rss_2.0Polish Journal of Chemical Technology FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Polish Journal of Chemical Technology Journal of Chemical Technology Feed and optimum pressure for sliding-mode nanogenerator<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Triboelectric nanogenerator has extensive applicability because of its capability of harvesting mechanical energy and flexible working modes. To research the optimum pressure and improve the recovered energy of the sliding-mode triboelectric nanogenerator, a contact model of the Al/PTFE tribo-pair is studied by ab initio calculation and finite element simulation. The F-atom of PTFE is proved to be the electron accepter and the charges transferred can be predicted by Bader charge analysis. The mathematical relation between interfacial distance, charges transferred and contact pressure can be fitted. By Gauss’s law, the electric field is simulated and the regeneration energy of the sliding-mode triboelectric nanogenerator can be evaluated by the total electric energy and friction loss. Finally, an optimum pressure can be set to the upper or lower limit of working pressure corresponding to larger recovered energy. And less friction coefficient and larger contact area are also effective methods for recovering energy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue research on the thermal properties of innovative insulation boards made of polyurethane-polyisocyanurate (PUR/PIR)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this work, the results of investigations of polyurethane materials were presented. Innovative materials based on polyurethane-polyisocyanurate (PUR/PIR) foam were obtained. Different types of additives (flame retardants, aerogels – additives that decrease thermal conductivity) are used in the composition of PUR/PIR foam. Foams are a type of composite composed of two phases: continuous (polyurethane polymers) and dispersed (composed of gases). All samples have been tested for thermal parameters: thermal conductivity, specific heat, and thermal diffusivity. Then they have been compared with each other and with a reference sample (RS) without additives. Based on the research, it was shown that innovative insulation materials were characterized by thermal conductivity λ in the range of 0.0254–0.0294 W/(m · K). The thermal properties of foams depending on the type and chemical composition of the material. Depending on the used substrates, their molar ratio, type, synthesis conditions, modifying agents and catalysts, a different polyurethane material is obtained.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of rubidium ion from brine solutions by dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 / ionic liquid system<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Separation among rubidium and potassium ions from salt lake brines remains challenging. In this work, a typical room temperature ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-metyhlimidazaolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([C<sub>2</sub>mim<sup>+</sup>][NTf<sub>2</sub><sup>–</sup>]) was used as diluent and synergistic extractant, dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) was used as extractant to extract rubidium ions from brine solutions which contain high concentrations of potassium ions was investigated. Under the optimal conditions, the single extraction efficiency of rubidium ions was up 93.63%. The thermodynamic parameters of the rubidium ion extraction were obtained. Based on the slope analysis method, the extracted species in the organic phase were ascertained as 1:1 complex. UV-visible has been performed to investigate the ion concentration of ionic liquid before and after the interaction of metal ions and ligands. Rubidium ions in [Rb · DCH18C6]<sup>+</sup> complex were stripped by 2.5 mol · L<sup>–1</sup> NH4NO<sub>3</sub>. The extraction system offers high efficiency, simplicity and environmentally friendly application prospect to separate rubidium from brine solutions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and structure of new modified derivatives based on the quinine molecule and their biological activity<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The relevance of the subject matter is conditioned by the constantly growing need to meet human needs in the field of medicine, in particular, the search, study, and further introduction of new types of medicines into practical use. The purpose of this study is to investigate the synthesis of modified quinine alkaloid derivatives, and their structure, to identify the properties and biological activity of antimalarial drugs based on quinine molecules, and to structure the general data of these substances. The leading approach is the analysis of the synthesis of quinine derivatives, their chemical and physical properties, and their ability to exert a medicinal effect. The abstracting method allows structuring alkaloid derivatives and establishing a general relationship between the structural configuration of molecules and their impact on human health in a number of related derivatives. The study identifies the main antimalarial drugs based on quinine molecules, including a comparative analysis of their effectiveness and overall biological activity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue method of conversion of geraniol to value-added products in the presence of selected minerals<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study presents the results of research on the process of geraniol (GA) transformation in the presence of natural minerals: montmorillonite, mironekuton, halloysite and also in the presence of halloysite modified with 0.1 M water solution of H<sub>2</sub>SO<sub>4</sub>. To obtain information on the structure of the used catalysts, instrumental studies were performed (SEM, XRD, FT-IR, XRF, BET). The second part of the research consisted in examining the influence of individual parameters (temperature, catalyst content, and reaction time) on the course of GA transformation process. The syntheses were carried out without the application of solvent and under atmospheric pressure. To determine the most beneficial process conditions, two functions were selected: GA conversion and selectivity of GA. The proposed method of GA transformation on such minerals: montmorillonite, mironekuton, halloysite, has not been described in the literature so far.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of hydroxycitronellal in β-cyclodextrin and the characteristics of the inclusion complex<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Hydroxycitronellal has been widely used in foods, beverages, perfumery and cosmetics. It can also be used to treat anxiety. The major drawbacks regarding the use of hydroxycitronellal are related to water insolubility, volatility, instability, and sensitization. To overcome these concerns, β-cyclodextrin was adopted as wall material to encapsulate hydroxycitronellal in this work. Hydroxycitronellal-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex was prepared and the product was characterized. The interaction of hydroxycitronellal and β-cyclodextrin, and the assembly of hydroxycitronellal-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex were investigated by molecular simulation (MM). The results showed that hydroxycitronellal loading capacity was 8.5%. The thermal stability and lastingness of hydroxycitronellal were improved by the formation of the inclusion complex. The minimum binding energy was –151.2 kJ/mol. Among the perpendicular, staggered parallel and ideally parallel orientation of the inclusion complexes, the minimum energy value was found for the staggered parallel arrangement. These basic data are useful to understand the interaction between hydroxycitronellal and β-cyclodextrin.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of YSZ coatings on nickel-based alloys by anodic electrophoretic deposition<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the paper, YSZ coatings were prepared on nickel-based alloy substrates by anodic electrophoretic deposition. The YSZ suspension solution was obtained under stirring and ultrasonic treatment, in which the anhydrous ethanol and acetylacetone were used as the dispersion medium and ammonium polyacrylate was used as the dispersant of the suspension. The effects of different deposition voltage and deposition time on YSZ coating were investigated. Meantime, the microstructure of the coating surface was observed by metallographic microscope. It was found that the high-quality YSZ coating could be obtained by deposition at 60 V for 2–3 min. Finally, the effect of sintering temperature on coating quality was investigated by X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the YSZ coating bonded closely with the substrate after sintering at 1200 <sup>o</sup>C, and the porosity of the YSZ coating increased after sintering</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of nanoscale zero-valent iron doped carbonized zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 for methylene blue removal in water<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nanoscale zero-valent iron-doped carbonized zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (nZVI/CZIF-8) was prepared by carbonation of ferric nitrate and ZIF-8 at 800 °C and used as an adsorbent to remove methylene blue (MB) from water. The synthesized nZVI/CZIF-8 has a specific surface area of 806.9 m2/g, a pore volume of 0.86 cm<sup>3</sup>/g and an nZVI content of 1.35%, respectively. Both the nZVI/CZIF-8 and CZIF-8 have identical functional groups of O-H, C-H and C=C. With the increase of CZIF-8 size, MB removal rate increased. The doping of nZVI increased the MB removal percentage from 74.5% for ZIF-8 to 96.2% within 80 min for nZVI/CZIF-8. The MB removal percentage increased with the dosage of nZVI/CZIF-8. The MB adsorption with the adsorbents conforms to the Freundlich adsorption isothermal model and the removal rate fitted well to a pseudo-first-order model. The results demonstrate the feasibility of synthesizing high active and stable nZVI/CZIF-8 particles.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of alkali metal promoters on catalytic performance of Co-based catalysts in selective hydrogenation of aniline to cyclohexylamine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this study, a series of Co-based catalysts with alkali metal carbonate promoters were prepared to investigate the interrelation between promotion effect of these carbonates and catalytic performance for aniline hydrogenation to cyclohexylamine in vapour phase. The chemical promoters Li<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub> and Na2CO<sub>3</sub> leading to decrease in catalytic activity of cobalt catalysts for aniline hydrogenation. Catalysts with K<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub> and Cs2CO<sub>3</sub> loadings have practically no catalytic activity for hydrogenation of aniline. Results of TPD of aniline proved that presence of alkali metals carbonates restricts the adsorption of aniline on the surface of cobalt catalysts. Further, it was found that the addition of Na<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub> greatly enhances the catalytic selectivity towards the cyclohexylamine and inhibits the consecutive reactions of cyclohexylamine leading to formation of by-products such as dicyclohexylamine and <italic>N</italic>-phenylcyclohexylamine.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of purification of post-production condensates from polyester polyol production<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nowadays, the topics of closed-loop and eco-design are raised very often, especially in the chemical industry. To combine development with these trends, Purinova Sp. z o.o. has focused on pursuing the closed-loop use of post-production condensate from polyester polyols production. To this end, purification and distillation processes have been adapted, both at the laboratory and production scale, to receive treated condensate with decreased Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) index. The method involves connected purification of production condensate by returning condensate to the top of the distillation column during polycondensation and two stages distillation system afterwards. The method allows for decreasing COD index and contents of diethylene glycol and 1,4-dioxane. The resulting technology has consequently allowed the use of tailored distillation in the purification of post-production condensates in the production of polyester polyols. Furthermore, the quality of the condensate obtained allowed it to be used in the closed loop of the production plant.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the dedusting process in a rectangular chamber filter<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Purifying air from dust is a very important, current topic. There are many methods to minimize the amount of dust, one of them being chamber filters. This paper presents the research results of a newly designed rectangular chamber filter. The efficiency of the dedusting process is influenced by contamination properties, but also by the construction of the apparatus, inlet, and outlet location, the ratio of certain dimensions, and the gas flow rate. The airflow containing solid particles is a multi-phase, difficult-to-describe issue, therefore an attempt to determine the trajectory of particle movement in the apparatus was carried out using the PIV method. A decrease in the dedusting efficiency was observed with the increase of the gas flow rate, as well as for smaller diameters of the solid particles. The obtained values of the efficiency of the apparatus are comparable with the values obtained for the constructions discussed in other papers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue photooxidation and photoreduction of phenol and Cr(VI) ions using titania modified with nanosilica<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The photocatalytic process of phenol oxidation and Cr(VI) reduction in the presence of nano-silica modified titania was carried out. The activity of composites was tested using two different light sources. The photocatalysts with 10% of nanosilica showed the highest activity. The calcination temperature (200–800 <sup>o</sup>C) significantly determined the sensitivity of the obtained materials to the light source used. Photocatalysts alternately adsorbed and desorbed Cr(VI) ions from the reaction mixture during irradiation. In the one-component mixture, complete oxidation of phenol was observed using material calcined at 650 <sup>o</sup>C, after 3 h of UV-VIS irradiation. In the reaction mixture of Cr(VI) and phenol, the highest activity was demonstrated by photocatalyst calcined at 300 <sup>o</sup>C. The concentration of phenol decreased in proportion to the decrease of chromium ions. The obtained titania-silica composites showed oxidizing properties towards phenol and reductive properties toward Cr(VI) ions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of wastewater from the production of meat and bone meal by the Fenton process and coagulation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Wastewater from the production of meat and bone meal, due to the high load of organic matter and suspended solids, is a significant problem in the process of its treatment. In this work, we examined the method of treating this wastewater using coagulation with hydrogen peroxide and the Fenton process. Treatment variants included the use of variable Fe<sup>2+</sup>/H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> ratios of 1:5–1:30, variable doses of 3–18.0 g/L H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>, and 5–10 mL/L of coagulant PIX 113. The calculated reduction degrees showed that, regardless of the treatment variant used, the greatest reduction was obtained for turbidity (100%), phosphorus (99%), followed by color (97%), chemical oxygen demand (70%), and Kjeldahl nitrogen (48%). The proposed treatment options can be used as a preliminary stage in treating wastewater from the production of meat and bone meal.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue research on the volatilization and condensation of ammonium bisulfate as SCR byproduct<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this paper, the research progress of ammonium bisulfate (ABS) volatilization in coal-fired power plants the SCR denitrification process was reviewed. Combination with self-made experiments, SEM, flue gas analyzer and TG-DTG curves of ABS and ion chromatography. The volatilization and condensation characteristics of ABS were investigated carefully. Results show that as the temperature increased by 50 <sup>o</sup>C, the ABS/AS volatilization rate increased by an order of magnitude. The decomposition process of ABS should have a two-step reaction. The reaction in the initial volatiliza-tion stage is ABS dehydration turned into (NH<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub>S<sub>2</sub>O<sub>7</sub>. The reaction in the rapid volat-ilization stage is (NH<sub>4</sub>)<sub>2</sub>S<sub>2</sub>O<sub>7</sub> decomposed into NH3, N<sub>2</sub>, SO<sub>2</sub> and H2O. There is an inter-section in the reaction temperature range (especially 300 <sup>o</sup>C) between the two-step re-action. This research provides an experimental basis for temperature control of ABS to avoid air pre-heater fouling.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue process assessment using a novel type of coupon installation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main aim of this experimental study is to test the novel type of coupon installation. This set-up was used to carry out the corrosion process under aggressive conditions. Moreover, the effect of corrosion inhibitors on the scale-forming tendency was evaluated. The corrosive conditions were defined by using the Langelier Saturation Index (this index is an approximate indicator of the degree of saturation of CaCO<sub>3</sub> in water) and the Ryznar stability index (this index is allowed to determine if the liquid sample is aggressive or not). Additionally, the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy analysis was used to obtain the iron and calcium ions concentrations in the liquid samples from the tested coupon installation. The corrosion process for the established conditions was also described using the corrosion rate of the tested coupons. The obtained investigation contributes significantly by developing the novel coupon installation and demonstrating the procedure for testing the corrosion process with the application of coupons. This setup and method might be successfully applied for accelerated laboratory tests.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the co-processing technology of crude oil and coal and its deployment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The effect of process conditions on the co-processing technology of crude oil and coal was investigated. Crude oil/coal matching performance, swelling degree, crude oil/coal slurry viscosity-temperature characteristics and process parameters were obtained via the laboratory scale and pilot scale studies. The optimum reaction temperature of the co-processing was 445~450 <sup>o</sup>C, the pressure was 19 MPa, the catalyst addition was 3 wt.%, the reaction time was 2 h, and the ratio of hydrogen to crude oil was 1500 (V/V). Furthermore, the co-processing technology including catalyst and corresponding equipment based on the slurry bed hydrogenation were developed. By using this co-processing technology, the feed ratio of crude oil and coal can be 1:1, the coal conversion rate can be over 99%, the light oil (oil and aromatics) yield was over 70%, and the end products were gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, aromatics and LPG. The product quality meets the Euro V standard, whilst aromatics accounted for 48% of the light oil. So it was proved to be feasible to co-refine crude oil and coal at a ratio of 1:1. What’s more, the slurry bed hydrogenation plant and its equipment were tested for long-term operation, and it has been proved that this co-processing technology could be deployed as large-scale industrial application.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of a polyester plasticizer from rubber seed oil for polyvinyl chloride<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A polyester plasticizer (RSOP) for polyvinyl chloride based on rubber seed oil (RSO) was synthesized. Firstly, RSO monoglyceride were synthesized by the transesterification of RSO with glycerol at 220–240 °C. Secondly, RSOP was synthesized from RSO monoglyceride and adipic acid by esterification. The polyester plasticizer was characterized by GPC, FT-IR, <sup>1</sup>H NMR and DSC. Plasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC) materials with RSOP and dioctyl phthalate (DOP) in varying ratios were prepared via thermal melting process, RSOP was used as a second plasticizer. The properties of the plasticized PVC materials were characterized by a universal testing machine, TGA, DMA and solvent extraction resistance. The obtained PVC materials showed improved thermal stability and lower glass transition temperature than PVC. Solvent extraction resistance and plasticization of plasticized PVC were also improved. This study provides a new strategy for preparing bio-based polyester plasticizer from RSO.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of enzymatic pretreatment on yield and chemical composition of essential oil<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Effect of enzymatic pretreatment before hydrodistillation process on yield and composition of <italic>Rosmarinus officinalis</italic> essential oil was studied. Results obtained by using two selected commercial enzymes applied in food and beverage industry were compared. Control process with non-enzymatic pretreatment in analogous conditions was also performed for proper interpretation of results. Application of gas chromatography with mass selective detector (GC-MS) enabled analysis and comparison of essential oils composition. Moreover, total phenolic content (TPC) was determined spectrophotometrically in post-processing hydrolates, which are also valuable products e.g. for cosmetic applications. Modifications of isolation process by pretreatment with selected enzymes resulted in significant increase in essential oil yields in comparison to conventional hydrodistillation and control process with non-enzymatic pretreatment in analogous conditions. No substantial changes in the composition of obtained essential oils were observed. In post-processing hydrolates higher values of total phenolic content (TPC) were found both after enzymatic and non-enzymatic pretreatment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue drops during the flow of solutions of cocamidopropyl betaine and cocamide DEA mixtures with the addition of ethylene glycol<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents the results of experimental studies on pressure drops during the flow of cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB) and DEA cocamide solutions with the addition of ethylene glycol. The degree of drag reduction during the flow of the CAPB/DEA aqueous solution and with the 10% addition of ethylene glycol was similar. A significant reduction in pressure drops was also observed at the 20% concentration of ethylene glycol. However, the increase in the concentration of ethylene glycol resulted in the reduction of flow resistance at higher temperatures. The resistance of the micellar microstructure of CAPB/DEA solutions to mechanical degradation depends strongly on the pH level. Significant changes in flow properties were observed when the initial pH was alkaline. The solution with initial pH close to neutral was stable over time, though reduced resistance to degradation with time was also observed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Prediction of ECMM characteristics of Hardened Die Steel with Nanoparticle Added Electrolytes Using Hybrid Deep Neural Network<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In our work, the process efficiency of the ECMM should be improved by using different combinations of nano-particles and added electrolytes. The superior aim of this work is to improve and predict the ECMM machining characteristics of die hardened steel, namely material removal rate (MRR), Tool wear rate (TWR) and Surface Roughness (Ra). The machining conditions are optimized using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on Box Behnken Design. The better Nano electrolyte is optimized using Deer Hunting Optimization (DHO) based on the machined outcomes, and the performances are predicted using a hybrid Deep Neural Network (DNN) based DHO. The hybrid DNN-DHO based predicted outcome of MRR is 0.361 mg/min, TWR is 0.272 mg/min and Ra is 2.511 μm. The validation results show that our proposed DNN-DHO model performed well and obtained above 0.99 regression for both training and validation of DNN-DHO, where the root mean square error ranges between 0.018 and 0.024.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue