rss_2.0Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Physical Culture and Sport. Studies and Researchhttps://sciendo.com/journal/PCSSRhttps://www.sciendo.comPhysical Culture and Sport. Studies and Research Feedhttps://sciendo-parsed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6616437a1ae47050093d1212/cover-image.jpghttps://sciendo.com/journal/PCSSR140216The Importance of Sports Participation on Lithuanian Adolescents’ Social and Emotional Healthhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Global mental health rates are staggering. Youth mental health in sport is a topic with increasing research attention. To date, most youth sport research examines mental health from isolated events as opposed to a cumulative-assets framework. Our main research question examined sport participation group differences regarding four mental health domains; emotional competence, belief-in-others, belief-in-self, and engaged living, and the composite covitality meta-indicator. To answer our research questions, 1965 Lithuanian youths (60.10% female) ranging in age from 11 to 17 (<italic>M</italic> = 13.62, <italic>SD</italic> = 1.96) from urban and rural school districts completed our survey. Our results indicated many significant differences (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001) emerged for participant sex, age grouping, and sport participation (competitive, leisure, or none). Only for the sport participation were the MANOVA and ANOVA effect size values at least small in magnitude. In the follow-up analyses (all <italic>p’s</italic> &lt; 0.001), the competitive group differed from the no sport group (effect sizes medium-to-large) and to the leisure participant group (effect sizes small) in all four mental health domains and the meta-indicator covitality. Small-to-medium effect size values resulted between the leisure and no sport groups. Sport participation, even for leisure, is related to improved self-reported social and emotional health in our large sample. The practical implication is clear that all governments and such bodies should provide accessible and affordable sport participation opportunities, whether competitive or recreational. Longitudinal research, as a future direction in sport contexts, will help to best understand and move forward with youth mental health.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-00132024-04-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Executive Functions and Competitive Attitudes in Near-Elite Ice Hockey Playershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Ice hockey is considered one of the most competitive sports, and it requires physical and mental preparation to perform appropriately under the pressure of a competitive environment. The present study aims to investigate the impact of competitive sports on executive functions such as emotion regulation, inhibitory control, working memory, and competitive attitudes among near-elite ice hockey players. Near-elite athletes have been gathered (N = 67) from the four Hungarian Ice-Hockey Academies. Our results indicated a small positive association between Canadian points and maladaptive emotion regulation and a slight positive correlation between maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation and false alarms of the N-back task. The result revealed a significant difference between National and Non-National Team members in maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation regarding hypercompetitive attitude. The result of linear regression revealed that maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation significantly predicts false alarms, indicating that the maladaptive cognitive emotion regulation explains 10% of the variance. In conclusion, we highlight the role of the environment, which affects executive functions and competitive attitudes alongside sports performance. Although the findings were mainly correlational, we can conclude that the nature of competitive ice hockey expects certain behavior for the players indifferent of the situation that could lead to emotion suppression, rumi-nation and other maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. We can also conclude that inadequate emotion regulation might be related to the overstimulation of players, characterized by a hypersensitive state to stimuli. We suggest that practitioners ensure the development of adequate competitive attitudes of players to enable long-term physical and psychological benefits.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-00152024-03-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Anti-doping and National Politics: An Ethnography in Brazilian Anti-doping Around the Era of the Rio de Janeiro Gameshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study is based on an investigation into the Brazilian anti-doping policy, with a specific focus on the establishment and operational mechanisms of the Brazilian Doping Control Authority (ABCD), under the auspices of the Ministry of Sport (ME). The objective was to describe how Brazilian national policy (general political decisions, interests of parties or particular politicians/agents) affects the fight against doping and, vice versa, how the harmonization process controlled by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) affects national sports policy. A multi-sited ethnographic study was undertaken, involving field diary practices, interviews and document analysis. Adopting the perspective of pragmatic sociology, this study delves into the descriptions of three key periods in the recent history of anti-doping in Brazil: the creation of ABCD and the dissolution of ANAD (National Anti-Doping Agency), the realization of the first 100 anti-doping tests by the ABCD (critical period for its members who managed to keep away ex-officers from ANAD) and the impeachment of the Brazilian president in 2016 (ex-officers from ANAD took over the direction of the ABCD). Our analysis allowed us to conclude that ‘diverting others from decision-making spheres’ comprised a political strategy to occupy spaces of power or to stabilize itself in them, which, in this case, allowed the control of anti-doping actions in the country. Local protagonists tried to make use of international injunctions and pressure or local political events to achieve these goals.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-00162024-03-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Olympism in School and Competitive Anxiety: Its Influence on Participants and Their Perceptionshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Anxiety is one of the most widespread mental health disorders worldwide. It is prevalent throughout the life cycle and appears in multiple contexts, such as sports.In line with the idea of sport as a means of promoting integral health, the Andalusian Olympic Foundation promotes Olympic values through the “Olympism in School” programme. This programme, developed in two phases – theoretical and practical (including a “Mini Olympics”) – aims to improve the psychological development of participants through sporting competition. In order to demonstrate whether the management of factors such as competitive anxiety was achieved through this programme, 153 children aged 10-13 completed a socio-demographic data questionnaire and the SAS-2 questionnaire after participating in sporting events. The results showed that the participants endured intermediate levels of competitive anxiety (with greater weight given to the worry factor) and that the anxiety was greater in children not used to competition or who did not usually enjoy it. These findings indicate that competition is a factor related to anxiety in children and that strategies for managing the impact of the competitive context are necessary to enable enjoyment and healthy participation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-00122024-03-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Validation of The Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy – CAPL-2 Questionnaire for German and Polish School Childrenhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Physical literacy (PL) is a lifelong process of developing the motivation, confidence, physical competence, knowledge and understanding to value and take responsibility for engaging in physical activity throughout life. It is also an important concept for understanding and promoting physical activity in children and adolescents and is becoming a theoretical basis for analysing physical education in schools. One of the best known, well-operationalised assessments of PL is the Canadian Assessment of Physical Literacy – CAPL-2. The aim of the study was to translate and culturally adapt the CAPL-2 questionnaires in two EU languages, German and Polish. Data from Poland and Germany were combined for this study, with a total sample size of N=802, consisting of 58.6% Polish and 41.4% German students. We used the TRAPD (the Translation, Review, Adjudication, Pre-test and Documentation) approach to translate the CAPL-2 questionnaires. The main results of this study show that the proposed Polish and German versions of the CAPL-2 questionnaires are satisfactory for use in research or for teachers to assess PL in physical education. Our results also indicate better predictive characteristics of the CAPL-2 questionnaires for children who are very close to or who meet the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) recommendations for health as defined by the WHO. We recommend that adaptations be made that are consistent with the original Canadian version, but which are deeply embedded in the language and culture of the country in question, especially in their wording and terminology.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-00142024-02-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of Remote Working on Recreational Physical Activity (RPA) Behaviours – a Case Study of the Covid-19 Lockdown in Polandhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this article is to describe and explain changes in people’s recreational behaviours caused by the shift to remote work (RW) or work from home (WFH) due to lockdowns during the Covid-19 pandemic. A literature review revealed a cognitive, methodological and applicative gap in this area. This relationship has not been analysed so far, particularly among Poles.</p> <p>The authors developed an electronic questionnaire using a framework designed to study RPA behaviours. A survey based on the questionnaire was conducted from 20 May to 31 Oct. 2020 and included 533 respondents, with 371 people experiencing changes at work, 280 of whom shifted to RW/WFH. A combination of quantitative and qualitative data analysis methods (descriptive statistics and content analysis techniques, affinity diagram, relationship diagram) was used to analyse the survey results. The results of the qualitative analysis allowed a description of changes in the respondents’ lifestyles induced by the transition to RW/WFH. The results of the quantitative data analysis showed unequivocally that taking up RW/WFH had a negative impact on RPA behaviours. The frequency and duration of workouts decreased.</p> <p>The novelty lies in demonstrating the relationship between remote working/work from home and RPA and the inventive methodological approach. The results are universal and can be used to design work-life balance programmes for remote employees.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-00112023-12-26T00:00:00.000+00:00The Complex Club-Fan Relationship: A Glimpse into Stakeholders’ Experience With the Aggressive Interventions of Fanshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aims to understand the club-fan relationship from the standpoint of club owners, CEOs, and head coaches (i.e., managers). Eight in-depth interviews were conducted with prominent figures from professional football and basketball in Israel. The current findings indicate that while clubs need the support of their fans, they often find themselves struggling with their aggressive behavior and demands to influence the club’s decision-making processes. First, this qualitative research provides an important insight into the unique experience of pivotal decision-makers in professional sports. Second, we apply the <italic>complexity</italic> lens to discuss the challenges faced by such stakeholders when trying to manage fans’ disruptive interventions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-00092023-12-22T00:00:00.000+00:00European Cities of Sport as a Strategic Policy for Local Development of Sports: A Perspective from Sports Management in the Last Decadehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>European sports policies have focused on the implementation of public instruments and policy measures, aiming to encourage EU member states to promote and improve sports habits, while simultaneously tackling high levels of sedentary lifestyle among Europeans. Despite these efforts, data concerning the various measures is quite limited, making it impossible to assess the real impact on the population, particularly in the case of the European Cities of Sport. This award has been held since 2007 and has already distinguished 193 cities; however, current knowledge does not allow researchers to theorise about its multiple impacts as a strategic policy instrument for the local development of sport in Europe, thus constituting a gap within sports management research. In order to further this knowledge, we explored European reality over a decade (2013–2022), analysing nine awards of Portuguese cities. We employed qualitative methods for documentary analysis of public information and descriptive statistics for data analysis. The results show that over 2 600 multidisciplinary events were organised, among which 402 had an international character (15%), an average of 50 sports disciplines per edition, 359 events related to culture and education, and involved over 1 000 000 participants, with an overall investment of over €39 million. This research now allows a theoretical-scientific and operational referential pattern of key indicators to be established for future European ECS applications, while demonstrating an encouraging relationship, from a sports perspective and economically, between public investment made and estimated return, thus contributing to better political decisions and to the positive implications of increasing public investment in sport.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-00102023-12-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Unveiling the Impact of Mobile Fitness Applications on Motivational Orientation in Sustaining Exercise Behaviors: A Qualitative Investigationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Notably, a lack of motivation appears as a significant contributing factor to physical inactivity, which raises one’s susceptibility to noncommunicable diseases. While research indicates a strong link between smartphone fitness applications (apps) and people’s motivational orientation towards physical activity and exercise, the theoretical basis of fitness app features for sustaining exercise routines remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the utility of fitness apps as a behaviour modification tool on people’s motivation to maintain physical activity and exercise behaviour. Using individual semi-structured interviews, we collected detailed accounts from nine active male and female fitness app users (<italic>M</italic><sub>age</sub> = 23.4 years, <italic>SD</italic> = 2.8). The findings of both inductive and deductive reflective thematic analysis revealed core themes emphasising that the use of fitness apps satisfies the participants’ psychological needs through fostering emotions of competence, autonomy, and relatedness. Furthermore, fitness apps make it easier to track progress, challenge oneself, and compete against other exercisers, which further motivates participants to sustain their exercise behaviours. Confirming the use of fitness apps as an effective behaviour change tool for sustaining healthy exercise routines, the findings offer valuable feedback on specific app features for fitness software and wearable device developers that could potentially enhance the functionality and impact of their apps. Further discussions include limitations and areas for future research, such as discerning the role of fitness apps in sustaining motivation among diverse age groups with specific health, sport, or lifestyle goals in varying sensory, social, and affective contexts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-00082023-12-22T00:00:00.000+00:00What Does a Modern Coach Need to Become a Master in Dialogue with a Player?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the research was to discover students’ opinions on the characteristics and qualities of a coach that, in their opinion, determine the structure of a relationship based on dialogue in the process of sports training. A diagnostic survey was used for the research by asking the respondents an open-ended question: „What do you expect from a coach who you would consider to be a master in dialogue with an athlete?”. The study involved 103 students of the Józef Piłsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw studying in the first year of full-time studies, majoring in sport. There were 80 men (77.7%) and 23 women (22.3%) in the study group. The average age of the respondents was 19.3 years. 76.3% of the students surveyed stated that they do sports. An analysis of the students’ statements was conducted in relation to the normative model of the personality of a physical culture specialist (Hodan &amp; Żukowska 1996), which distinguishes three dimensions of this profession: specialist, pedagogue and human being. The analysis of the statements clearly indicates that, in their opinion, in order for a coach to become a master in dialogue with an athlete, he or she must strive to develop his or her competences, which are defined by all three dimensions indicated above.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-00072023-12-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Experience Quality Scale for Fitness Centers (EQSFC): Validity and Reliability Studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to develop a valid and reliable tool for measuring the perceptions of quality of experience for fitness center members. The research was conducted with two different sample groups who are current members of fitness centers. A total of 317 (141 females, 176 males) fitness center members volunteered to participate in the explanatory and confirmatory factor analysis survey, and 250 (102 females, 148 males) fitness center members volunteered to participate in the criterion-dependent validity survey. For the validity and reliability studies for the scale, explanatory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, criterion-dependent validity, Cronbach’s alpha internal consistency, and composite reliability were used. As a result of the exploratory factor analysis conducted to indicate the structural validity of the scale, a five-factor scale with 17 items included in i) communication quality, ii) physical environment quality, iii) outcome quality, iv) access quality, and v) entertainment quality was identified, explaining 63% of the total variance. According to the analysis results for criterion-related validity, a statistically significant positive relationship was detected between communication quality (r=.422, p&lt;.001), physical environment quality (r=.582, p&lt;.001), outcome quality (r=.597, p&lt;.001), access quality (r=.458, p&lt;.001), entertainment quality (r=.697, p&lt;.001) and satisfaction. The results indicate that the scale can be used as a valid and reliable tool to measure the quality of experience perceived by individuals concerning the fitness center where they are members. In addition, it is thought that this scale, which details the factors that influence the customer experience in fitness centers for the first time, will provide an important contribution to the literature.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-00062023-11-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Causes and Consequences of Iranian Elite Athletes’ International Migrationshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to identify the causes and consequences of international migrations of Iranian elite athletes. This research was conducted using the qualitative method and Glaser grounded theory approach. The statistical population included senior managers in the Ministry of Sports and Youth and national sports federations, expert researchers in this field, professional athletes who have emigrated or were on the verge of emigration, and coaches in professional sports teams in Iran. Twenty-six people were selected through theoretical sampling and snowball methods. The data collection tool was a semi-structured individual interview. The Glaser approach was used to analyse the data, including two main stages of actual and theoretical coding. During the actual coding process, 468 primary statistical codes were identified, and 68 subcategories and 11 main categories were subsequently identified. The categories were divided into three general dimensions: “Factors affecting”, “Consequences”, and “Strategies” concerning “elite athletes’ emigration “; in the theoretical coding stage, the final model of the research was outlined. Identifying the causes and consequences of the emigration of elite athletes can significantly help the authorities to recognise problems in this area and provide appropriate solutions to retain adequate human capital in the country. We attempted to examine and present the causes and consequences of the emigration of Iranian elite athletes in the form of a model.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-00042023-11-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Analyzing the Relationship Between Individual Time Management Skills and Business Attitude of Sports Science Studentshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Individual time management skills and a business approach are two fundamental abilities required for success in any life. The goal of this study is to look at the connection between the individual time management skills and business attitudes of sports science students. The quantitative, descriptive study used structural equation modelling (SEM) as its methodology. Students from Tabriz city’s physical education and sports sciences departments helped collect the data. IBM<sup>®</sup> SPSS<sup>®</sup> AmosTM 23 was used to process the results of the study for model and hypothesis testing. This findings revealed a substantial relationship between individual time management abilities and business views of 126 students. Other research hypotheses examining the relationship between the business attitude and its constituent elements were similarly supported. According to the findings, prioritizing the notion of planning in personal and business life is one of the most effective time management approaches, and students should educate themselves concerning time management and business attitude.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-00052023-11-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Hygge in Iran? The Lived Experience of Physical Activity of Older Adults in the Neighborhood Environment in Tehranhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Physical activity is considered one of the most important components of daily activities and a healthy lifestyle for the older adult to achieve well-being. The purpose of this study is to explore older adults’ views on physical activity in the neighborhood environment. This study is qualitative and interpretive in nature. In this research, thematic analysis was used to identify, analyze and report patterns in the qualitative data, employing Braun and Clarke’s six-step inductive approach. Twenty-four active seniors in the Ekhtiarieh neighborhood of Tehran were interviewed in person. The purpose of the interview was to probe into the deep layers of the interviewees’ mindset and obtain valid information. The analysis of the data yielded <italic>Hygge</italic> as the global theme, and the three main themes of joyful emotions and behavior (Wellness Hygge), perceived social support (Neighborhood Hygge), and safety and security, as well as eight sub-themes. Although Hygge derives Danish culture and its national identity, The creation of a Hygge subculture in the neighborhood through physical activity can be considered as a collective effort to deal with the contradictions in the society with happiness. The findings of this research have been chosen as inspiring concepts for a better and healthier life, to reproduce simple cultural elements that do not exist in the situation of the local culture, by borrowing from the the culture of Denmark, the happiest country in the world.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-00022023-11-10T00:00:00.000+00:00An Evaluation of Athletes’ Opinions on Communication Barriers Caused by Coaches in the Interpersonal Communication Processhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Communication between athletes and coaches is essential in areas ranging from sporting performance to team cohesion, and a lack of proper communication between coach and athlete can cause many problems. This study aimed to assess the communication barriers caused by coaches as perceived by young adult athletes. Q methodology was used in the research design. The study group was recruited using the snowball sampling method, and a total of 27 athletes who met the criteria participated in the study. Principal component analysis was applied to analyze the data. It was concluded that the participants could be grouped under two factors, and a significance value of 0.50 was reached. In addition, communication barriers with athletes caused by coaches were analyzed in order of importance by giving Z-scores. As a result, the communication barriers arising from coaches were identified as discrimination, self-centeredness, bringing problems in their private life to work, having goals that conflict with the goals of athletes, inadequacies in knowledge transfer, and excessive expectations. This study reveals the adverse effects of communication barriers with coaches, especially early career athletes. It is also expected that the communication barriers identified will contribute to improved communication between coaches and athletes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-00032023-11-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Motivations and Expectations of Olympic Volunteers: Building a Legacy of Personal Development as a Key Factor for the Success of Sports Mega-Eventshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The scientific breakthrough in understanding the role of sports volunteers, as well as the importance of motivation and expectations management in decision-making, has boosted several studies, helping to reinforce the conceptual idea of a sports legacy, especially in relation to the participation and involvement of Olympic volunteers. In this sense, and reinforcing this idea, this study aimed to analyse and measure the perception of sports volunteers regarding the motivations and expectations arising from their participation in the Rio 2016 Olympic Games. The study followed a quantitative-descriptive and inferential methodology, with a validated sample of 828 responses collected through a semi-structured questionnaire adapted from the original VMS-ISE motivation scale. The results point to a reinforcement of the perceived importance and value associated with participation in the Olympic Games that translate into high levels of motivation and satisfaction by most of the volunteers involved. The most valued factors were the feeling of pleasure promoted by the experience, the possibility of personal and professional development, the passion for the Olympic Games, and the passion for sport. The majority of the candidates validated the post-event expectations as having exceeded their initial ones, and 92.0% of the volunteers would participate in a similar event again. The study allows the reinforcement of sports volunteers intentions and expectations, while validating and confirming previous studies on the importance of motivation and personal development in a successful recruitment strategy that fosters regular and consolidated participation of previous volunteers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2024-00012023-11-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Those Fighting with Burden on Their Back: Elite Taekwondo Players’ Perfectionism and Fear of Failurehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2023-0024<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to examine levels of perfectionism and fear of failure of elite athletes in the Turkish national taekwondo team through qualitative research methods. A total of 11 national team athletes (6 females and 5 males) participated in the research. The data were collected using a semi-structured interview technique. In the study, opinions, emotions and thoughts of elite national team athletes about the concept of perfectionism and fear of failure were determined. In the theme of perfectionism, there were 7 categories and 35 codes; in the theme of fear of failure, 6 categories and 36 codes were revealed. It might be concluded that perfectionism and fear of failure have a more complex structure than it seems for elite and high-ranking athletes, and this might affect their motivation in many positive and negative ways. In addition, it was found that when the coach is a family member, two concerns of athletes (the coach is upset due to failure, and the family is upset due to failure) come together. Therefore, those who are both a coach and parent should be more careful with their children/athletes. It should also be kept in mind that while perfectionism is a great source of motivation and self-confidence, it has the potential to make athletes drop out of sports.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2023-00242023-10-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Participation and Reasons for Non-participation in Sport and Recreational Activities Before and After the Outbreak of COVID-19: Analysis of Data From the 2016 and 2021 Poland National Sports Participation Surveyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2023-0025<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The ongoing study of factors that hinder physical activity (PA) supports the adaptation of intervention strategies to changing conditions and the creation of a more conducive environment for active lifestyles. The aim of the study was to analyze the barriers to Polish participation in sports and recreational activities (SRA) before and after the pandemic. Face-to-face interviews were conducted twice with a representative sample of Poles (in 2016 N=12183 household members, in 2021 N=8351). Descriptive statistical analysis was conducted using frequency and relative frequency (%). A Chi-square test of independence was used to analyze relationships between perceived barriers of non-participation in sports or physical recreation in 2016 and 2021 and the gender and age of respondents. In 2021, 38.8% (36.7% of women and 41.0% of men) declared participation in SRA (regularly or occasionally), with a 7.6 % point decrease in the number of those active compared to 2016. 20.6% of respondents participated in sports and recreation regularly in 2021. Compared to 2016, (21.7%) the difference was not statistically significant. Men declared regular participation more often than women (23.1% vs. 18.1% – 2021). Four main barriers were identified: (1) lack of free time – especially among 30 to 39-year-olds, 40 to 49-year-olds and men; (2) lack of interest, willingness or preference for passive leisure activities – especially among 15 to 19-year-olds; (3) having a medical condition and doctor’s contraindications – among 50 to 59-year-olds and 60 and older; and (4) age – especially among 60-year-olds.</p> <p>These barriers have not been overcome over time, and persisted or even gained in importance during the COVID-19 pandemic in addition to medical condition and doctor’s contraindications. We therefore turn our attention to eliminating these barriers, taking into account their importance in specific populations. It is essential to motivate people to overcome internal barriers through social support, health care, and government actions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2023-00252023-10-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Productive Organisational Energy and Performance in Estonian Football Organisationshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2023-0023<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Sports governance is a broad domain in which many ambitious goals are expected to be considered by top management. Attending to productive organisational energy may be the key to consolidating and amplifying efforts by members of sports organisations at individual, group and organisational levels in order to achieve those wide-ranging goals. The aim of the article is to discover whether Estonian football organisations with higher results for the dimensions of productive organisational energy also show higher performance. Overall, we reached about 14% of the population of players, coaching staff and management from football organisations in Estonia. Productive organisational energy was measured using affective, cognitive and behavioural dimensions (Cole et al., 2012). Rankings in the league tables for 2020, 2021 and 2022 reflected the performance of the football clubs. The results demonstrated that football clubs that had higher levels of productive organisational energy were mostly placed in the top half of the league table. All three dimensions of productive organisational energy were similarly relevant in regard to performance. The connection between productive organisational energy and performance has so far been analysed only in business organisations and in one health service organisation. We brought the topic to the sports context and distinguished three dimensions of productive organisational energy while comparing the performance of organisations, which has not been done before. We also conducted the first empirical study that considers whether dimensions of productive organisational energy are balanced in better performing clubs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2023-00232023-10-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Philosophy of Sports: Analyzing Sports Effects for Leadership Excellencehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2023-0022<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Leadership effectiveness is one of the significant concerns in the business world. While attaining goals, leaders offer direction, encouragement, and inspiration. They aid in creating a vision and uniting people behind a common goal. The literature on leadership has shown that leaders are less effective, affecting organizations, the environment, and society. This ineffectiveness is believed to be due to their rigidity, arrogance, narcissism, and ill-being. The research on leadership has shown that, among other factors, stress is one of the leading causes of this inefficiency, affecting leaders’ well-being, attitude, relationships, and organizational productivity. As a result, leaders have poor awareness of how their environment is evolving. For that reason, stress management and a leader’s well-being (mental and physical fitness) become the primary concern for business organizations. Leaders are the frontrunner of organizations, leading organizational objectives such as profit maximization, continuous improvement, employee management, and stakeholder satisfaction. In order to manage the corporate goal and workplace stress, they must ensure their well-being (mental and physical fitness). This paper proposes sports to enhance leaders’ well-being and team-building ‘we’ attitudes, which help leaders to improve the organizational productivity. This paper employs content analysis methodology to justify how sports enhance leadership effectiveness. The time has come to understand the philosophy of sports, which has several benefits that guide practitioners to maintain a balance in their professional and personal life. This paper highlights sport as a vehicle for social change and personal development in leadership effectiveness.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/pcssr-2023-00222023-10-18T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1