rss_2.0Production Engineering Archives FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Production Engineering Archives Engineering Archives Feed of the technical state of mining machinery and devices with the use of diagnostic methods<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this article, one of the possible, effective methods of assessing the technical state of mining machinery and devices has been presented. The article's main goal is to show the possible methods and ways of measuring temperature, oscillations, and vibrations generated during the operation of mining equipment and machines’ gears, which are possible in underground conditions. Devices measuring temperatures without coming into contact with the given object are built based on different types of infrared radiation detectors or matrixes of such detectors. Thermal imaging devices picture the temperature distribution on the entire surface instead of pyrometers, which measure temperatures at a given point. However, vibrations and oscillations generated by the work of gears of devices and machinery have been made using a vibrometer pen and a machine condition tester, after which the obtained measurements were used to diagnose the degradation of individual elements of those machines. Such an assessment of the degradation of individual elements of machines in production conditions has been applied with positive results in one of the mines of the Polish Mining Group (Polska Grupa Górnicza – PGG).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue integrated optimization model for procurement and production lot sizing and scheduling problems<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Lot sizing is a prevalent issue within manufacturing companies, where determining the optimal procurement and production lot sizes is crucial for maximizing profits. This problem has become more complex, given that numerous suppliers can provide the same raw materials with different prices and quantity discount schemes. A company should also determine optimal carriers to deliver materials to the company’s warehouse. In a manufacturing process, the company should determine the optimal production lot size and its schedules. In this paper, a model was developed to solve simultaneously procurement and production lot sizing, as well as production scheduling problems. The model encompasses multiple suppliers offering quantity discounts, aiming to maximize company profit by accounting for various costs, including procurement, production, inventory, and quality costs. A case study is taken from a company producing noodles and its related derivative products to illustrate the application of the model. Based on the optimization results, the company obtained a total profit of IDR. 14,656,550,000 or $950,921.30 (the exchange rate of $1 at IDR. 15,413). The sensitivity analysis results show that the objective function is sensitive to changes in the purchase cost, sale revenue, and discount rate parameters. The decision variables for accepted product demand, product quantity, and the starting and completion time of product family are only sensitive to changes in certain parameters. Meanwhile, the decision variables for product inventory, product backlog, raw material inventory, and purchased raw material quantity are sensitive to the changes in all the analyzed parameters.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue digital development a factor of university-industry R&D collaboration and vice versa?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of the article is to determine and characterize relationships and their causality between indicators of digitalization of social relations and level of university-industry R&amp;D collaboration. To conduct the research, a sample was formed for 20 countries of the world leaders in University-Industry R&amp;D Collaboration indicator (as a part of Global Innovation Index) in 2022, which covers the following indices for period from 2011 to 2020: indicators of university-industry R&amp;D collaboration, access to ICT, government online services, online creativity (as assessed by WIPO Global Innovation Index), and export of ICT goods (according to the World Bank). The methodological basis of the study was methods of correlation analysis (Pearson or Spearman, depending on data distribution, for which Shapiro-Wilk test for normal data distribution was previously applied) taking into account possible lags in time, VAR modelling, Granger test, and corresponding toolkit of STATA 18 software. As a result of the research, it was confirmed that the level of university-industry R&amp;D collaboration is affected by such indicators of digitalization of social relations as online creativity (in 16 from 20 sample countries), access to ICT (in 12 countries) and the share of ICT goods exports in total exports (in 11 countries). At the same time, university-industry R&amp;D collaboration is a cause of changes in the level of online creativity (in 15 from 20 sample countries), access to ICT (in 11 countries), public online services (in 10 from 19 sample countries) and the share of ICT goods exports (in 10 from 20 sample countries). The obtained results can be useful for stakeholders in R&amp;D, innovative activities, development of state policy in the innovation and information sphere for making the most effective decisions in the context of stimulating the role of cooperation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue transportation perspective: how our preferences for zero-emission vehicles change through time?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Slovenian automobile market has gained great momentum in the past decade. However, the demand contractions in the supply chain created a huge crisis in the automobile industry in Slovenia. The automotive industry's new competitive dynamics focus on green logistics, sustainability, and purchase decisions. The study aims to comparatively analyze the factors affecting consumers' automobile purchasing decisions from a sustainable transportation perspective. In the survey, we included 1502 participants to identify the most important parameters of consumer behaviour related to purchasing alternative fuel vehicles. In the regression analysis results in the first analysis, non-financial factors sub-dimensions such as the body shape and fuel type, vehicle size, and style/appearance/colour had a positive effect on purchasing decisions of zero-emission cars. The second analysis was performed 5 years after the first analysis. Moreover, the findings provide insights that non-financial factors sub-dimensions such as entertainment system, vehicle size, and vehicle capacity and financial factors sub-dimensions between the insurance group for the vehicle, finance deals, value for money, annual road tax had a positive effect on purchasing decisions of zero-emission vehicles in the second analysis. Results show that the most relevant factor for purchasing zero-emission vehicles is total vehicle price and that the segment of potential alternative fuel vehicle consumers is much higher than it has been anticipated. This study provides an overview of the current understanding of individuals' vehicle purchasing decisions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue acoustic emission method for monitoring the quality and integrity of ferritic steel gas pipelines<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article presents a comprehensive improvement in the experimental analysis of cracking processes in smooth and sharp V-notched samples taken from gas transport pipelines, utilizing the acoustic emission (AE) method. The research aimed to establish a robust correlation between the failure mechanisms of uni-axially tensile samples and the distinct characteristics of AE signals for enhanced quality management in pipeline integrity. The study encompassed materials from two different straight pipe sections, encompassing both long-term used materials and new, unused materials. Through the application of the k-means grouping method to AE signal analysis, we achieved the identification of AE signal parameters characteristic of various stages of the material destruction process. This advancement introduces a significant improvement in monitoring and managing the operational safety of pipeline networks, offering a methodology that leverages advanced acoustic emission signal analysis. The outcomes present significant implications for the pipeline industry by proposing methods to enhance safety systems and more effectively manage the integrity and quality of gas infrastructure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the effects of machining parameters on cutting conditions during orthogonal turning of austenite stainless steel<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The 1.4306 austenite stainless steel has been prominently utilized as a material in the automotive and aerospace industry. Considerable interest has been garnered in the machinability of stainless steel owing to its high strength and poor thermal conductivity. The aim of this study is to ascertain the influential cutting parameters, specifically the cutting speed and feed rate, on cut-ting forces, cutting temperature, and chip evaluation. Thus, austenite stainless steel was subjected to free-cutting using a carbide recessing tool under dry conditions. The principle of measuring cutting temperature, a complex procedure due to varying thermal homogeneity, was elucidated. For the turning experiments in question, the standard Taguchi orthogonal array L9 (3<sup>2</sup>), featuring two factors and three levels, was employed. The experimental results were analyzed using MiniTab 17 software. The findings reveal a substantial effect of feed rate on cutting force, cutting temperature, and chip evaluation. The highest cutting force and cutting temperature were observed at a feed rate of 0.15 mm/rev. Conversely, the cutting force was minimized at a cutting speed of 100 m/min, indicating potential for increasing the cutting speed. The augmentation of feed rate led to chip compression and discoloration, attributed to elevated cutting force and a larger chip cross-section that efficiently dissipates heat from the cutting zone.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and the potential for changes and benefits from the implementation of Industry 4.0 solutions in enterprises<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The implementation of Industry 4.0 solutions in Polish enterprises entails both certain barriers and significant potential for changes and numerous benefits. These barriers may result from the costs of implementation of new technologies, the need to adapt employees to new skills and concerns about data security. However, by overcoming these difficulties, companies can benefit from the enormous potential for changes such as increasing production efficiency, optimizing logistics processes or improving product quality. Moreover, the use of Industry 4.0 technologies can contribute to increased innovation, increased competitiveness on the global market and the creation of new jobs. As a result, the benefits of implementing these solutions support Polish enterprises to actively engage in digital transformation, despite the barriers they encounter. The objective of this article is to confront the benefits and potential for changes resulting from the implementation of modern technologies with the barriers that limit this process. The statistical assessment of the differences between the barrier assessment values and the assessment of benefits from the use of technology, as well as between the barrier assessment values and the assessment of the potential for changes, was based on the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test. The study covered representatives of 236 enterprises who mainly held managerial positions at various levels of management staff or persons designated by them who were responsible for research and development activities in the surveyed entities. As a result, it was indicated that the level of involvement in technological transformation among Polish enterprises is moderate. Almost 67% of all the surveyed entrepreneurs can characterize specific Industry 4.0 solutions. Among them, only approximately 6% can be defined as highly digital companies that already have partially digitized operational processes. Moreover, enterprises see more potential benefits and potential changes from the introduction of Industry 4.0 solutions than barriers to their implementation. This study is dedicated to both authors dealing with Industry 4.0 issues and entrepreneurs implementing modern technologies in their companies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the mechanical properties of stainless steels using Artificial Neural Networks<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Knowing the material properties is of a crucial importance when planning to manufacture some structure. That is true for the steel structures, as well. Thus, for the proper planning of a certain steel part or a structure production, one must be aware of the properties of the material, to be able to make a qualified decision, which material should be used. Considering that the manufacturing of steel products is constantly growing in various branches of industry and engineering, the problem of predicting the material properties, needed to satisfy the requirements for the certain part efficient and reliable functioning, becomes an imperative in the design process. A method of predicting four material properties of the two stainless steels, by use of the artificial neural network (ANN) is presented in this article. Those properties were predicted based on the particular steels’ known chemical compositions and the corresponding material properties available in the Cambridge Educational System EDU PACK 2010 software, using neural network module of MathWorks Matlab. The method was verified by comparing the values of the material properties predicted by this method to known values of properties for the two stainless steels, X5CrNi18-10 (AISI 304), X5CrNiMo17-12-2 (AISI 316). The difference between the two sets of values was below 5% and, in some cases, even negligible.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of laser treatment technology for boiling heat transfer augmentation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Boiling heat transfer can be enhanced when the heater’s surface morphology is altered. The paper discusses the use of the laser beam to produce efficient heat exchangers. Two types of samples were investigated with distilled water and ethyl alcohol as boiling agents. The specimens differed with the height of the microfins: 0.19 mm and 0.89 mm. It was observed that both of them enhanced boiling heat transfer in comparison to the smooth reference surface. However, the sample with higher microfins performed better, especially in the region of low temperature differences, where the heat flux was about three times higher than in the case of the smaller microfins. The comparison of the experimental data with selected models of boiling heat transfer revealed significant differences with regard to the heat flux. The laser-made samples dissipated larger heat fluxes than it could be anticipated according to the models. It might be linked with high surface roughness of the area between the microfins, generated as a result of the laser beam interaction with the surface.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of selected quality parameters of dried herbs available on the European market<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>International trade in herbs and spices is showing steady growth. This may contribute to the deterioration of their quality (complex supply chains) and the search for alternative, cheaper sources (adulteration). This paper presents the results of quality control of culinary herbs available on the European markets. Eight spices were evaluated: savory, lovage, basil, thyme, marjoram, oregano, fennel, mustard. The tests were performed (from January 2022 till January 2023) for three production batches from five different suppliers, and analyzed such parameters as aroma, overall appearance, impurity content, net weight, moisture content, ash content and essential oils. The analyzed parameters are the basic quality characteristics controlled by institutions overseeing the quality of foodstuffs. The determinations were made on the basis of European standards. The results show deviations from the standards especially in the content of essential oils. Slight exceedances of the standards were also recorded for water and total ash content. On the other hand, for such parameters as net weight, impurity content, general appearance or odor, no overstepping of acceptable standards was recorded.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue hazards and safety practices in the small-scale industries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The small-scale industries are considered a major sector of economic investment in the world. Small-scale industries typically suffer from problems such as poor management systems, poor safety training, difficulties in complying with legislation, and absence of safety performance. This study aimed to measure the levels of heat stress and noise and assess the safety performance in small-scale industries. Twenty industrial workshops were selected representing four different types of small-scale industries (foundries, automotive repair, metal processing, and aluminium processing) in Alexandria, Egypt. Inside each selected workshop, both levels of heat stress and noise were measured by calibrated instruments. A pre-designed checklist evaluated the adequacy of the safety performance. Noise levels ranged between 86.4 ± 2.0 and 89.7 ± 2.7 dB exceeding the recommended value (85 dB). In the most studied workshops, the levels of heat stress were relatively high, especially in the foundries. Besides, the safety practices at all these workshops were poor or very poor. The most obvious safety problems included poor housekeeping, lack of PPEs, inadequate illumination, absence of emergency exits, and insufficient fire extinguishers. The results emphasize the responsibility of the local authorities to give more attention and interest to this type of industry.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue impact of cleaner production strategy on Sustainable supply chain performance<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There is a paradigm shift occurring in organizations towards sustainable production through cleaner production strategies. This cleaner production concept has been proven to be cost-effective, result-oriented, environment-savvy and provides the organizations a cutting edge over their counterparts. However, there is a lack of awareness about cleaner production practices in Iraq while the current study analyzed one of the most important factories in Iraq for sugar production to understand the factors required for successful application of cleaner production strategy and the challenges to be expected. In this study, the researchers followed an exploratory research approach. For this study, a questionnaire was designed, validated and distributed randomly among 700 potential respondents working in various departments of the organization under study. Out of the total responses, 482 responses were considered and SEM-PLS analysis was conducted. The cleaner production strategies were applied through nine dimensions and the relationship between the performance of the factory and sustainable supply chain was found to be prominent. With a few limitations such as the choice of a single factory, weak relationship between the variables identified from hypothesis testing, the study is a first-of-its-kind in this domain, especially in dealing with sugar refineries. Based on the outcomes, policy recommendations were made to the decision makers and the government. It can be concluded that the application of modern technologies and effective resource management can help in achieving the goal of the study.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue all in or spreading your bet: a configurational perspective on open innovation interaction channels in production sectors<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Using different interaction channels within open innovation partnerships holds the potential to enhance the chance of success in production sectors. However, our comprehension of how open innovation partnerships are affected by varying combinations of interaction channels, and how this corelates with their level of open innovation output, remains limited. There are discrepancies in the current literature regarding the individual and combined effects of open innovation interaction channels. Our study aims to resolve these inconsistencies by using a configurational perspective, which allows for the identification of multiple successful pathways. Employing fuzzy-set Qualitative Comparative Analysis (fsQCA) to a dataset of European open innovation partnerships in production sectors, we uncover specific combinations of interaction channels that explain high levels of innovation outcomes. Subsequently, we distinguish between two successful pathways. Notably, we observe that the relationship between interaction channels is causally complex, high engagement in open innovation may not guarantee favorable innovation outcomes. This finding highlights the intricate causal dynamics at play. Thus, our study is a significant step toward reconciling the disparate perspectives in the literature concerning the impact of interaction channels on open innovation output.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Importance of Digital Transformation (5.0) in Supply Chain Optimization: An Empirical Study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The topic of digital transformation in supply chain optimization has garnered considerable attention in recent years due to its importance. The purpose of the study was to offer empirical evidence and insights into the advantages and obstacles linked with digital transformation in supply chain management. To investigate the effects of digital transformation on supply chain optimization, the research employs a hybrid methodology and comprehensive approach that includes a thorough literature review, the creation of a theoretical framework, and the presentation of empirical finings through various case studies using the predefined selection criteria. The case analyses highlight crucial elements that support effective digital transformations, including real-time data analytics, teamwork, blockchain technology, digital twin augmented and virtual reality and collaborative robots. The practical implications from the findings of this study, proffers insights that can be extremely helpful for professionals in various industrial sectors and businesses planning similar digital transformation journeys. This empirical study with regards to the implication of Digital transformation 5.0 on supply chain management is novel to the body of literature. It is however necessary to conduct more study to confirm the results, apply them to a wider range of businesses, and investigate different aspects of digital transformation in supply chain optimization.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Resource Productivity: Integrating Resilience Engineering, Motivation, and Health Safety<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigated the multifaceted relationship between resilience engineering practices, work motivation factors, health, safety, and environment (HSE) management to achieve employee productivity within a mining company in South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Employing structural equation modelling (SEM) on data from 178 workers, intriguing results are diverged from established research. While resilience engineering practices and work motivation factors significantly enhanced productivity, robust HSE management demonstrated a surprisingly insignificant association. This unexpected finding necessitates a closer examination of the unique context of Indonesian mining culture and HSE implementation practices. Several potential explanations emerge, including ingrained communal responsibility for safety, limited applicability of imported frameworks, prioritisation of immediate needs over long-term safety due to competitive pressures, and possible erosion of trust in bureaucratic systems. These factors highlight the need to consider cultural nuances and industry challenges when designing effective HSE interventions. Moving forward, research and practice must prioritise developing culturally sensitive HSE practices, fostering trust and employee engagement, bridging the gap between formal systems and daily realities, and gathering qualitative data to understand employee perspectives. By addressing these considerations, future interventions can effectively align HSE efforts with employee productivity, contributing to a safer, more productive, culturally relevant work environment for Indonesian miners.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue design in Indonesian manufacturing small and medium-sized enterprises: Review and further research<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Workplace design is an essential process for the manufacturing industry to realize a low manufacturing cost with high productivity and competitive advantage, as well as high employee performance and well-being. Although research on workplace design in the Indonesian manufacturing industry began more than 20 years ago, workplace conditions in the manufacturing industry, especially in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Indonesia, have remained subpar, with high material handling costs. This review article aims to evaluate recent research on workplace design in the Indonesian manufacturing SMEs and explore possible directions for further research. The results of this review indicate that the research on workplace design in Indonesian manufacturing SMEs is mostly focused on the department area (micro-level), using systematic layout planning methods to improve material handling activities. Even though environmental conditions are unfavorable with low levels of occupational safety and health, research that consider these two in the process of designing workplace in Indonesian manufacturing SMEs is still limited. This review also shows the possibility of developing an integrated workplace design by involving environmental ergonomics and occupational safety and health in manufacturing SMEs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Control in Flow Shops with Bottleneck Shifting and Process Time Variability<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Manufacturing industries struggle to devise precise planning and scheduling solutions due to unpredictable business situations. Additionally, uncertainties in production such as machine breakdowns, labour absenteeism, cycle time deviations, etc., would further deteriorate production plans and lead to uncertainty in decision-making processes. Flow shops with bottlenecks are particularly susceptible to these disturbances. Moreover, the random variations in cycle time variations can cause the bottleneck to shift between different stages. Literature indicates that conventional job release methods are ineffective in addressing these difficulties. In contrast, workload control methods would provide better solutions. Hence, a flow shop model has been developed and simulated using the variables like process time variations and bottleneck shifting on the discrete-event simulation software. The flow shop model incorporates realistic shop characteristics which are subjected to random process time variations, so as to assess the performance. The outcomes of the experimentation demonstrate that order release methods play a pivotal role in improving the performance of flow shops in more volatile situations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of industrial systems in terms of the crucial role of humans in the Industry 5.0 environment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The fourth industrial revolution (4IR) means the ubiquitous digitization of economic processes using more economical and efficient production technologies. Orientation to productivity, flexibility and low production costs results in a slow process of dehumanization of industry and concentration only on implementing Industry 4.0 (I4.0) digital technologies. A natural consequence of this trend is the concern of governments, employees and communities about new challenges and the importance of man in the economic ecosystem. The hope is the emergence of a new industry concept suggested by the European Commission (EU), which expands the components of the existing I4.0 concept to include human-centric, environmental and resilience aspects. Industry 5.0 (I5.0) is an excellent alternative to the development of today's digital and dehumanized world.</p> <p>The article aims to identify the key research areas related to the formation of the role of the human being and the safe work environment in implementing the I5.0 concept. The article analyzes the research areas related to implementing the I5.0 concept based on a systematic review of the literature indexed in the Web of Science and Scopus databases. Identifies key issues related to the role of humans in the I5.0 environment. In addition, the priority directions for developing the identified research areas and their impact on forming a safe work environment are determined based on the knowledge of experts with experience in implementing digital technologies of the 4IR.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of a systematic approach to the implementation of modern information technologies in manufacturing enterprises<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper aims to show the possibilities of using modern information technologies in production management. Successive stages of production process preparation and implementation are characterized. Information technologies that are currently being implemented in manufacturing enterprises are discussed. The focus was on the part of the process related to the product's manufacture. The paper presents the concepts of two methodological approaches to the adoption of modern information technologies: the top-down approach and the bottom-up approach. The successive stages of each of these approaches are discussed. The advantage of the top-down approach is the ability to comprehensively implement various technologies, and the disadvantage is the significant level of resource commitment. The advantage of the bottom-up approach is the high efficiency of the proposed solution, and the disadvantage is the limitation of application to projects of limited size. The proposed approaches have been verified using the example of two companies: the automotive and the control automation industries. There are correlations between the choice of the methodology used and the type and extent of implementation of the technology in question. The study's key conclusion is that both approaches are applicable in practice. The most important thing in the decision-making phase is to identify the barriers and constraints related to the organization's maturity to use a given technology. Enterprises can use the study results to help them prepare for their digital transformation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue impact of employment restriction on the risk of an accident at work in the mining industry in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The European Union's energy policy has necessitated a reduction in coal mining, with significant consequences for occupational safety within the industry. This study investigates the correlation between employment reduction and accident risk within Poland's mining sector during 2006-2020, a period marked by over a 40% decrease in coal extraction and a corresponding 30% decrease in mining employment. An escalation in the relative risk (RR) of accidents was observed, increasing from 1.28 to 2.33. More critically, the RR of fatal accidents rose from 2.54 to 8.22 by 2019. Analysis revealed a critical employment threshold: a fall in mining employment below 140,000 is associated with a marked increase in accident risk, particularly fatal accidents. A linear model was developed to suggest that a reduction in the RR of accidents to 0.7 is requisite to achieve a national average risk for fatal accidents (RR = 1). The findings advocate for targeted safety interventions and propose a preventive strategy model. The implications are vital for policymakers and industry stakeholders aiming to improve worker safety in response to employment changes within the mining sector.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue