distortion measures and creating maps to show their distribution by distortion isograms. <italic>A map of Imola</italic> was analysed utilising MapAnalyst, taking advantage of the software’s tools, such as distortion grids, isolines of scale and local map rotation angles.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Kalisz by Andrzej Politalski from 1785 – a source edition in the Polish Historic Towns Atlas<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The plan of Kalisz by Andrzej Politalski is the oldest geometrically accurate depiction of the town. Compiled in 1785, it has survived to this day in a redrawing by Ottomar Wolle in 1878 at the scale of 1:3,000. The author discusses the process of developing the edition of Politalski’s plan for the “Kalisz” volume of the Historic Towns Atlas (HTA) and compares it with editions in other volumes. The most recent (2021) volumes developed in three different centres were chosen as comparative material: Biecz volume (Kraków); Fordon, 2<sup>nd</sup> edition (Toruń); and Racibórz (Wrocław). Each volume adopts different editorial rules, although, in general, they conform to the overarching principles of redrawing a map at the scale of 1:2,500. The differences touch on virtually all aspects (source material, scope of content, non-cartographic elements), but they are united by the aforementioned common scale and purpose. Developing the edition of Politalski’s plan was preceded by genetic analysis and the identification of filiation of its remaining copies. The original (1785) has not survived, nor has the first redrawing (1800). We only have a redrawing by Wolle (1878), which was the basis for the development of the plan for the HTA. In addition to this, we also have several other less significant versions. Politalski’s plan was georeferenced, its content was vectorised, and cartographical representation was created. The result has been put together with selected editions elaborated to date. A distinctive feature of the work on the “Kalisz” volume is the use of a redrawing of the original as a source plan, as it is – in fact – its historical edition. The author also draws attention to the issues of standardisation of data models and, consequently, of legends between particular volumes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue projections of a tri-axial ellipsoid based on isometric coordinates: history, methodology, and examples<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents a review of the conformal projections of a tri-axial ellipsoid and the methodology of creating these projections with the use of isometric coordinates. The concept is very simple and has been known for a long time; if isometric coordinates are introduced on the surface of the original and on the plane of the image, then any analytical function of the complex variable, i.e. a function that has a continuous derivative, creates a conformal projection. The introduction presents the history of conformal projections. Then, existing projections are presented, including the Bugayevskiy projection and several projections developed by the author that apply selected functions of the complex variable. Scripts were prepared in the Octave software with the use of the presented methodology. Programming in Octave offers a possibility of a simple implementation of complex variable functions, which is also briefly discussed in the paper. The developed scripts were then used to perform calculations and to draw cartographic grids and distortion isolines in the selected conformal projections. The test object was the tri-axial ellipsoid that represents Phobos.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of automatic digital cartographic generalisation with the use of contractive self-mapping<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The research of modern cartography in the field of digital generalisation focuses on the development of such methods that would be fully automatic and give an unambiguously objective result. Devising them requires specific standards as well as unique and verifiable algorithms. In metric space, a proposal for such a method, based on contractive mapping, the Lipschitz and Cauchy conditions and the Banach theorem, using the Salishchev metric, was presented in the publication (Barańska et al., 2021). The method formulated there is dedicated to linear objects (polylines). The current work is a practical supplement to it. It presents the practical implementation of the algorithm for automatic and objective generalisation. The article describes an operational diagram of the subsequent stages of the proposed generalisation method. In the test example, a binary tree structure of an ordered polyline was created. It was simplified in two selected scales and its shape after generalisation was illustrated. The resulting polyline obtained by the fully automatic method was verified in terms of accuracy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the possibility of using key-value store NoSQL databases for IFC data processing in the BIM-GIS integration process<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article discusses the possibility of using Redis key-value NoSQL database to process building data in different BIM-GIS integration solutions. Whichever data integration model is adopted, it will require an efficient serving of building data in Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) format. The author proposed a method of processing building data in the Redis database to support the process of feeding IFC data to his own concept of an integrated BIM-GIS database. However, other approaches to BIM-GIS integration, including the import of IFC data to CityGML, or the construction of an integrated BIM-GIS solution based on data integration at the application server level or client application in client-server environments, also require an efficient IFC data serving mechanism. This article describes three methods of storing IFC data in a Redis database using different data types and formats. The author conducted performance tests of the proposed methods in the processing of fourteen test BIM models. The article contains detailed results of the model processing tests in the Redis database.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue sources as a base of knowledge about land use in selected areas in the north-western Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the research was to analyse land use changes and to develop a coherent base on the basis of available cartographic source materials – archival and contemporary topographic maps and spatial databases. The presented research is a continuation of works related to the cartographic visualization of changes in the distribution of the settlement network in the Noteć Forest – one of the largest forest complexes in Poland. The analysis was performed for nine villages together with their immediate surroundings, located in this area. The total surface area of lands covered by the study was 32,468 km<sup>2</sup>. Cartographic source materials were collected for selected areas. The archival maps were georeferenced and then digitized. In this way, the data has been transformed into a homogeneous system enabling further comparisons and analyses in an automated manner. Geodetic software (C-Geo), GIS (MapInfo, QGIS) and GNSS technology were used in the work. Cartographic sources can be successfully used for spatial analyses and environmental studies, providing reliable and available quantitative data. This type of research is important because it shows the changes taking place in the natural environment and can be used in works related to spatial planning, landscape ecology and social research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and improving map specifications of river network selection for automatic generalization of small-scale maps<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Automated generalization is highly desired for effective map production. This research focuses on the initial stage of generalization, namely object selection. The study aims to conduct river network automatic selection based on map specifications contained in the Minister of Internal Affairs and Administration regulation. The research covers river network selection from the General Geographic Objects Database from 1:250,000 to 1:500,000 detail level. Within the research scope, three selection variants were designed. The first was a basic variant that only included the implementation of the specifications contained in the regulation. The other two were experimental variants: an extended variant and an extended-modified variant with the parameters and data enrichment proposed by the authors. The extended variant has been supplemented with the Id_MPHP index usage, derived from the Map of Hydrographic Division of Poland (MPHP), which defines the hierarchy of watercourses in the river network. The extended-modified variant was implemented according to the guidelines of the regulation, with the use of the Id_MPHP index and additionally with the help of the parameter denoting “priority” watercourses, which was assigned by the authors. The results of the work constitute the generalization models designed in ArcMap 10.8. with the use of Model Builder functionality as well as the maps presenting the selection variants output visualizations. The results were compared visually as well as verified with the reference atlas map generalized by an experienced cartographer. As a result, the map specifications concerning the selection process presented in the regulation proved to be insufficient to generalize river networks properly. The variants proposed in this research made it possible to improve the selection results and enabled the automation of the river selection process. Additional specifications and parameters proposed in this work may constitute an essential supplement to the guidelines contained in the regulation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue navigation maps need a legend? Empirical assessment of the intuitiveness of point symbols on mobile maps<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Navigation applications and the mobile maps that are integral to them are now widely used all over the world. The most popular applications of this type, such as Google Maps, has more than a billion users a month. To save time, users of navigation applications generally use the maps without referring to their legends, which are not shown in the default settings. In such circumstances, only intuitive symbols are read correctly. Mobile maps often have an extensive system of point symbols (POIs – points of interests), and navigation applications sometimes differ significantly in the symbols they use. Point symbols have been the subject of theoretical considerations and empirical studies of users, but there is a lack of comparative research indicating more and less effective solutions for designing intuitive symbols on mobile maps. This article presents the results of empirical research on the intuitiveness of POI symbols used in selected navigation applications. The study was conducted in the form of a questionnaire with 127 respondents. The results confirmed the hypothesis that the analysed symbols used in navigation applications would differ in level of intuitiveness. In addition, features of design solutions that increase or decrease the intuitiveness of point symbols were identified.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue from (1750): a listing of plates and states<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper sets out to attempt identification of all known plates used to print maps included in the <italic>Atlas Silesiae</italic> and of all identified states of these maps. While the early states of the <italic>Atlas</italic> maps are relatively well studied (though far not in every detail), printings pulled from the same though deeply reworked plates, published in Nurnberg in the first two decades of the 19<sup>th</sup> c., are not always recognised as the late states of the same maps. For each of twenty maps from <italic>Atlas Silesiae</italic> listed are all identified states together with the most distinctive differences between them. Eleven copies of <italic>Atlas Silesiae</italic> were also examined in search for possible regularities of their composition in terms of states of the included maps. Public collections with exemplary copies of the <italic>Atlas</italic> maps in each state identified in the paper are listed in the Appendix.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Orthophotomap of Lublin 1944: from photographs to map application – idea, methods, contemporary challenges of processing and publishing archival aerial photographs<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The origins of aerial photography can be traced back to the second half of the 19<sup>th</sup> century, and periods of World Wars contributed to the development of techniques for developing and disseminating aerial photographs for military purposes. In the literature, we find descriptions of the Polish Military Geographical Institute’s (WIG) use of aerial photography to update topographic maps of nearly 40% of the country’s area at the time. Unfortunately, the fate of the pre-war collection of photographs is difficult to establish. Given this, the aerial photographs from the period of the Second World War (German and Allied) constitute the oldest possible complete and consistent photographic documentation of Poland. The series of German prints <italic>(373-GXPRINTS)</italic> collected at the <italic>National Archives and Records Administration</italic> in College Park (NARA, USA) are maintained according to the most liberal policy on access and further use. At the same time, the organisation of the NARA archive and the extent to which the collection has been digitised (over one million images) leave a deficiency, and searching for images requires knowledge, methods and experience.</p> <p>In 2020–2021, the Department of Geomatics and Cartography of the Maria Curie-Skłodowska University implemented the project <italic>Development of the Ortophotomap of Lublin 1939–1945</italic> (NCN, Miniatura 4.0. No. 2020/04/X/HS4/00382). The result of the project is a dedicated web portal <ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xmlns:xlink="" xlink:href=""></ext-link>, consisting of a digital repository of aerial images, a map application and standardised GIS raster data services. The author believes this is a unique source base, with unprecedented detail. The publication of the project results under the Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 4.0 licence is intended to foster the widest possible use of wartime aerial images in scientific research and popularisation activities.</p> <p>The process of developing a historical orthophotomap, as presented in the article, is universal and can be repeated on any set of aerial photographs. At the same time, development work is needed to automate the operations as fully as possible. In conclusion, current challenges and prospects for the development of historical orthophotomaps of national coverage are indicated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue