rss_2.0Polish Hyperbaric Research FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Polish Hyperbaric Research Hyperbaric Research Feed on Saturation Diving in Poland and its Implementation. Part I A. General Characteristics of Saturation Diving Research in Our Poland. Pioneer Times; 1967-1985<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article is the first in a series of articles on the research and implementation of saturation diving technology in our country which presents the specific Polish conditions and achievements against the background of economic and historical circumstances. In view of the fact that research and implementation has a history of more than half a century, selected key figures of this period are recalled, some of whom have disappeared in the fogs of history. In the specialized literature of the world, the Polish underwater habitats of Meduza are among top 6 countries that researched and implemented, this high technology of saturation diving. Regarded as the inspirer, pioneer and creator of the first saturation diving, he designed and developed the technique and decompression with the cooperation of a team of enthusiasts from clubs and professional divers, as well as engineering staff from the Tri-City enterprises. In the first part of the article the author characterizes the saturation dives in comparison with short dives with particular emphasis on decompression, which is the key to safe diving. The article also takes into account the technical conditions for the implementation of the first saturation dives. The author discusses the general methodology of validation and verification of the assumed decompression, referring to the Polish conditions. He describes how the medical, technical, and organizational problems of implementation of saturation diving were solved in the pioneering period against the background of world achievements. Furthermore, the author describes Polish habitat constructions of Meduza and Geonur types and their application to underwater work on the Polish shelf and coastal areas. Despite the great progress in the field of medicine and technology, as well as organization, the problems of saturation diving, despite the passage of time, remain relevant, as these are the most difficult dives from the point of view of organization, underwater physiology and safety technology.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Gulyar: Vital Progress and Contribution to the Development of Underwater Physiology and Medicine Sciences<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Here we present a unique life path of Sergiy Gulyar, a world-known Ukrainian scientist who was overcoming extreme conditions studying them on himself. He has developed his determination and responsibility from his basic experiences as a surgeon and his desire to win from his involvement in sports. His research in underwater laboratories has shown a capacity to find untrodden pathways to understand and explain what others did not even suspect. His physiological studies on the role of sea depths, breathing mixtures, underwater exposures, and diving schemes marked the path to the aquanauts and undersea man. Reaching the hyper depths equivalent to 2,500 m revealed the physiological limits of human being and defined how to handle hyperbaric respiratory failure. Prof. S. Gulyar suggested a usage of natural physiological mechanisms to accelerate the re-adaptation process as a part of the high-mountain rehabilitation of hyperbaria-adapted people. Dissertations were defended, books and articles were written, a scientific school of followers was created. Unfortunately, during the Soviet period, Prof. S. Gulyar faced a set of organizational problems and obstacles from the Soviet regime. In particular, his works were classified or hushed up, his intellectual property was often used without mentioning the author and his scientific team was intimidated by criminal investigations. Main recognition during this period had come from professional societies in Europe and the United States. After the collapse of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), Prof. S. Gulyar introduced a number of innovations and inventions in electromagnetic medicine and physiology. In particular, he has managed to account for main common features of physiological effects of light stimulation produced by Lasers, Light-Emitted Diodes and Bioptron light sources. By doing so, some mystical dogmas were filtered out and new paths to sensible light-induced treatments were developed. At the same time, Prof. S. Gulyar has preserved the legacy of many generations of medical professionals who used light in their treatments. He has shown in his physiological experiments that stimulation of biologically active zones including acupuncture points light stimulation has a wide spectrum of biological effects including alleviation of pain symptoms. Now mono- and polychromatic visual and transcutaneous light therapy of pain has been recognized scientifically and clinically, and its place in medicine has been firmly established. Prof. S. Gulyar described a new functional system of the organism that regulates the electromagnetic equilibrium. A step into the future was the first experimentally grounded technology for the use of fullerene-modified light. Positive changes have been proven with its percutaneous and ocular use. These first results open the door to complete analysis and future investigations. Prof. S. Gulyar has published 20 monographs, 470 papers and abstracts, and received 11 patents. Many of his inventions have been implemented, the others are still awaiting implementation. This article is based on the data obtained by the authors during many years of their personal cooperation, as well as from the memoirs of Prof. S. Gulyar and the materials he provided.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Analysis of a Case of Decompression Sickness in a Diver<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents an accident of a diver in classic equipment. After several hours of hard work underwater, shortened instead of extended decompression was applied. The staff disregarded the symptoms of type I decompression sickness reported by the diver, and therefore the treatment was started with a significant delay. The use of recompression treatment - therapeutic decompression resulted in permanent and complete resolution of symptoms.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Self-Government Tasks in the Field of Social and Vocational Rehabilitation of Disabled People in the Lubelskie Voivodeship in 2008-2017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Disability is an interdisciplinary-medical, social and professional phenomenon. The goal of medical professionals is to treat a person and restore his or her fitness. The group of disabled people in Poland is characterized by a lower level of education than among non-disabled people and high unemployment. The purpose of vocational rehabilitation is to make it easier for a disabled person to obtain and maintain appropriate employment and career advancement. Social rehabilitation is defined as an activity aimed at enabling a disabled person to fully participate in social life. The tasks of the local government addressed to disabled people include conducting occupational therapy workshops (WTZ), occupational activity establishments (ZAZ), community self-help homes (ŚDS) and social welfare homes (DPS).</p> <p>The aim of the study was to analyze the implementation of self-government tasks in the field of social and vocational rehabilitation of disabled people, with particular emphasis on ZAZ in the Lubelskie Voivodeship in 2008-2017.</p> <p>The work uses data collected in 2008-2017 by the Regional Center for Social Policy (ROPS) in Lublin. In addition, in December 2017, they were sent by e-mail to ROPS and Marshal’s Offices in voivodship cities in Poland, inquiries about tasks and ways of implementing these tasks in the field of social and vocational rehabilitation of disabled people in 2008-2017. The available data on expenditure from the State Fund for Rehabilitation of the Disabled (PFRON) was collected. The research material was statistically developed using the IBM SPSS Statistics (v. 25) and Statistica (v. 13) statistical packages.</p> <p>In the years 2008-2017 in the Lubelskie Voivodeship, PLN 75,529,959 was allocated for vocational and social rehabilitation of people with disabilities, the most (PLN 9,158,243) in 2016. In the same year, the largest number of people used the ZAZ. In 2008-2017, the average annual amount of expenditure on social and vocational rehabilitation of disabled people in all Polish provinces was PLN 7 576 718.9. In the discussed period, the highest amounts from PFRON were allocated to the rehabilitation of disabled people in the Śląskie Voivodeship, and the lowest in Lubuskie, while Lubelskie received average amounts.</p> <p>In Poland, in the field of social and vocational rehabilitation and employment of disabled people, solutions similar to those already developed are applied in the countries of Western Europe. The costs of financing vocational rehabilitation, understood as financing the functioning of the ZAZ by voivodship self-governments, are constantly growing. The growing expenses incurred on the activities of the ZAZ do not significantly improve the situation related to vocational rehabilitation and employment of disabled people. Improving the operation of the system of vocational and social rehabilitation of people with disabilities should not only consist in increasing the funds spent under the current inefficient system, but should be preceded by a thorough analysis of the current state and the development of extensive organizational changes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Applications of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy-Narrative Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is a method supporting the treatment of many diseases. Oxygen therapy treatments are conducted in hyperbaric chambers, in which patients breathe pure, 100% oxygen with higher than atmospheric pressure. This allows to increase the amount of oxygen supplied to all cells of the body many times over. The treatment with hyperbaric oxygen therapy enables the patient to recover faster and be fully active, and also reduces the costs of standard treatment.</p> <p>The aim of the study was to summarize the possible applications of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The available literature in the PUBMED database was reviewed in September 2022 with the use of the phrases ‘hyperbaric oxygen therapy’, ‘therapeutic applications’. The indications for therapy in a hyperbaric chamber are all kinds of diseases, both acute and chronic. The method supports the nourishment and regeneration of cells and tissues of the organism, and also slows down the aging process. However, due to the possible side effects of such therapy, patients should be qualified for its use after a careful analysis of their clinical condition and coexisting diseases. To sum up: hyperbaric oxygen therapy is most often used in the treatment of skin diseases and injuries, burns, and peripheral vascular diseases.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Laser Imaging<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Attenuation of light in the ocean ranges widely depending on the environment and is especially significant in optical remote sensing. Absorption of light by ocean water limits the range light can travel before being extinguished. The complex interactions of scattering light and ocean water often lead to distortions of the signal as it propagates which degrades the quality and accuracy of underwater measurements. Consequently, underwater visibility (i.e. how well an object can be seen with definition at distance) can be less than 1 [m] in turbid and murky environments such as harbors. Advancements in laser imaging systems make highly accurate measurements at further ranges than has previously been possible through temporally filtering of a modulated laser signal at frequencies as high as 1 [GHz]. Here we overview the processes affecting underwater light propagation and visibility, laser imaging systems, recent advancements in the field of underwater optical imaging, and the application of such systems.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Diving in Poland and Invitation to the Polish Committee on Scientific Diving<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Scientific diving (i.e. diving for research purposes organised by universities and research institutes) was excluded from the Act on the performance of underwater works in 2014. With the exception of the introduction of internal regulations at several academic institutions involved in underwater research, to date it remains unregulated at national level. In May this year, an initiative group consisting of six scientific institutions established the Polish Scientific Diving Committee - PKNN. Its aim is to unite Polish institutions using scientific diving in their activities, to represent their interests in the national and international arena, to co-operate and exchange experience, to adopt and develop appropriate standards and procedures, including those relating to safety, and to achieve the future introduction in Poland of regulations fully regulating scientific diving, as well as to support the development of this field of underwater research in Poland.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Physiological Stress Experienced by Divers Maintaining an Upright Position on the Water Surface Depending on the Buoyancy Control Device<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The knowledge of physiological reactions enabling a diver increasing the functional reserve in a life-threatening situation is not yet complete. It is suggested that the ability to adapt to prolonged stress experienced by divers maintaining an upright position on the water surface is associated with the diver’s individual characteristics and the type of the buoyancy control device. The purpose of this study was to perform a preliminary evaluation of physiological variables in divers wearing two different types of buoyancy control device and floating upright at the surface to determine the level of safety offered by each of them. The physiological variables were measured while participants wearing a classical dive vest and a wing dive vest. The oxygen uptake and heart rate measured after 30 minutes of experiment were significantly greater in participants using wing dive vest than classical dive vest. The results confirm the possibility of using physiological indicators to compare the fatigue and rescue function in divers depending on the buoyancy control device type.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Vehicles in the Research Work of Szczecin Universities — Projects<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents the development and scope of research work in the early period of interest in deep-sea technology in Poland in the 1980s. The research was carried out at the then Szczecin University of Technology and initially concerned studies of the level of world technology, followed by the construction of experimental unmanned underwater vehicles. The work culminated in the development of designs for manned deep-sea vehicles, the construction of which depended on commissions from the countries of the Eastern Bloc. Political and economic changes resulted in the abandonment of the continuation of work.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Anti-Hav IgG Antibodies in the Population of the Łódź Macroregion by Age Group<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Over the last several decades, a gradual decrease in the incidence of hepatitis A and an increase in the population of non-immune people, especially in the group of young people have been observed in Poland. The aim of this study was to assess of the presence of specific anti-hepatitis A virus IgG class antibodies (anti-HAV IgG) in relation to age among non-vaccinated hepatitis A patients. There were statistically significantly more patients up to 45 years of age with anti-HAV IgG negative results than those over 45 years of age, and the Fi-square correlation coefficient (Φ2) was 0.263 between the analyzed variables. The data analysis shows that the number of people with specific IgG antibodies against hepatitis A increases with age. The risk of hepatitis A infection in people under 45 is high due to widespread seronegativity in this age group.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Events During Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy – Literature Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As any other therapy method, hiperbaric oxygen therapy is connected with the risk of complications. The article is a review of the results of research on adverse events of hyperbaric oxygen therapy. The most common are: borotrauma of the middle ear, paranasal sinuses or lungs, oxygen toxicity can be pulmonary, ocular in extreme cases leading to cataracts, claustrophobia, pulmonary edema or hypoglycaemia. Research has shown that these events occur in the presence of high oxygen concentration or high pressure. Depending on the severity of complications, they are short-term not causing discontinuation of therapy or long-term excluding continuation of treatment. However adverse events connected with oxygen therapy are not common and are usually mild. This confirms that HBOT is an effective and safe method of treating decompression sickness, carbon monoxide poisoning, and the treatment of chronic wounds, delayed radiation injuries or necrotic soft tissue infections.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Effects of the Water-Flat-Panel Illuminator-Air Optical System on the Size of the Photographed Object<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper discusses the problem of the effect of the water - flat-panel illuminator - air optical system on the size of an object photographed in an underwater environment as well as presents an analysis of the function describing the angular size of an object photographed with this type of system along with the results of computer simulations. It has been shown that when using this type of an optical system in practice, the value of the angle of incidence of the rays from the photographed object on the illuminator plane has the major influence on output object dimensions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Studies on Dexketoprofen<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Introduction. Dexketoprofen(DEX) belongs to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. DEX is an enantiomer of ketoprofen (S+) and has a stronger effect than ketoprofen. It is highly effective even after the administration of small doses. The therapy with DEX does not cause serious side effects and is additionally tolerated by the body.</p> <p>Aim. The review aimed to find original scientific publications on DEX in recent years and its therapeutic efficacy, safety, and tolerability.</p> <p>Method. A systematic review of scientific articles published no earlier than 2015 was carried out. Materials from the PubMed, Google Scholar, and Medline Complete databases were used. The literature review was carried out in November 2021. Among the publications found, 28 scientific articles were selected for analysis.</p> <p>Results and discussion. Over the recent years, there have been many publications about DEX. Articles describing new data on DEX in the treatment of pain were analyzed, compared with other drugs and mesotherapy, the latest reports of its combination with tramadol and thiocolchicoside were reviewed, and a new slow release form of DEX and new therapeutic applications of this drug were investigated. After analyzing all the studies, it was found that DEX produced similar or more effective analgesia compared to other drugs and reduced the need for emergency medications. In addition, it was noted that using DEX in combination therapy was far better than taking it alone, and was also found to be effective in raising the epileptic threshold. Mesotherapy achieved higher results in the treatment of pain symptoms compared to DEX. The side effects that appeared as a result of the use of DEX therapy were not life-threatening.</p> <p>Conclusion. The results of the review confirm that DEX is a very good analgesic, which is more potent than paracetamol and diclofenac sodium while having similar effects to dexmedetomidine and lidocaine. DEX in combination with tramadol or thiocolchicoside is more effective than when the two drugs are used alone. Scientists are working on the long-acting DEX and are looking for new applications of the drug in epilepsy and oncology.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue on an Offshore Rig in the Baltic Sea<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Biofouling is called “lessons from nature”. Currently, governments and industry spend more than 5.7 billion USD annually to control unwanted marine biofouling, aquatic flora and fauna on submerged construction leading to various technical, economical, and ecological problems. In turn, the Baltic Sea is defined as a “time machine” for the future coastal ocean, as processes occurring in the Baltic Sea are related to future changes. Our study describes the biofouling community at 12 sites located at different depths on the legs of the “Baltic Beta” oil platform that resulted in finding a maximum of 1,300 individuals on 400 cm<sup>2</sup>. We analyzed: spatial distribution of dominant marine organisms living on a steel platform surface, their abundance and mass. Our work showed no significant difference in the benthic samples mass among different depths or cardinal directions of the rig columns. Our research can help to predict offshore biofouling on other devices in the Baltic Sea, to control invasive species and to estimate environmental load.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Verification of an Application for the Calculation of Technological Parameters During Production of Trimix Mixture<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents the results of an engineering thesis carried out at the Department of Underwater Works Technology of the Naval Academy in Gdynia. The subject of the thesis was to improve calculations during the production of a trimix mixture based on a previously produced nitrox mixture. This was done by developing a dedicated computer application. The article describes the reasons for using artificial breathing mixes, an application developed as part of the thesis and the method of its initial verification along with the directions for further research activities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Case of Decompression Sickness Associated With PFO in a Dive Medical Officer<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Current medical guidelines and regulations do not require routine examinations for the right-to-left shunt at divers. We present the case of a Polish Navy Dive Medical Officer (DMO) who more than 20 years ago suffered from decompression ilness - bends accompanied by cutis marmorata, numbness in one limb and mild vertigo. After treatment in decompression chamber all symptoms entirely resolved. Since then, despite of continuing diving, he experienced no decompression ilness symptoms. Twenty years later, then 52 years-old, the DMO was admitted as a patient to the Neurology Department at the Gdańsk Naval Hospital due to episodes of transient ischemic attacks. Contrast-enhanced transcranial Doppler ultrasound and transesophageal echocardiography were performed and he was diagnosed with severe right-to-left shunt across a patent foramen ovale (PFO). Retrospectively analyzing incident of DCI he suffered 20 years earlier, we suppose that it may have been caused by paradoxical air embolism associated with the RLS across the PFO, which was not diagnosed at the time of this incident yet. We conclude that although the risk of severe neurological, cutaneous or vestibular forms of DCI is very low, in order to increase diving safety, it seems to be reasonable to develop standards for initial PFO screening in certain groups of divers - professional divers, military divers and medical diving personnel. Contrast-enhanced transcranial Doppler ultrasound seems to be useful in RLS screening in divers. Using multi-compartment chambers equipped with an entry lock should be preferred for safe recompression treatment of divers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Lambda-Cyhalothrin - An Insecticide from the Group of Synthetic Pyrethroids - on the Concentrations of NF-ĸB and VEGFR2 in the Liver of Albino Swiss Mice as Markers of its Damage<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Background: Lambda-cyhalothrin (LCH) is a one of the type II synthetic pyrethroids which is widely used in veterinary medicine and in agriculture to protect crops from pest insects. In previous studies, there are few reports about the influence of pyrethroids on the liver and its damage. Analyzing numerous publications, nuclear factor-ĸB (NF-ĸB) and vascular endothelial growth factor 2 (VEGFR2) seem to be sensitive indicators of microdamages occurring at the cellular level in the liver. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of subacute poisoning with LCH on the concentration of NFĸB and VEGFR2 in the livers.</p> <p>Methods: The experiment was carried on 32 Albino Swiss mice (16 females and 16 males). The animals were divided into 4 groups. Controls received canola oil, the rest received LCH orally in oil at a dose of 2 mg/kg bw for 7 days. The NF-ĸB and VEGFR2 were mesuredin mice livers with ELISA kits. Results: The mean NF-ĸB concektration in control femals’ livers was 3.27ng/mL and after LCH it was 6.12ng/mL (p&lt;0.05). In control males it was 5.49ng/mL and it did not significantly differ after LCH when it was 5.27ng/mL. The mean VEGFR2 in control females was 84.28ng/mL and after LCH it was 173.81ng/mL (p&lt;0.05). In control males it was 170.61ng/mL and after LCH 170.06ng/mL.</p> <p>Conclusion:The NF-ĸB and VEGFR2 can be used as markers of liver damage after subacute poisoning with LCH on female mice. Females are more sensitive to LCH than males.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Oxygen Therapy in Covid-19 Treatment: Efficacy and Safety<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Introduction: New effective treatments are sought to eliminate COVID-19-related hypoxia. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is an effective method in the treatment of many diseases accompanied by hypoxia.</p> <p>Aim: The aim of this study was to analyse the literature on the use of hyperbaric oxygen in the treatment of COVID-19 and to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of this method.</p> <p>Materials and methods: Medical databases (Medline and PBL) and websites were reviewed using the terms hyperbaric oxygen and COVID-19. 25 works were qualified for the analysis.</p> <p>Conclusions: The analysed literature shows that hyperbaric oxygen therapy is an effective and safe method of treating patients with COVID-19. Due to the limited amount of scientific evidence assessing the use of HBOT in COVID-19, there is a need for further research to confirm the effectiveness and safety of this method.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Influence of Aflatoxin B1 on the Concentration of Nuclear Factor κB in Rats’ Livers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Introduction. Aflatoxins are metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Due to the high prevalence of aflatoxin-containing products they are common issue of the observational studies. Observational studies have demonstrated the hepatotoxic effects of aflatoxins in humans. However, the exact pathogenetic mechanisms of the effect of aflatoxin B1 on the above-mentioned hepatotoxicity have not yet been known.</p> <p>Aim of the study. The aim of the study was to assess the toxic effects of different doses of aflatoxin B1. The analyze was performed using assessment of concentration of NF-κB in liver tissue homogenates after a 7-day intoxication with this mycotoxin.</p> <p>Material and methods. The studies were carried out on Wistar male rats which were selected randomly, according to the principle of simultaneity for the control group and the study groups. The concentration of NK-κB was determined by immunoenzymatic ELISA in the obtained supernatants of liver taken from decapitated animals. The statistical analysis was performed with Statistica 13.3 (Statsoft, USA).</p> <p>Results. The statistical significance of the difference between the concentrations in the control and study group receiving 1.0 mg/kg of aflatoxin B1 and between the control and study group who received aflatoxin B1 at a dose of 2.0 mg/kg body weight (p &lt;0,05) were demonstrated. A significant relationship was also found between the level of dose of aflatoxin B1 administered to the rats and the concentration of NF-κB. Negative correlations were obtained. The higher dose administered to rats - the lower level of measured concentration of NF-κB.</p> <p>Conclusions. The study of the influence of aflatoxin B1 on the level of NF-κB transcription factor may significantly contribute to understand the mechanism of its action, influence on inflammatory, apoptotic and carcinogenic processes in the liver and determine its safe level in food intended for humans and animals.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Propensity to Risky Behaviour and Subjective Risk Assessment Among Selected Groups of Divers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this study, it was assumed that the propensity to risk behavior is a relatively persistent feature of an individual’s behavior. A person prone to risk, having the choice of taking a risky or cautious behavior, usually chooses to choose a risky behavior. The level of propensity to risk is related to the perception of the size of the threat and the motivational tendency to risk behavior. Risk management, and therefore managing your own safety, is a skill that is particularly important among people who undertake activities with a high level of risk. These include all underwater activities. The aim of the research was to find an answer to the question of whether there is a relationship between the level of risk behavior and the subjectively assessed risk in diving? Also, are there differences between different groups of divers in terms of risk behavior?</p> <p>112 divers from public services (military formations, police, PSP) participated in the study, of which the results of 67 people were finally analyzed. The Ryszard Student’s Risk Behavior Test, the Makarowski Risk Acceptance Scale and the proprietary subjective risk assessment questionnaire were used. It has been shown that among all professional groups of divers, the group of policemen is more prone to risky behaviors than the other groups. No other dependencies have been confirmed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue