rss_2.0Production Engineering Archives FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Production Engineering Archives Engineering Archives Feed methods and ways of testing the workability of coal - a review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The need to classify rocks in terms of workability stems primarily from the need to choose the appropriate, most effective diagnostic method (DM) and way of mining the given rock. Studying and measuring the workability of rocks is extremely difficult due to the fact that workability depends on many various factors. There are many DM for determining the workability of rocks, but none of them take into account the influence of all factors, hence the obtained results are only indicative. In the article, many DM and ways of determining the cutting resistance with the use of various devices are presented and characterized. The principles of their operations are presented, as well as the DM of measuring the cutting resistance and its utilitarian usefulness in forecasting the selection of mining machines on the basis of cutting for specific mining and geological conditions. The core of the problem is confirmed by the number of covered DM and tools in various research centers around the world. In the article, new tools measuring and evaluating the mechanical properties of the coal solid, all created in Poland, are presented. Their structure, principles of their operation, as well as the innovation of these solutions, are all presented. In this article, their ad-vantages and disadvantages are highlighted, as well as showing the DM which best represents the way of work of the winning machine. Therefore, the results achieved through the aforementioned DM can be understood as representative values.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Cybersecurity System: Assessment, Risks and Expectations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The consequences of Industry 4.0 have adverse side effects on cybercrime growth, which requires creating an effective cybersecurity system for companies. Therefore, this study aims to develop a composite indicator of company cybersecurity to assess its development needs. For this purpose, the authors modified Porter’s method by constructing a superposition matrix based on the growth rates of cyber threats and risks, calculating their quantitative characteristics and a composite indicator. The computations are based on indicators for 2016-2022 characterizing cybersecurity vulnerabilities and the consequences of cyber threats: the share of companies experiencing one, six or more successful cyberattacks, considering the likely and very likely success of cyberattacks on them in the next 12 months, security threat and concern indices, the share of companies with a growing security budget affected by ransomware and experiencing a shortage of skilled IT security personnel, the cost of stolen or compromised credentials. As a result, cybersecurity needs increased significantly for 2020-2022, mainly due to digital transformation and the cyber threats growth after the COVID-19 pandemic. A comparative analysis of the proposed indicator with those characterizing the development of Industry 4.0 showed that the need for a reliable cybersecurity system is much more important than the active development of modern technologies. Spending on IT is also increasing, but not enough to meet the needs of cybersecurity development, except for the 2022 results. The proposed indicator is defined for companies worldwide, but its versatility allows the methodology to be applied to enterprises of various industries and sizes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue desertification as a modified variable in the relationship between the cognitive biases of the leader and the organizational anomie<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study aims to improve employees’ understanding regards the modifying impact of job desertification on the relationship between cognitive biases and organizational anomie. Furthermore, the study also aims to examine a the direct relationship between each of the cognitive biases and the organizational anomie among the 305 employees working at Al-Hussein Teaching Hospital, Karbala region, Iraq. Outcomes confirmed the hypothesis that organizational anomie is favourably impacted by every of the cognitive biases pursued by the leader and dealt with, as a daily behavior, at work. The results also proved that the dimensions of cognitive biases have a positive impact on the organizational anomie. In addition to this, the nature of the connection between cognitive biases and organizational anomalies is affected by job desertification. Thus, the current study outcomes contribute towards the importance of understanding the job desertification behaviours exhibited by the employees in an organization. In general, Job desertification heavily deteriorates organizational performance, increases the mistrust between the leader and their subordinates and increases the moral deterioration of the employees in an organization.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue analysis of the fracture process in smooth and notched V specimens<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents the outcomes of quality tests conducted on specimens, both smooth and V-notched, subjected to uniaxial tension, which were extracted from a gas transport pipeline. The introduction of the V-notch introduced variations in the stress and strain component fields near the plane of maximum constriction, consequently leading to their failure through different mechanisms. The process included the implementation of quality management practices such as numerical modeling and simulation of the loading of the specimens using ABAQUS. The material model employed in these calculations was defined and verified to ensure quality control. Subsequent to the numerical calculations, maps of the stress and strain component fields were generated, contributing to the quality assessment of the specimens. It was determined that the quality management process for the smooth specimen identifies the initiation of failure primarily due to the normal stress component in the central region of the plane with the largest constriction. In contrast, in the V-notched specimen, quality management efforts revealed that failure initiation occurs due to the tangential stress component, and failure proceeds through the shear mechanism. These results are valuable in developing a quality-driven methodology for monitoring the operational safety of gas network pipelines, primarily based on the analysis of acoustic emission signals.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue neural networks to examine trending keywords in Inventory Control<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Inventory control is one of the key areas of research in logistics. Using the SCOPUS database, we have processed 9,829 articles on inventory control using triangulation of statistical methods and machine learning. We have proven the usefulness of the proposed statistical method and Graph Attention Network (GAT) architecture for determining trend-setting keywords in inventory control research. We have demonstrated the changes in the research conducted between 1950 and 2021 by presenting the evolution of keywords in articles. A novelty of our research is the applied approach to bibliometric analysis using unsupervised deep learning. It allows to identify the keywords that determined the high citation rate of the article. The theoretical framework for the intellectual structure of research proposed in the studies on inventory control is general and can be applied to any area of knowledge.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the impact of the 5S tool and Standardization on the duration of the production process - case study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The high level of competition in the manufacturing industry requires the creation of working conditions that allow for the efficient implementation of production processes. One of the solutions enabling the adaptation of production stations to improve the work performed by employees is the implementation of a management system based on the Lean Manufacturing (LM) philosophy. The purpose of this article was to determine the potential impact of the implemented LM tools, in the form of 5S and standardization, on the efficiency of the production process in specific production conditions. The methodology of the conducted research included: obtaining data before and after the implementation of LM tools (in total 12 months). The data was used to determine the effectiveness of individual operations, and then to conduct a comparative analysis using statistical tests. It was found, among others, that the implementation of LM tools resulted in an increase in the efficiency of the manufacturing process by about 11 percentage points. The obtained results confirm the thesis that a manufacturing company, in order to maintain its position on a competitive market, can improve the efficiency of processes by using tools such as LM. The selection of tools must be adequate to the implemented processes, so that they bring measurable increase in efficiency.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue to replace the original material for the welded structure manufacturing<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Due to difficult pandemic situation with COVID-19 decease, as well as due to current geopolitical circumstances in the world, we are facing the shortage of steel and therefore the impossibility of delivering the contracted products within the agreed deadlines. It is thus necessary to find suitable steel for replacement. The procedure for selecting one such steel for substituting the deficit steel 25CrMo4, for the purposes of producing a responsible welded assembly, is described in this paper. After the careful analysis, the steel 42CrMo4 was taken into consideration as a possible substitute material. Prior to applying the new selected steel, it was necessary to perform the following tests: analyze its chemical composition, determine its most important mechanical properties and evaluate its weldability. Then, the optimal welding and heat treatment technologies were determined, so that the quality of the responsible welded structure would meet all the requirements, as the structure made of originally used steel. For the new steel, all the mentioned and some additional tests were conducted and the appropriate welding technology was prescribed. To verify the selected technology, appropriate tests were conducted on the model welded samples, the results of which are presented in this paper. Based on the analysis of the obtained results, it was concluded that the 25CrMo4 steel can be replaced by the 42CrMo4 steel, however, with the mandatory application of appropriate supplementary measures.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue smart city planning enhance the sustainable transition of the E.U. capitals? A project and strategy-based smart, sustainable performance analysis in the programming period 2014-2020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cities across the globe perceive their opportunities for digital transition pathways. This paper presents a project and strategy-based assessment of smart city ambitions in the light of sustainable urban development pathways in the European Union capitals considering the programming period 2014-2020. The purpose of the research is to understand better the smart city trends in Europe and identify any correlation between smart city and sustainability ambitions through the European capitals. The basis of the research was the official project result platforms of European funds with priorities related to smart cities. The collected best practices of transnational smart city projects provide statistics from the previous programming period and draw attention to the developing trends of smart city functions and the activity level of European capitals in the digital transition. Results show that between 2014 and 2020 nearly half of the capitals owned a specific smart city strategic document. Evaluating the smart urban performance of the capitals, it can be stated that most smart solutions were implemented related to mobility and environment in the previous period. Furthermore, it was also considered whether smart city projects could facilitate the shift toward sustainability. Based on the assessment of their planning strategies, a complex image of the European capitals has been revealed in their smart city development concepts; their strategic-level planning can be understood better, which is essential for policymaking in the era of digitalisation, identifying synergies with sustainable urban development ambitions, and monitoring the reached targets at the city level.