rss_2.0Polish Hyperbaric Research FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Polish Hyperbaric Researchhttps://sciendo.com/journal/PHRhttps://www.sciendo.comPolish Hyperbaric Research Feedhttps://sciendo-parsed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/661838511ae47050093d1867/cover-image.jpghttps://sciendo.com/journal/PHR140216The effect of cooper, zinc and selenium on skin conditionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2023-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Trace elements are essential for the maintenance of the homeostasis of the body, and condition the proper functioning of the human organism. Micronutrients influence a number of metabolic processes in the dermis and epidermis. An excess or deficiency of trace elements may represent a potential threat to human health with implications for skin condition. This study reviews the literature on the effects of copper, zinc and selenium on skin condition.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2023-00092024-04-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Longitudinal study of the frequency of body modifications, attitudes towards them and knowledge about the complications of such procedures among pharmacy studentshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2023-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Body modifications consist in changing the appearance. They gain more and more popularity. The most popular forms of body modification are tattooing and piercing. The aim of the study is a longitudinal assessment of the prevalence of body modifications in the form of tattoos and piercings among students of pharmacy at the Medical University of Lublin and their knowledge about the possible complications of such interventions.</p> <p>The study was conducted using a validated questionnaire. The study with the participation of first-year pharmacy students was conducted in 2017, and with the participation of sixth-year pharmacy students in 2022. Participation in the study was voluntary and anonymous.</p> <p>The respondents approved the modification in the form of piercings in the ears to the greatest extent, and invasive body modifications to the least extent. The percentage of people having body modifications has not changed significantly over time, but their awareness of the possible complications of such procedures has increased. Piercings and tattoos, in the opinion of pharmacy students, are not stigmatizing.</p> <p>The knowledge of future pharmacists about the possible complications of piercing and tattooing increases with the duration of their studies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2023-00122024-04-11T00:00:00.000+00:00May food become medicine - does carp meat have a chance to become a functional food for people with cardiovascular disease?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2023-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fish consumption is associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease mortality. The health benefits of fish consumption are attributed to high content of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Animal and human studies have demonstrated that n-3 PUFAs improve the function of the normal and damaged endothelium. It is recommended to eat two servings of fish per week.</p> <p>The aim of the review was to find publications about the nutritional value of carp meat and its possible uses as functional food for patients with cardiovascular disease.</p> <p>A search for open–access original full texts sin PubMed, Google Scholar, Medline Complete database was performed in June 2022. A total of 490 results were found. Eventually 22 articles were included for systematic review.</p> <p>Carp consumption improves plasma lipid profile and therefore it could be considered a functional food. Carp meat is rich in essential amino acids too. The carp culture systems decide about PUFA and protein content in the meat. Carp can be cooked as traditional dishes or carp powder can be added to other dishes to enrich their nutritional value. The recommended method of carp meat preparation to preserve its’ nutritional value is oven baking. Carp meat or carp powder can be used as functional food for patients with cardiovascular diseases.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2023-00102024-04-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Polish Studies on Saturation Diving and Practical Application of Their Findings. Part III a Technical and Organisational Issues of the Implementation of Saturation Diving in Poland from the 1990s Onwards. Part 1https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2023-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article is another in a series of articles on the research and implementation of saturation diving technology in Poland. It discusses the specificities related to the implementation of this technology against the background of economic and historical conditions in our country. In Poland, the issue of saturation diving for the needs of the emerging offshore mining industry has been for over a dozen years dealt with by the Department of Diving Equipment and Technology of Underwater Works (Polish abbr. ZSNiTPP). In parallel, deep diving technologies were developed, in the first stage, as a basic diving technology and, since 1994, as complementary to ensure the full backup for saturation diving. Since 1995, saturation diving has become an everyday occurrence in the Polish economic zone of the Baltic Sea. This article shows the difficult path that the implementation of saturation diving took during a period of economic instability when the scale of the domestic offshore industry's facilities was small compared to global companies. Selected animators and participants in the implementation are recalled for two periods: one marked with the cooperation with the Italian underwater services company RANA and the other one, a period of implementation of long-term underwater works based on national capabilities. The article also considers the technical and organisational conditions for the implementation of saturation diving for the Polish mining industry. In 1990, the Oil and Gas Exploration and Production Company Petrobaltic (today LOTOS) played one of the key roles in the implementation of saturation diving in our country. The implementation of saturation diving in Poland was linked to the only operational diving system of Italian production, the Af-2, which enabled scientific research related to the application of new technical solutions and testing under operational conditions, as well as contributed to the development of scientific, engineering, and medical staff for the Polish offshore industry. The company played one of the main roles in the implementation of saturation diving in our country The 1995 became a landmark year in the history of saturation diving in Poland, as well as in the Baltic Sea. Through this technology, the process of installing the first two underwater exploitation heads on production wells B3-7 and B3-10 was initiated. The saturation diving was possible thanks to the leasing of the Af-2 diving system by Petrobaltic and its subsequent purchase by the Naval Academy in 1998.This system, after a series of upgrades, is still in service today.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2023-00082024-04-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Physical training in the prevention of sea sicknesshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2023-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Disorders related to labyrinth irritation (kinetosis) constitute a significant problem in sea travel, especially in sea service. A team of military researchers conducted research on a very large group (over 200 people) regarding the possibility of preventing seasickness through physical training. An original set of exercises was developed and performed by the study group. Then, the sensitivity of the test group and the control group to rocking was checked in laboratory and real conditions (sea cruise). The method has been shown to be over 50% effective in preventing and alleviating the symptoms of seasickness. The use of selected physical exercises may be an effective training against the risk of kinetosis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2023-00112024-04-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Physical Training in the Prevention OS Sea Sicknesshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2022-0023<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Disorders related to labyrinth irritation (kinetosis) constitute a significant problem in sea travel, especially in sea service. A team of military researchers conducted research on a very large group (over 200 people) regarding the possibility of preventing seasickness through physical training. An original set of exercises was developed and performed by the study group. Then, the sensitivity of the test group and the control group to rocking was checked in laboratory and real conditions (sea cruise). The method has been shown to be over 50% effective in preventing and alleviating the symptoms of seasickness. The use of selected physical exercises may be an effective training against the risk of kinetosis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2022-00232023-12-19T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effect of the Configuration of the Dive’s Towed Equioment on the Lifeguguard Physiological Overloadhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2022-0024<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the study was to determine the effects of rescue swimming on lifeguard cardiorespiratory system assessed based on heart rate (HR), lung ventilation (VĖ), oxygen uptake (V̇O<sub>₂</sub>) and blood lactate concentration (LA). Furthermore, we also investigated the possible impact of the rescue equipment of the towed diver on the lifeguard physiological overload and towing speed. Exercise variables were measured in lifeguards aged 25.5 ± 6. years before and immediately after the swimming a distance of 50 m with a person in tow with or without diving equipment. There were no significant effect of different protocols of towing on V̇O₂. The type of towing protocols have a significant effect on HR, VĖ/V̇O₂ ratio, and blood LA levels. The towing time and the average towing speed during simulated rescue operation were significantly different depending on the type of the towing person’s equipment. Towing a diver wearing only a dry suit significantly reduces the towing time, increases towing speed and may be result in better exercise tolerance and less fatigue for rescuer compared to towing a diver in a full classic or wing diving set.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2022-00242023-12-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Studies on Saturation Diving in Poland and Practical Application of Their Findings. Part 2 C. Developing a Polish System of Saturation Diving in the 1980s and 1990shttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2022-0021<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article is another in a series of articles on the research and the deployment of saturation diving technology in our country. This part discusses Polish specificities and achievements against the background of economic and historical context. It describes the creation of the base for saturation diving in the times of economic hardship in our country. Over this period, the shipbuilding industry was driving saturation diving research as a basis for the construction of diving systems to be exported to secure the extraction of the resources from the sea shelf. This paper describes the efforts of the animators and protagonists of underwater research in our country, whose work is continued to this day. In its second part the author shows how the Polish system of saturation diving was created. The article also considers the technical and organisational conditions in which the first saturation dives took place and the history of the development of the Polish decompression method for saturation diving. A key role in this difficult task was played by the creation of a base for this industry and research potential, assisted by the relevant state agencies, dedicated for the defence sector. A multiannual National Research and Development Plan (Polish abbr. CPBR) was set up with objectives 9.2 and 9.5 focused on medical and technical research resulting in the development of a diving system with its organisational framework, medical safety solutions, and reliable technology. The outcomes of this programme are still being implemented today. Despite advances in the medical and technical fields as well as organisation, the problems of saturation diving are still pertinent because, regardless of its complexity and high cost, this is the most efficient diving format that allows for very deep diving operations, currently up to 400-500m.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2022-00212023-12-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Nutritional and Lifestyle Factors Determining the Problem of Overweight and Obesity Among Teenagers and Youth During the COVID-19 Pandemic – A Comparative Survey Study Among Poles and Belarusianshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2022-0022<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Introduction: The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide, especially among youth. The main cause of obesity in young people is a combination of excessive caloric intake and reduced physical activity. In addition to individual dietary and physical activity behaviors, genetic predisposition, socioeconomic and environmental factors, and comorbidities may contribute to obesity.</p> <p>Aim: The study aims to examine and compare the factors determining food preferences and habits as well as the occurrence of overweight and obesity among teenagers and youth in Poland and Belarus.</p> <p>Material and methods: An anonymous questionnaire consisting of 58 questions based on the Eating Behavior Questionnaire (QEB) was used. Responses were received from 700 young people from Poland and 690 from Belarus, some of whom were rejected. The data was collected in May and June 2021 and analyzed in the Statistica program (statistically significant results at p&lt;0.05). The research was financed by a grant from the Polish National Agency for Academic Exchange.</p> <p>Results: The study group was divided into four groups in terms of age and nationality: Poles &lt;20 years old (428 people), Belarusians &lt;20 years old (222 people), Poles 20-29 years old (210 people), and Belarusians 20-29 years old (295 people ). The correct BMI had 66.7%, 74.3%, 70.7%, and 71.2% of the respondents, respectively (p=0.057; p=0.888). In both age groups, in the Mann-Whitney U test, there are significant differences in the number of meals per day (p&lt;0.001) - Poles eat 4 or 5 meals a day more often, and Belarusians 3. In the chi-square test, both age groups showed a significant statistical difference (p&lt;0.001) in the question about eating breakfast every day - Poles eat breakfast more often than Belarusians. The Mann-Whitney U test showed no differences in sleep duration between the respondents from both countries (p=0.453; p=0.905).</p> <p>Conclusions: The results of the research indicate a strong need to implement educational programs to raise the awareness among young people about healthy eating. Obesity, skipping breakfast, too few meals during the day, and their incorrect composition indicate the direction of pro-health policy, which will be conducive to making the right food choices for youth.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2022-00222023-12-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Explosion Effects in the Vicinity of the Nord Stream 2 Pipeline on the Environment - Theoretical Analysishttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2022-0020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study analyzes the effects of an underwater explosion recorded in the Baltic Sea on September 26, 2022, with coordinates: 54.675 North and 15.574 East at a depth of 76.2 m. Based on data from the seismic monitoring system, the detonated charges were estimated at 750 kg of TNT. Then, the empirical equations of R. H. Cole and Warren D. Reid were used to calculate water pressure distribution and determine the danger zones for marine technology, ships, people, and sea fauna. The results are presented in graphical and tabular form. Based on the calculations, the explosion impact area was determined at over 6,700 m from the epicenter.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2022-00202023-12-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Designing Diving Technology. Part I Decompression Requirementshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2022-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article is a further one in an unintended series concerning the design of diving technology [1,2,3]. It contains answers to questions raised by readers upon reading previous articles and by users of the systems described therein by way of example. The articles also refer to the discussion held at the annual NATO Working Group meeting on the various types of decompression presented by the Polish side [4,5,6,7]. The previous articles were linked to the acceptance of the results of the project No. DOB-BIO8/О9/О1/2016 carried out under the contract with the NCBiR National Centre for Research and Development entitled “Decompression schedules for MCM/EOD II diving” carried out in 2016-2021. The current article is linked to the new project No. DOBBIO-12-03-001-2022 implemented under the contract with the NCBiR entitled: “The effects of combat effort and air transport on the safety of combat divers in the execution of underwater combat operations,” scheduled for 2023-2025.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2022-00192023-12-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Medicinal and cosmetic products used in treatment of hair losshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2022-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Hair loss or alopecia is a reduction in the volume or complete loss of hair and is a fairly common clinical problem, especially in the geriatric population. Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is the most common type of hair loss in men. Androgenetic alopecia in women most often occurs before the age of 60. We also distinguish androgenetic alopecia in postmenopausal women and scarring, areata, telogen and drug-induced alopecia. The aim of the study was to analyze the composition of medicinal and cosmetic preparations available on the Polish market, recommended for people struggling with alopecia. In 2022, the composition of preparations used in alopecia available in pharmacies and drugstores was analyzed.</p> <p>In total 57 medicinal and cosmetic preparations recommended for people suffering from alopecia have been identified. The most common active substance in the analyzed preparations is finasteride. Frequently used active substances are biotin and minoxidil, rarely prednisolone.</p> <p>Conclusions: 1. In preparations intended for people with alopecia, the most frequently used active substance is finasteride.</p> <p>2. Statistically, preparations for hair loss are most often in the form of tablets and shampoos.</p> <p>3. The analyzed preparations for alopecia belong to the category of prescription drugs and cosmetics, less often in the category of OTC drugs or dietary supplements.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2022-00182023-11-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Rescue device concept for the ARGO profiling floathttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2022-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The material presents the development work carried out by the ARGO-Poland scientific consortium related to the design of rescue systems for ARGO profiling floats used for in situ exploration of the world oceans. The article describes the principle of operation of the Argo float and the theoretical basis of the rescue system and six alternative design solutions for such a system.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2022-00142023-11-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Selected psychological aspects of qualifying candidates for divers and scuba divershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2022-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents the results of a pilot programme to include psychological tests in the qualification rules for candidates for military divers and scuba divers. 207 candidates for training at the Polish Army Divers and Scuba Divers Training Centre were tested. They were subjected to mental fitness tests, personality tests, psychomotor fitness tests and general fitness tests. Numerous psychological contraindications to undertaking training and diving service were identified; the most common issue identified being a lack of robustness of the diver’s mental state for dealing with the situations likely to be encountered in the water. The conclusions suggest that, as in other countries, psychological examinations should be included in the qualification of candidates for diving. The results of the tests, despite their non-mandatory nature, were partly taken into account in the opinion of the Military Maritime and Medical Commission.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2022-00162023-11-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of the effect of nozzle diameter on the breathing performance of a diving breathing apparatushttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2022-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article was inspired by information in the literature regarding damage to medium-pressure diving hoses, which, as a result of the crystallisation of material on their inner surface and the detachment of particles, caused significant interference with the output of the pressure regulator. A dangerous consequent ‘clogging’ of the airflow in stage II of the breathing apparatus and an increase in the effort in the diver’s lungs to overcome the increased breathing resistance resulted. This problem was investigated in the paper. Nozzles with reduced diameters were fabricated to simulate the deterioration of the automaton conditions. A suitably selected regulator from a domestic manufacturer’s was used for the tests. A series of measurements was carried out in a breathing simulator for the established experimental conditions specified in the standard PN-EN 250:2014. Following the test, the results obtained were analysed and interpreted based on statistical description methods.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2022-00152023-11-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Studies on Saturation Diving in Poland and Practical Application of Their Findings. Part 2 b. Developing a Polish System of Saturation Diving in the 1980s and 1990shttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2022-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article is another in a series of articles on the research and the deployment of saturation diving technology in our country. This part discusses Polish specificities and achievements against the background of economic and historical context. It describes the creation of the base for saturation diving in the times of economic hardship in our country. Over this period, the shipbuilding industry was driving saturation diving research as a basis for the construction of diving systems to be exported to secure the extraction of the resources from the sea shelf. This paper describes the efforts of the animators and protagonists of underwater research in our country, whose work is continued to this day. In its second part the author shows how the Polish system of saturation diving was created. The article also considers the technical and organisational conditions in which the first saturation dives took place and the history of the development of the Polish decompression method for saturation diving. A key role in this difficult task was played by the creation of a base for this industry and research potential, assisted by the relevant state agencies, dedicated for the defence sector. A multiannual National Research and Development Plan (Polish abbr. CPBR) was set up with objectives 9.2 and 9.5 focused on medical and technical research resulting in the development of a diving system with its organisational framework, medical safety solutions, and reliable technology. The outcomes of this programme are still being implemented today. Despite advances in the medical and technical fields as well as organisation, the problems of saturation diving are still pertinent because, regardless of its complexity and high cost, this is the most efficient diving format that allows for very deep diving operations, currently up to 400-500m.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2022-00132023-11-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Ochratoxin A and Aflatoxin B1 as Factors of Bone Damage and Neurodegeneration Through the Influence on the Immunomodulation Processes of TNF-α and IL-6 Concentrationshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2022-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The wide distribution of mycotoxins, including aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A, in the environment and their influence on living organisms make them an interesting research problem. Numerous complications of intoxication with these substances are known, however, particular attention is paid to the effects on the skeletal and nervous systems. The inflammatory effect, presented by the increase in the concentration of cytokines - IL-6 and TNF-α may influence the immune dysregulation present in bone metabolism disorders, as well as in neurodegeneration. Mycotoxins also contribute to osteodegeneration by modifying vitamin D metabolism. Interestingly, and still unexplored, is the mechanism of intrauterine influence on bone metabolism and neurodegeneration processes. Understanding the above mechanisms may help in monitoring the toxic effects of intoxication with these toxins. It can also help develop methods of therapy for poisoning with this compound, in animals and humans.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2022-00172023-11-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Sexuality of Elderly Peoplehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2022-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The subject of the work is the rarely discussed issue of the sexuality of the elderly. The article describes the sexuality of people in the "autumn of life". The aim of this work is to draw attention to the need to promote sexual health, as well as to prevent sexual disorders. A review of 34 literature items on various aspects of sexuality in the elderly was made: physiology, psyche, and social significance. There are restrictions on the intimate sphere resulting from the need for older people to stay in care and treatment facilities, social welfare homes. Love is presented as a biochemical process to show that it does not depend only on the changing corporeality of a person and that its epicenter is in the brain. The change of the hierarchy of sexual needs occurring with age, the evolution of the art of love from procreation to pleasure and sensuality are presented.</p> <p>Conclusion: the sexuality of seniors is an important sphere of their everyday life and has a large impact on functioning in society, as well as on the perception of their own attractiveness and self-acceptance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2022-00122023-07-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Diving Technology Design in a Mine Countermeasure System Part II Reliabilityhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2022-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article is another paper in an unintended series on designing the technology of diving [1,2,3]. It refers to the elements of the methodology<sup>1</sup> used in the works to develop the technology of using the Mx/O_2-SCR CRABE SCUBA<sup>2</sup> type diving apparatus in the mine countermeasure system as an example [4,5]. The previous article focused on the impact of the NATO Standardization Organization requirements on the purpose of the main process implemented in the system that constitutes the aforementioned diving technology. The present article discusses the reliability of the process implemented in the system.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2022-00072023-07-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Studies on Saturation Diving in Poland and Practical Application of their Findings. Part 2A. Developing a Polish System of Saturation Diving in the 1980s and 1990shttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2022-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This is another from the series of papers discussing studies on saturation diving technology and its use in Poland. This part explains the specificities of the Polish context and achievements against the backdrop of economic and historical circumstances. It describes how the central base for saturation diving came into being in the times of economic collapse in the country. At that time, the shipbuilding industry was the driving force behind research on saturation diving as a cornerstone for building a framework for diving systems to be exported to other countries to secure the extraction of assets from the sea shelf. The paper introduces the readers to the efforts of animators and protagonists of that period of underwater research in Poland whose achievements are continued until to-date. The second part of the paper shows how the Polish system of saturation diving was created. The article also considers the technical and organisational aspects of the first saturation diving experiences and the history of the Polish method of decompression for saturation diving. To accomplish this difficult task, it was crucial to ensure a solid industrial and academic base working for the defence sector and assisted by relevant state agencies. A multiannual CPBR programme was also set up with measures 9.2 and 9.5 dealing with medicine and technology which resulted in the development of a diving system with its organization, medical support and reliable technology. Outcomes of this programme are still being implemented today. Despite progress made in medicine, technology, and organisation issues involved in saturation diving are still pertinent because independently of their complexity and high cost this type of diving is the most efficient and allows for very deep diving operations up to 400-500 m.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/phr-2022-00082023-07-10T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1