rss_2.0Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research Culture and Sport. Studies and Research 's Cover Activities of the Polish YMCA in the Interwar Period<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Young Men’s Christian Association (YMCA) appeared in Poland in 1918. Three years later, the American branch of the organization ceased its activity in this country. In its place the Christian Young People Association ‘Polska YMCA’ (The Polish YMCA) was established. This organization, although maintained contact with the centers of organizations in other countries, remained fully independent. The Polish YMCA was most active in large cities and centers of particular symbolic and economic importance for the Second Republic of Poland – Warsaw, Cracow, Łódź and Gdynia. The Polish YMCA was one of the most active and efficient social organizations dealing with physical education and sport in interwar Poland. It gained considerable popularity and was one of the most important institutions offering extracurricular activities for young people. One of the reasons for its success was its excellent material base. The Polish YMCA successfully built three representative buildings in the center of Cracow, Warsaw and Łódź in the interwar period. Their construction was partially financed by American funds. There were sports equipment, rare in interwar Poland, such as indoor swimming pools, sports halls and indoor tennis courts located in there. The Polish YMCA also developed the infrastructure of summer camps.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Complex Ice Hockey Team Performance Model based on Expert Interviews<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Scientific research focusing on ice hockey is growing, although a complex model describing team performance is yet to be added to the knowledge base. The purpose of the study is to finalize the authors’ proposed model of ice hockey team performance and gain insights on how the included factors contribute to the operation of the team and the coach. Based on the processed literature, it was assumed that the psychological aspect is among the key factors contributing to team performance. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with highly qualified experts on Hungarian ice hockey (five national team coaches and five senior national team players). The results indicate that the psychological factors of the coach and the team are essential for high team performance, along with the influence ability of both sides, creating two-way communication and feedback loops. The practical knowledge of the coach was emphasized over theoretical knowledge, and the team’s tactical knowledge was emphasized over technical knowledge. It also emerged that the coach must know the team well in order to make appropriate decisions. The role of the coach is no longer to act as a stressor, but rather to set a good example as a role model while remaining open to feedback from the team’s side. It was concluded that although many psychological methods are available to improve performance, the use of these methods has not yet been sufficiently exploited. While the use of these methods could improve performance, the team could experience more success and make sporting activity a fundamental part of players’ health through bonding and belonging.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Bullying in Physical Education: Awareness of Physical Education Teachers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigates how physical education (PE) teachers make sense of peer bullying, which types of behaviors they associate with peer bullying, their opinions about these behaviors, and methods for preventing bullying. The study group consisted of 18 PE teachers. The interview technique was used as a qualitative research method in the study. The data obtained after one-on-one interviews were analyzed through content analysis. According to the data obtained, PE teachers are the most important variable in the decrease or increase of peer bullying in classes. However, PE classes provide a suitable environment for the emergence of peer bullying. Additionally, bullying caused by the individual characteristics of students and environmental reasons can increase in schools, and there are generally no collective intervention programs within schools to prevent it. According to the teachers’ opinions, some of the important results are that students who are exposed to bullying experience the same fear every week in PE lessons, and although it is known that the majority of them do not want to participate in the activity in order to avoid being bullied, no solution can be found.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Associations between Sports Videogames and Physical Activity in Children<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the associations of sports video gaming behaviour in the sociological concept of Physical Activity Relationships (PAR) and to see if sports video gaming differs by gender.</p> <p>Methods: A convenience sample of children between 11–12 years of age (n = 114) from three Finnish regions completed a questionnaire on perceptions of their video gaming and physical activity habits. Differences by gender were tested by contingency tables, and blockwise binary logistic regressions were used to examine the strength of association with physical activity behaviour in PAR.</p> <p>Results: Almost all girls had low importance to video gaming and over two thirds (71%) reported their frequency in sports video gaming was less than monthly. Sports video gaming was positively associated with physical activity behaviours (OR = 3.4, CI = 1.3–9.0), but when combined with perceived physical activity importance and spectating in sports, the association was no longer statistically significant. There were no differences in gender for non-sports video gaming.</p> <p>Conclusions: For children who partake in sports video games, the activity can be an integral part of their overall PAR. These preliminary results require further exploring prior to drawing societal implications or sports video games or applying them for intervention to promote physical activity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-23T00:00:00.000+00:00COVID-19 Sport Transformation: New Challenges and New Opportunities<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The new pandemic lifestyle advocates new rules for sport at all levels, from amateur to elite. Consequently, it has transformed the ways in which sports are performed and consumed, provoking demand for new technologies and/or the development of existing ones. This paper aims to identify, describe, and visualize the process of sport transformation as radical internal and external industry changes brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. It is intended to qualitatively explain the current ‘metamorphoses’ in the field and subsequently answer the question of how the COVID-19 pandemic drastically changed all aspects of sports and physical culture. The literature and empirical dataset (qualitative open-ended written interviews, N = 147) were analysed in the spirit of grounded theory, referring to the holistic approach. The results demonstrated that the COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented effect on sports by touching on all aspects, levels, and stakeholders. The paper also outlines challenges and opportunities for the industry in these extraordinary times. The key dimensions of transformation are identified and explained. The findings of this research have significant implications for the understanding of how COVID-19 gave rise to the transformation of sports in different aspects. This study adds to the growing body of research on the positive and negative impacts of COVID-19 on sports, new technologies demand, and the transformation of sports.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-23T00:00:00.000+00:00The Problematic Institutional Context of Greek Football and the Role of FIFA and UEFA<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Greek football is on the periphery of European football and it frequently faces scandals and corruption issues. Also, there appears to be a correlation between the wider social and political context and football. Additionally, FIFA and UEFA arguably have contributed to the fate of Greek football. For example, in the past when the Greek government tried to intervene in football, FIFA prevented them several times with the threat of a ban. During the previous years, FIFA and UEFA decided to cooperate with the Greek government and play a more active role in Greek football. However, little has changed in the governance of Greek football. This study has examined the context, critical incidents and the role of actors in Greek football. By using the Institutional Theory approach, our analysis indicates that the institutional context is highly problematic, as the big clubs dominate the institutional mechanisms of football. Corruption appears to be deeply embedded in the structures and operations of football, while the Hellenic Football Federation is controlled by the big clubs. In parallel, there is no plan for the overall development of football, from the grassroots to the elite level. The study concludes with a recommendation for the reformation of Greek football.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Negative Focus, Self-Doubt, and Issues of ‘Tool Proficiency’: Beginner-Coaches’ Reflections on Reflective Practice<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the field of sports coaching education and learning, reflective practice is considered central to transforming experience and knowledge into expertise, and many governing bodies execute this through professional development and specific guidelines (Vallance, 2019). However, whilst the general consensus within academia and the vocational sector of coaching continue to espouse this approach, there is a lack of evidence to suggest how this is useful for beginner-coaches (defined as emerging-new, with less than three years of experience) as studies generally focus on expert coaches and oftentimes sit within the context of performance and/or elite sport. This study, therefore, aimed to explore the benefits and limitations of reflective practice, and to identify aspects of ideal learning for in-situ, practice-based context as perceived by beginner-coaches who operate more within recreational (although still competitive) sport fields. Situated within the UK context, the methodology comprised of semi-structured interviews conducted with six beginner-coaches. The findings demonstrated that whilst there were tangible benefits to the use of reflective practice (such as perceived additional competency and critical thinking), there were also limitations centred on time constraints, and an over-focus on negative emotions with a subsequent adverse impact on self-confidence and anxiety. The implications, including recommendations and thoughts for the future, are outlined within the paper.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Applying Dyer’s Star Theory to Sport: Understanding the Cultivation of Athlete Stardom<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Sports stars and heroes have always been a product of the times in which they have existed and, as such, athlete stars, largely constructed by and through the media, have evolved over time. In particular, the meanings of characteristics that have defined stars of different generations have changed as society’s expectations and social norms have evolved. This can be understood through Richard Dyer’s (1998) star theory, which states that to cultivate their stardom a celebrity must resonate with the ideals, values, and spirit of the time.</p> <p>This theoretical paper aims to highlight how Dyer’s star theory – originally developed as a means of understanding the construction of movie stars by mainstream media – can be used to understand the ways in which athlete stars can promote star attributes to cultivate their stardom by displaying modern values and presenting themselves as both “ordinary” and “extraordinary.” By creating a framework for understanding the process of creating athlete stardom, we are also able to begin to understand how athletes’ social media activities and stardom will evolve in the future, thus creating an important tool for athletes and their managers responsible for enhancing their brand. To expound and enrich the theory a survey of sports fans is included. The survey responses provide insights into how the expectations of fans can influence social athlete social media strategies and the cultivation of athlete stars.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-17T00:00:00.000+00:00The Crisis of Physical Education in the Discourse of Mimicry: Ukrainian and Global Contexts<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study presents a qualitative analytical approach through a critical analysis of data to critically describe, interpret, and explain the crisis in physical education (PE) in Ukraine and the world. The subject of consideration is the Ukrainian PE curriculum, which must be followed by all teachers when making lesson plans. Among the many different obstacles for Ukrainian PE, the study focused on one of the most important and hidden barriers, which is a kind of multiplier of the crisis – the culture of mimicry. Institutional mimicry is a serious problem that has been poorly analyzed, but it is actually very significant and often causes crises or slows down the progress of PE. Ignoring or failing to understand the factor of mimicry reduces the possibility of escaping a crisis or even makes escape impossible. The results show that the mimicry of PE is at least two-tiered: on the one hand, it is bureaucratic (external), and on the other, it is “internal” (based on tradition). Mimicry in the Ukrainian reality of PE is not advertised, but there is almost no alternative path for development. The constant mimicry of PE in Ukraine has created a paradoxical situation in which scientific expediency yields to politics and eventually leads to a new crisis. The study shows that there is a missing culture of influence on political decisions in Ukraine. Ukrainian PE teachers have a culture of mimicry, not a culture of leadership. The Ukrainian PE curriculum for secondary schools contains contradictions in its theoretical and practical parts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-17T00:00:00.000+00:00The Culture of Narcissism: A Philosophical Analysis of “Fitspiration” and the Objectified Self<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article is a philosophical examination of the social media culture of fitness and the behavior which most distinctly characterizes it. Of the numerous and varied digital subcultures emerging with the rise of photo-based social media during the 2010s, the culture surrounding fitness, or “fitspiration,” stands out as one of the more notable. Research has identified the phenomenon as consisting to a large extent of users engaging in behaviors of self-sexualization and self-objectification, following, not unexpectedly, the inherent focus within fitness on the body, its maintenance and ultimately its appearance. Research also demonstrates that, for many, viewing and engaging in this behavior is linked to a deterioration of body-image, general self-perception and mental well-being. In this article, I analyze the phenomenon within a philosophical framework in which I combine the philosophical theory of Jean Baudrillard on media and the consumption of signs and the psychoanalytic perspective of Jacques Lacan on subjectivity, narcissism and desire. Using this framework, I discuss the body assuming the properties of a commodified object deriving its cultural value and meaning from the signs which adorn it, resulting in the “fitspiration” user imperative becoming the identification with an artificial object alien to the self, necessitating a narcissistically oriented, yet pernicious self-objectification. I argue that “fitspiration,” as well as the photo-based social media which both enables and defines it, indulges narcissism, detrimentally exaggerating the narcissistic inclinations lying at the center of subjectivity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Prevalence of Bullying in Grassroots Soccer in Spain: Victims, Bullies, and Bystanders<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Bullying is a social problem that has been studied most in schools but affects other social contexts. However, there is a general lack of studies on bullying in sports. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of bullying among youth soccer players. Participants were 1,980 soccer players (88.2% boys) aged 8 to 13 years (M<sub>age</sub> = 10.5, SD = 1.68) from 25 clubs in Catalonia, Spain. An ad hoc questionnaire was administered to analyze the prevalence and characteristics of bullying from the perspective of victims, bullies, and bystanders. The overall bullying victimization rate was 8.9%, with higher rates observed in the younger categories (<italic>p</italic> &lt; .001); 5.2% of victims experienced bullying in both their soccer club and at school. The bullying and bystander rates were 14.8% and 34.7%, respectively, with significant differences between boys and girls (15.5% of boys and 9% of girls were bullies [<italic>p</italic> &lt; .05], while 36.4% of boys and 21.9% of girls were bystanders [<italic>p</italic> &lt; .001]). Verbal bullying was the main type of bullying reported. The locker room and pitch were the most common locations, and victims were more likely to deal with bullying on their own than to ask for help. Bullying is present in grassroots soccer, and anti-bullying programs are needed to instill ethical and moral values in athletes and equip coaches with the necessary skills to prevent, detect, and address bullying situations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-17T00:00:00.000+00:00The Corruption Formation Process in Iranian Football<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigates the corruption formation process in Iranian football. Data was collected using library studies as well as 18 in-depth and semi-structured interviews with football industry stakeholders. The research data were analyzed through the coding process in three stages: open, pivotal and selective. Grounded Theory was used to determine the initial list of corruption causes. Then, interpretive structural modeling and MICMAC analysis were utilized. Having analyzed the data, the researchers classified the variables into four different levels, and after MICMAC analysis, we divided the variables into two groups of independent and dependent variables. None of the variables were included in the group of autonomous and linkage variables. The results showed that at the highest level, corrupt governance of football (including weak football federation statutes, government control of football, and weak governance in football) was the most influential factor. At the third level, the key factor was structural dysfunction which was underpinned by both weak management and supervision in football. At the second level, defective agreements and monitoring (consisting of weak rules and regulations and inefficient national and club contracts) was significant. At the first level, financial dysfunction (including money laundering and economic and financial factors), bias and opportunism (by journalists and agents), and corruption of human resources (comprising coercion and nurturing corrupt forces) were influential. The findings showed that the managerial level has a major role in preventing corruption.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of Customer Experience Quality on Loyalty in Fitness Services<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Customer experience quality is an important and relatively new concept for service businesses in gaining a sustainable competitive advantage. Although the literature on customer experience quality is expanding, there is a gap concerning the antecedent and consequences of customer experience in fitness services. In this context, we tested a model that explains the precursors and implications of customer experience quality in the context of fitness services. This study was based on a non-experimental, depictive, and descriptive design. Within the scope of this study, 287 participants (216 male, 71 female) selected through a convenience sampling technique applied a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed through confirmatory factor analysis and a structural equation model. The findings show that service result quality, customer–employee interaction quality, and customer–customer interaction quality affect customer experience quality, which in turn affects customer loyalty. These results show that improving the service outcome quality results in customers who experience high-quality customer–employee and customer–customer interactions becoming loyal customers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Virtual reality and consumer behavior: constraints, negotiation, negotiation-efficacy, and participation in virtual golf<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The emergence of virtual sports shows promises in encouraging participation among those who may be constrained from participating in traditional recreational sports (Choi et al., 2019). To maximize virtual sports’ potential in increasing sports participation, this study aimed to investigate the relationships between constraints, negotiation, negotiation-efficacy, and participation. Results from virtual golf participants found that, as predicted, (a) constraints had a negative direct influence on participation, (b) negotiation-efficacy had a negative direct influence on constraints, (c) negotiation-efficacy had a positive direct influence on negotiation, and negotiation had a positively direct influence on participation. The findings of this study indicated that reduced constraints did not result in increasing virtual golf consumers’ participation because negotiation did not play a significant role in their decision to participate. Thus, the current study provides a comprehensive understanding of interrelationships among leisure participation, constraints, and negotiation, particularly extending to the context of virtual golf.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-05T00:00:00.000+00:00The effect of an interdisciplinary Greek traditional dance programme on Middle School students’ goal orientation and anxiety<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of an interdisciplinary program of Greek folk dance, with topics from history and geography on Middle School students’ goal orientation and anxiety level. The sample consisted of 260 students (134 boys &amp; 126 girls). The experimental group (n=144) followed the interdisciplinary four-week program (two lessons per week) while the control group (n=126) followed the corresponding typical physical education program. For the data collection, the questionnaire used was the “Goal orientation” by Papaioannou, Milosis, Kosmidou, and Tsiggilis (2002) and the Greek version (Kakkos &amp; Zervas, 1996) of “Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2” (Martens et al., 1990). The students filled in the questionnaires before and after their participating in each program. Descriptive statistics, reliability analysis, and Repeated Measures ANOVA were used. Results showed that a. Cronbach’s alpha was satisfactory. b. Τhe experimental group decreased significantly the levels of “ego-strengthening” and “ego-protection”, and on the contrary significantly increase the “personal development”, and “social acceptance”. c. Experimental group’s boys and girls decreased their “ego-strengthening” and “ego-protection”, and enhanced their “personal development” and “social acceptance” more than their control group peers. d. The experimental group decreased the levels of somatic and cognitive anxieties and increased significantly their self-confidence. e. male students increased their self-confidence more than female students. These findings support the view that an interdisciplinary program of traditional Greek dance with issues from history and geography enable us to reduce the rates of ego-strengthening, ego-protection, somatic and cognitive anxiety while simultaneously increases students’ personal development, social acceptance, and self-confidence</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Factors directing individuals to computer games in the process of evaluating recreational activities<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This study aims to examine the motivational factors that direct individuals to computer games in the process of evaluating leisure activities. The study is designed in descriptive and relational survey models, which are among the quantitative research patterns. A total of 1677 individuals participated in the study. A personal information form and the Computer Gaming Motivation Scale were used. An independent sample t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and Pearson correlation test were used to analyze the data. According to the results, there were significant differences in the concentration, entertainment, escape, learning, and socialization sub-dimensions of the participants in favor of the groups playing in Internet cafes. The findings indicate that when more time is spent with information and communication technologies, there is a decrease in concentration and an increase in entertainment and escape. Furthermore, when the relationship between the sub-dimensions of the scale was examined, positively moderate and high correlations were found among concentration, entertainment, escape, learning, and socialization. As a result, rapid technological changes and developments provide many opportunities for individuals. It is thought that individuals’ busy work lives and monotonous daily routines cause them to prefer easily accessible activities during their leisure time.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Coach or sensei? His group relations in the context of tradition<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In the perspective of the General Theory of Fighting Arts, an analysis of socio-cultural factors that determine the opposition of the role of a teacher of martial arts (Jap. sensei) to the role of a sports trainers was undertaken. The structural cultural context, cultural patterns, and social institutions resulting from divergent goals were taken into account. The roles of teachers and trainers result from these conditions. The existence of the separate roles of the master-teacher in martial arts and the sports trainer was established. These roles manifest themselves in different relations with students or players. Democratic and egalitarian interactions in sports teams include player and coach relations. In traditional martial arts, the dominance of the teacher is more accepted. However, there is also a social position combining the features of the sensei and the trainer that is typical for combat sports that are also martial arts (participating in sports competitions). As there are relationships of subordination in the hierarchical societies of Japan and Korea, there is no problem with recognizing the primary role of the sensei in these cultures. The position of the master-teacher is also sanctified by tradition. Reducing educational systems, which are the paths of martial arts, to oriental varieties of sports would be a serious factual mistake.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Participating in sports and practicing a religion are related to levels of happiness<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The objective of this study was to ascertain whether happiness varies depending on sports participation and religious practice. The sample comprised 2,378 participants aged between 18 and 92 years. All analysis were carried out by testing the interaction effects of the variables of sex and age on sports participation, religious practice, and happiness. We found a high average level of happiness (<italic>M</italic> = 7.299, range 0–10). However, people who do not participate in sports or practice a religion indicated a level of happiness (<italic>M</italic> = 6.979) that was statistically lower than that of the other groups: people who practice a religion but do not participate in sports (<italic>M</italic> = 7.135); people who participate in sports but do not practice a religion (<italic>M</italic> = 7.478); and people who both participate in sports and practice a religion (<italic>M</italic> = 7.717). We conclude that happiness is associated with sports participation and religious practice, although with small or very small effect sizes (all <italic>p</italic>&lt; 0.050; <italic>η<sup>2</sup><sub>p</sub></italic> between 0.008 and 0.020).</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Social support and sports participation motivations of female adolescents in India - study of age transition and achievement level<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Motivation is likely a pivotal factor contributing to sports participation. In India, because of the unsupportive sports/physical education environment, girls participate less in sports and other physical activities than boys. Therefore, embedding a planned healthy environment with good social support may maximize and, consequently, increase their participation in various sports and physical activities. Considering this unabated dialogue and assuming that motivation is a pivotal need for female sports participation, this study examined the differences in motivation to participate in sports among female adolescents across three age categories: early (11–14 years old), middle (15–18 years old), and late (19–21 years old) adolescence. A total of 528 female adolescents from Assam, India participated in the study. Participation in physical education courses was the criterion for the participants, and they were invited to complete the Participation Motivation Questionnaire. A factor analysis with direct oblimin rotation using the maximum likelihood extraction method yielded a 23-item, five-factor structure that exhibited moderate internal consistency. An ANOVA revealed significant differences across all three age categories regarding all the extracted factors. Moreover, t-tests of all sub-factors identified significant differences between the two achievement levels of district-level and inter-district-level athletes. This study provides sound psychometric and comparative results that are useful for education and formative reviews in applied settings and research purposes. It also serves as a measurement tool for embedding motivation to participate in physical activities and sports among female adolescents and the development of strategic ideas to assist female adolescents from less privileged areas to experience healthy growth and a healthy lifestyle.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Football Fans’ Views on the Passolig E-Ticket System and the Decrease in Stadium Attendance: The Case of the Turkish Football Super League<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this research is to investigate the reasons behind the decline in stadium attendance in the Turkish Football Super League since the implementation of the Passolig e-ticket system as well as football fans’ views on this system. The research sample consisted of football fans living in the province of Sakarya. The total number of participants was 500. A questionnaire comprising three parts was used for data collection. The first part of the questionnaire included questions aimed at identifying personal details of the participants; the second part included questions intended to identify their viewpoints on Passolig; the third part asked about their opinions concerning the reasons behind the decline in stadium attendance. The questionnaire contained 38 questions in total, 37 of which were prepared in the form of a five-point Likert scale with an additional open-ended question to identify participants’ opinions of Passolig. Quantitative data obtained through the study were evaluated using the IBM SPSS 25.0 software package, and qualitative analysis methods were employed for coding the questions about participants’ opinions. The study concluded that based on the opinions of the participants, Passolig has not been able to fulfill its intended functions of increasing stadium attendance, minimizing violence, and preventing ticket touting. The participants view Passolig as a means of generating unearned income and understand its implementation as one of the main reasons for the decline in stadium attendance. Besides the implementation of Passolig, high ticket prices, the weak financial situation of fans, and media broadcasts that provoke violence were among the foremost reported reasons for the decline in stadium attendance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-26T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1