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Price Forecasting Models: Comparison among Various Techniques<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Shallot is one of several horticultural products exported from Thailand to various countries. Despite an increase in shallot prices over the years, farmers face challenges in price forecasting due to fluctuations and other relevant factors. While different forecasting techniques exist in the literature, there is no universal approach due to varying problems and datasets. This study focuses on predicting shallot prices in Northern Thailand from January 2014 to December 2020. Traditional and machine learning models, including ARIMA, Holt-Winters, LSTM, and ARIMA-LSTM hybrids, are proposed. The LSTM model considers temperature and rainfall as influencing factors. Evaluation metrics include RMSE, MAE, and MAPE. Results indicate that the ARIMA-LSTM hybrid model performs best, with RMSE, MAE, and MAPE values of 10.275 Baht, 8.512 Baht, and 13.618%, respectively. Implementing this hybrid model can provide shallot farmers with advanced price information for informed decision-making regarding cultivation expansion and production management.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue technologies in smart city multifloor manufacturing clusters: A framework for additive manufacturing management<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The development of smart sustainable megapolises is associated with the formation of city multifloor manufacturing clusters (CMFMCs) in them directly in the residential area in order to reduce the supply chain from the manufacturer to consumers. Additive technologies (ATs) belong to green technologies because they are considered environmentally sustainable due to less production waste and the ability to reuse of product materials within the circular economy concept. Sustainable development of ATs and additive manufacturing management has become a priority sphere for scientific research, and the use of ATs in the city manufacturing has become any daily reality. Nevertheless, the issues of additive manufacturing management within the CMFMCs have not yet been sufficiently studied. The primary goal of this study was to examine the possibilities of additive manufacturing management in the CMFMCs of the megapolis due to the rational facilities multi-floor layout in production buildings, considering the structure of city manufacturing and business process reengineering related to the needs of the production services market. This paper presents a novel model of facilities multi-floor layout in the production buildings of the CMFMCs, considering the structure of city manufacturing, morphological analysis of the additive manufacturing equipment (AME) used, the balance of material and energy flows under infrastructure capacity limitations of megapolis. The model was verified based on a case study for various options of the floor-by-floor grouping of AME in a building of the CMFMCs. Management solutions for maintaining the flow balance of material, energy and water resources in the CMFMCs are discussed. The results may be useful for additive manufacturing management in an urban environment, taking into account the needs of the production services market in the megapolis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue photogrammetric approach in conical picks wear rate evaluation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The cutting tools in mining industry are especially prone to rapid wear, since most of the rocks exhibit aggressive abrasion attributes. A typical representative of fast wearing mining end-tools is a conical pick (also known as tangential-rotary cutter). In order to decrease the premature deterioration, the manufacturers and users tend to enhance the lifespan of the tool by wide range of approaches, namely heat treatment, chemical treatment, burnishing, hardfacing etc. In order to estimate the wear rate of a given pick one has to select appropriate procedure and method of evaluation. By this time, most commonly applied method is to estimate the wear rate basing on mass loss measurements of the tools being exploited with constant cutting parameters and fixed conditions. The Authors proposed also a new method of volumetric wear assessment, basing of three-dimensional photogrammetric scanning and compared the results with the outcome of traditional mass wear evaluation of the same sets of tools. Additionally, this paper contains recommendations regarding both approaches (volumetric and mass), especially focusing on the possibilities of the new method concerning measurements of the manufactured tool.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue use of quality management tools to ensure safe working conditions at CO laser workstations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Dynamic development of various technologies replacing existing, difficult or in various ways arduous, is the reason for replacing equipment with modern ones. New equipment may be associated with a different power supply, a different way that the construction materials are processed or the tools used, than the previous one. Then arises a need to re-examine whether the working conditions at a workplace are safe, what onerous and hazardous factors are associated with the work. An example of such a technological change could be a laser processing, when equipment using a concentrated energy stream, properly controlled, produces a specific effect on materials. However, along with the benefits of the new technology, come also many risks, such as the effects of radiation on matter and the human body, electricity, fire hazards, the problem of toxic emissions and others. This paper presents the problem of ensuring work safety at a newly commissioned CO2 laser station. Technique of brainstorming was used to identify and analyze the working conditions and types of hazards. These may be different from what was previously known, partially known, or even unconscious. Ishikawa diagram was developed and shown to be an effective tool for detailing and structuring problems in relation to safety. In the case of a technical problem, a poka-yoke solution to eliminate the hazard was proposed. Problems occurring at the workstation during machining and related to its operation were assigned, using the affinity diagram, to specific departments of the company, according to its work organization, which can significantly facilitate the management of the work and employees of the different departments in the future, in order to ensure safe and hygienic working conditions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue for Increasing Eco-efficiency in the Tofu Production Process: Circular Economy Approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This research aims to design recommendations for improving the tofu production process in Sugihmanik Village. Over 30 tofu small medium enterprises (SMEs) generate solid and liquid waste, which pollutes the river. An eco-efficiency strategy was implemented and began by identifying the tofu production process. The life cycle assessment (LCA) method and the SimaPro software were used to calculate eco-cost and eco-efficiency levels. Based on the calculations, the eco-cost value per batch is USD 10.76. If 30 batches are produced daily, the eco-cost value in one of the tofu SMEs is USD 9.10. Tofu production has an eco-efficiency index (EEI) value of 0.12. This value shows that tofu products are only affordable but have yet to be sustainable. The researchers then recommend using biogas from wastewater treatment to replace rice husks and corncobs. This study also develops a circular economy framework in the tofu production system. The output is expected to suppress the discharge of water and solid waste to increase the EEI value of the tofu production process in the future.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Data Envelope Analysis for Measurement of Entrepreneurial Network Performance in Manufacturing Firms<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the paper is the analysis of the possibilities of measurement of entrepreneurial network performance in manufacturing firms, using Data Envelope Analysis (DEA) method – a non-parametric approach, allowing for the assessment of the effectiveness of the entrepreneur’s social networks in the context of generating information effects. The research uses data obtained from 30 randomly selected Polish enterprises to explore the levels of entrepreneurial networks and their information effects (as performance indicator). The research limitations are the following: the research is limited exclusively to Polish randomly selected entities, and the results cannot be generalized. The originality/value of this paper consists in the fact that this study constitutes both the contribution to the development of the discipline of management and practical guidelines for managers-entrepreneurs since it should be pinpointed that the recognition of the efficiency of gathering information from social networks can be the basis for the conscious creation of the effectiveness of acquiring information from social networks, and thus the conscious use of social networks in economic activity. The novelty of the results presented consists in filling the gap while conducting the research taking into account the assessment of entrepreneurial networks performance using DEA method. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue capacity of reinforced concrete beams with and without damages of rebar<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents the results of the bearing capacity of reinforced concrete beams with and without damages of internal reinforcement. One of the main elements of the production of the reinforced concrete industry is beams. The analysis of the experimental tests showed that the bearing capacity of reinforced concrete beams with damaged tensile main reinforcement decreases according to control undamaged samples due to the reduction of the reinforcement cross-section. However, the bearing capacity of reinforced concrete beams with tensile main reinforcement Ø20А500C, damaged to the cross-section area equal the rebar Ø16mm is more on 3.7… 24.0% than the bearing capacity of reinforced concrete beams with undamaged Ø16mm rebar. This is due to the non-uniform material properties of used thermally strengthened reinforcement A500C. When during testing the tensile main reinforcement is damaged by drilling a hole, the most damages occur in the core with lower physical and mechanical characteristics. In contrast, the outer thermally strengthened layer with bigger physical and mechanical characteristics is damaged to a lesser extent. The analysis of the obtained results shows that during design of reinforced concrete beams with damaged, it is necessary to consider using thermally strengthened non-uniform steel A500C as tensile main reinforcement. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the linear correlation coefficient between Young’s modulus and the compressive strength in fibre-reinforced concrete based on experimental studies<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The test procedures for determining Young’s modulus in concrete are complicated and time-consuming. Therefore, attempts to search for alternative methods of its determination are not surprising. The relationship between the value of compressive strength and Young’s modulus in concrete is known. However, the strength of this relationship in fibre-reinforced concrete has not been exactly described. The article attempts to investigate the strength of the correlation between Young’s modulus and the compressive strength of fibre-reinforced concrete. The influence of the amount of fibres on this relationship was also checked. Two types of specimen were used for the tests. The specimens differed in the content of steel fibres, 0.25% and 0.50%, respectively. In order to determine the correlation relationship, the method of linear regression and the coefficient of linear correlation were used. The use of the determination coefficient allowed us to examine the degree of explanation of one variable by another. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the drill bit tip geometry on the rotary drilling process performed with a hand-held hydraulic drill<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the mining and construction industries, hand drills are used to carry out many processes related to excavation and auxiliary works. Hand drilling is commonly applied for making small diameter holes, especially in hard-to-reach places. In the case of manual drilling, an important parameter is drilling resistance, especially torque. Drilling tools are subject to wear, which has a negative impact on the process of drilling, including resistance and efficiency. A blunt tool lowers the drilling speed and puts more strain on the operator. The article presents the results of laboratory tests of selected parameters of the drilling process carried out with a hydraulic rotary drill. The tests were performed with the use of new drill bits as well as drills characterized by a various degree of wear. The tests were carried out for popular, frequently applied rotary drilling tools, on a unique laboratory stand that enabled setting the feed force and measuring the torque, rotational speed, drilling path, drilling speed as well as the in and out pressure of the drill. A number of characteristics were determined as a function of time and depth of the drilled hole. It was found that tool blunting affects the drilling process in various ways, whereas the intensity of this influence is determined by the type of blunting. The test results can provide a basis for developing a criterion for replacing a drill bit with a new one. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of assembly devices of automated workplaces using the TRIZ methodology<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The presented article familiarizes the reader with optimizing the workplaces of ultrasonic welding machines. The essential part of the article deals with prototypes, the construction of which does not meet the requirements for production, economy, and functionality. The experimental analysis runs pointed out shortcomings and inaccuracies. The developer’s team used one of the well-known optimization and design methods to solve this issue. It is the TRIZ method (Creating and solving creative assignments). The mentioned method combines two powerful tools into one whole. Specifically, it is the Function and Cost Analysis (FNA) and the algorithm for solving creative assignments (ARIZ). The manuscript describes the use of the method for a more straightforward solution to problematic parts of the structure. The result of the optimization process is a new, improved structure whose properties were confirmed in terms of stiffness by simulation in the ANSYS Workbench program. The applications of optimized parts will also be used in other similar devices. The research will follow up with the design of a new series of ultrasonic welding machines in the future. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Based Targets and the factors contributing to the sustainable development of an organisation from a Literature review to a conceptual model<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Sustainable development is a subject of intense discussion, mainly due to climate change, pollution, and increased waste, among other factors. The governments of various countries worldwide have been setting environmental targets for emissions and consumption to combat climate change and improve the state of our planet. Therefore, it is necessary to have an environmental policy with stakeholder engagement. The literature review method, bibliometric analysis, and visual mappings were applied to understand how these sustainable targets are formulated and used by companies to comply with the limits proposed by governments. The Web of Science platform allowed data collection about Lean and Green, Key Performance Indicators (KPI), and Science-Based Targets (SBT). The carried analyses identified the most relevant papers using the PRISMA method, including their authors, their temporal distribution, and a correlation map using the VOSviewer tool. Hence, mapping the current state of the art concerning the SBT topic. Furthermore, a novel conceptual model is proposed to integrate lean and green and create new KPI applied to the definition of SBT to give companies a path and tools to achieve the climate targets efficiently. Future research should focus on the implementation of the conceptual model in several companies to understand its impact to correct and improve the conceptual model proposed. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue potential as a factor of ensuring competitive advantages of business entities in Ukraine<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of the article is to justify the use of a matrix approach to the interpretation of the results of evaluating the effectiveness of the development of labor potential. As evaluation indicators, we propose the level of management of labor potential, which is determined using the grapho-analytical method “potential square” and the level of management of the competitiveness of the business entity, which is determined using the graphic method “polygon of competitiveness”. To identify these indicators, we used a developed three-point aggregated scale, which made it possible to quantitatively divide the formed quadrants according to threshold values: the zone of high efficiency in the use of labor potential (quadrant 9(MLLPQP<sub>High</sub>; MLCBECB<sub>High</sub>)), average (quadrants 3 (MLLPQP<sub>High</sub>; MLCBEC-B<sub>Low</sub>), 5 (MLLPQPAverage; MLCBECBAverage), 6 (MLLPQP<sub>High</sub>; MLCBECBAverage), 7 (MLLPQP<sub>Low</sub>; MLCBECB<sub>High</sub>), 8 (MLLPQPAverage; MLCBECB<sub>High</sub>)), and low (quadrants 1 (MLLPQP<sub>Low</sub>; MLCBECB<sub>Low</sub>), 2 (MLLPQPAverage; MLCBECB<sub>Low</sub>), 4 (MLLPQP<sub>Low</sub>; MLCBECBAverage)). The value of the research lies in the fact that the proposed matrix approach to the results of evaluating the effectiveness of the development of labor potential makes it possible to take measures to improve its management. It is emphasized that in today’s conditions and the limitation of financial resources, the vector of management should be aimed at preserving the labor potential, using its opportunities and experience. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue