rss_2.0Polish Journal of Chemical Technology FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Polish Journal of Chemical Technology Journal of Chemical Technology Feed of complexation of microelement ions by biodegradable IDHA chelator in water and simulated fertilization environment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The degree of complexation of microelement ions by the biodegradable chelating agent - IDHA was examined in the work. The tests were carried out in water and in a simulated fertilizer environment. In order to compare the obtained results, tests were also carried out for the commonly used EDTA. The performed analyzes allow to determine the influence of the presence of compounds containing macroelements on the degree of binding of microelement ions by the biodegradable IDHA and EDTA chelators. The obtained results make it possible to determine the optimal conditions for the chelation of cations by IDHA, which in the future may be used in the production of micronutrient fertilizers on a large scale.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue behaviour of polar solvent and water vapours on Sorbonorit B4 activated carbon<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this work, the affinity of the heterogeneous Sorbonorit B4 (SB4) activated carbon toward methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), isopropyl alcohol (IPA), n-propyl alcohol (NPA) and isobutyl alcohol (IBA), and water vapours was examined. Adsorption equilibrium measurements demonstrate a higher adsorption capacity of water vapour than organic compounds at relative pressures above 0.4. The adsorption capacities of SB4 at the same vapor pressure followed the order: NPA&gt; IPA&gt; MEK&gt; IBA. The Langmuir, Dubinin-Radushkevich, Dubinin-Astakhov, and Toth isotherm models were chosen to describe experimental results. Based on the multi-temperature isotherms, the values of the isosteric heat of adsorption were determined for various adsorbate loading. The results indicate a strong influence of VOC molecule structures and the surface heterogeneity of SB4 on the adsorption efficiency. For IPA-SB4 pair, the maximum temperature rise in a fixed-bed bed in the adsorption process and the energy requirement for regeneration were calculated and experimentally verified.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and applications of iron oxide reduction processes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present review handles the main characteristics of iron oxide reduction and its industrial applications. The reduction of iron oxide is the basis of all ironmaking processes, whether in a blast furnace or by direct reduction and/or direct smelting processes. The reduction characteristics of iron ores control the efficiency of any ironmaking process and the quality of the produced iron as well. Many controlling parameters should be considered when discussing the reducibility of iron ores such as equilibrium phase diagrams, reduction temperature, pressure, gas composition, and the nature of both iron ores and reducing agent. The different factors affecting the main routes of ironmaking will be highlighted in the present review to give a clear picture of each technology. Moreover, further innovations regarding the reduction of iron oxides such as the reduction by green hydrogen will be discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue research on the removal characteristics of simulated radioactive aerosols by a cloud-type radioactive aerosol elimination system<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Radioactive aerosols in the confined workplace are a major source of internal exposure hazards for workers. Cloud-type radioactive aerosol elimination system (CRAES) have great potential for radioactive aerosol capture due to their high adsorption capacity, lack of cartridges and less secondary contamination. A CRAES was designed and constructed, and a FeOOH/rGO composite was directly prepared by a hydro-thermal method to characterise and analyse its morphology, chemical structure and removal efficiency for simulated radioactive aerosols. The results show that the FeOOH/rGO composite works in synergy with the CRAES to effectively improve the removal efficiency of simulated radioactive aerosols. A 30-minute simulated radioactive aerosol removal rate of 94.52% was achieved when using the experimentally optimized composite inhibitor amount of 2 mg/L FeOOH/rGO with 0.2 g/L PVA as a surfactant. Therefore, the CRAES coupled with the composite inhibitor FeOOH/rGO has broad application potential for the synergistic treatment of radioactive aerosols.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue simulation and improvement of combustor structure in 3D printed sand recycling system<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this paper, a new combustor with an output of 5 t/h is designed based on a computational particle fluid dynamics (CPFD) model. The flow field simulation is combined with the combustion simulation to analyze the internal two-phase flow, temperature field, and combustion products. The combustor structure was optimized. The simulation results show that the recovery efficiency of the waste sand and the energy utilization of the combustor can be improved under the original structure. The sand bed has a significant effect on flow field characteristics. The increase in particle temperature in the combustor increases the efficiency of waste sand recovery by increasing the height of the sand bed by 50 mm. The utilization rate of natural gas is increased and the economic efficiency is improved. The feasibility of the CPFD method can simulate the flow field characteristics inside the combustor very effectively.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue on extracts as potential cosmetic raw materials<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the study, the possibility of an application of <italic>Ajuga reptans</italic> leaf and root extracts in antipollution cosmetics was investigated. The influence of <italic>Ajuga</italic> extracts on the skin condition was also evaluated. Both leaf and root <italic>Ajuga</italic> ethanolic extracts were obtained and added to the developed cosmetic formulations. Two types of emulsion W/O and O/W, washing gels and eye serum, containing as an active substance <italic>Ajuga</italic> extracts were prepared. For the stable formulations physicochemical and user properties were studied. The obtained results show that cosmetic products, containing the <italic>Ajuga reptans</italic> extracts, positively affect the skin condition: causing an improvement in the degree of skin hydration and elasticity, reducing the skin pores size and skin hyperpigmentation, and reducing the wrinkles depth.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Palm Olein and Coconut Oil Blend using Two High-Shear Continuous Stirred Tank Reactors<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to synthesize structured lipids containing high mono- and diacylglycerol by glycerolysisinteresterification of palm olein and coconut oil blend in two high-shear continuous stirred tank reactors in series. The result showed that various flow rates of 11 mL/min to 23 mL/min did not significantly increase mono- and diacylglycerol concentration, while at a flow rate of 26 mL/min only a low concentration of mono- and diacylglycerol was formed. However, a flow rate 20 mL/min and an agitating speed of 2000 rpm produced mono- and diacylglycerol concentration of 61.7% with the highest productivity of 2.1%/min and a triacylglycerol conversion of 64.6%. The slip melting point, melting point, hardness, emulsion capacity, and stability were 23.77 <sup>o</sup>C, 30 <sup>o</sup>C, 14.6 N, 65.15%, and 59.15%, respectively. The product’s solid fat content at 25 <sup>o</sup>C was lower than cocoa butter. The product contained β’ and β crystals, thus it can be applied as a cocoa butter substitute.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue on safe disposal of cephalosporins based on kinetic pyrolysis mechanism<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Based on the global goals for cleaner production and sustainable development, the pyrolysis behavior of cephalosporin residues was studied by TG-MS method. The influence of full temperature window on the safe disposal of residues was analyzed based on the “3-2-2” and “1+1” of thermal analysis kinetics, and the gas by-products of thermal degradation were monitored. Results showed that the pyrolysis of distillation residues were divided into low and high-temperature zones, including six stages. Maximum error rate (8.55%) by multiple scan rate was presented based on “3-2-2” pattern and maximum total fluctuation (33.7) by single scan rate was presented based on “1+1” pattern, which implied that the comprehensive multi-level comparison method was very reliable. The <italic>E</italic> value “E” of six stages showed an increasing trend ranging 166.8 to 872.8 kJ/mol. Lg<italic>A</italic><sub>(mean)</sub> was 27.28. Most mechanism function of stage 1, 2 were Z-L-T equation (3D), stage 3, 4, 6 were Avrami-Erofeev equation (AE3, AE4, AE2/3) and stage 5 was Reaction Order (O2). In addition, various small molecular micromolecule substances were detected such as C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>4</sub>O, C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>6</sub>, NH<sub>3</sub>, CH<sub>4</sub>, CO<sub>2</sub> under full temperature windows and a possible pyrolysis path of residues was provided.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of citronellal and geraniol from citronella () oil by vacuum fractional distillation: Effect of operating conditions on the separation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study used fractional distillation to separate citronellal and geraniol from citronella (<italic>Cymbopogon winterianus</italic>) essential oil to improve their market value. The one-factor-at-a-time methodology investigated operating parameters’ optimum conditions and effects, including system pressure, packing types, and column height. All investigations were evaluated based on their main fraction’s citronellal and geraniol content and recovery. Regarding the effect of the variables, a higher system pressure improved the separation while increasing the temperature range of each fraction and distillation time. The packing types would also improve the separation by providing a large surface area. Finally, the column height also positively impacted the separation. In the optimum citronella oil fractionation, citronellal content experienced a 2.5-fold increase, from 37.68% to 94.33%. Geraniol purity reached 40.61% from an initial content of 17.33% in the raw CW oil. The distillation could recover up to 90.00% of citronellal and 68.18% of geraniol.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of distillation time and distillation apparatus on the chemical composition and quality of Mill. essential oil<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the study, the influence of distillation time as well as distillation apparatus on the chemical composition and quality of lavender (<italic>Lavandula angustifolia</italic> Mill.) essential oil were investigated. Two different types of distillation apparatuses: Deryng (popular in Poland) and Clevenger-type (recommended by European Pharmacopoeia) were used for the isolation of the essential oil from dried lavender flowers (<italic>Lavandulae flos</italic>). Moreover, different distillation times (2, 3 and 4 hours) were also applied. The chemical composition of the isolated oils, determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), revealed the dominance of linalool (11.55–17.19%) and linalyl acetate (12.84–16.78%) in the all analyzed samples. Other important constituents were: caryophyllene oxide (5.66–7.35%), lavandulyl acetate (4.64–5.40%) and borneol (4.62–5.51%). On the basis of the obtained data it was proved that the distillation time and distillation apparatus affect the amounts of some constituents in the lavender oil.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue transfer in compact cross-flow mini heat exchanger<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents the results of an analysis of heat transfer in a cross-flow mini heat exchanger (CFMHE). The purpose of the paper was to analyze the results of the experimental measurements presented in the previous work in order to determine dimensionless correlations that allow for the calculation of heat transfer coefficients for the CFMHE. Analyzed CFMHE consisted of a brass cylindrical core, in which 2 mm circular holes were drilled. A method based on an optimization procedure was used to determine the correlations describing the heat transfer coefficients, allowing the correlations to be determined without the need of measuring the mini channel wall temperature. Overall heat transfer coefficients calculated using the proposed correlations typically did not deviate by more than ±10% from the corresponding experimental results, which was a significant improvement in the quality of the fit compared to the results presented in previous work.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of a modified method of humic acids extraction as an efficient process in the production of formulations for agricultural purposes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Due to their properties, humic acids (HA) can interact with macro- and micronutrients and retain plant nutrients in the soil profile. The aim of the presented work was to develop a new integrated 4-step process for the isolation of humic acids from peat with their simultaneous enrichment in macronutrients. The study demonstrated the possibility of replacing traditional solutions used in the extraction of humic acids with solutions that are a source of macronutrients. For the alkaline extraction step, a process assisted with ultrasound was implemented, which allowed to increase the efficiency of humic acids isolation. Optimization of this step has shown that, with the application of ultrasound in the new procedure, it is possible to obtain the humic acids isolation efficiency of more than 60%. The qualitative analysis of the products obtained confirmed the presence of structures characteristic of humic acids, including key functional groups.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Heavy Metals Contaminated Soil by Using Indigenous Metallotolerant Fungi<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present study was aimed to identify the indigenous fungal strains which could possibly be applied to the biore-mediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil. The contaminated soil samples of Korangi Industrial Estate Karachi were found to have total concentration of Cu 1.044 mgL<sup>1</sup>, and Pb 0.631 mgL<sup>–1</sup>. A total of eight indigenous strains of the fungus were isolated and screened for bioremediation capacity from heavy metals-contaminated soil. For the bioremediation of Lead (Pb) these same indigenous eight fungal strains were used for biological remediation. All the fungal isolated with enhanced bioremediation capability were through phenotypic and genotypical characterization. The topology of the phylograms established that the fungal isolates used in this study were allocated to: K1 (<italic>Penicillium notatum</italic>), K2 (<italic>Aspergillus parasiticus</italic>), K3 (<italic>Aspergillus fumigatus</italic>), K4 (<italic>Aspergillus flavus</italic>), K5 (<italic>Aspergillus terries</italic>), K6 (<italic>Fusarium solani</italic>), K7 (<italic>Penicillium chrysogenum</italic>), K8 (<italic>Aspergillus niger</italic>), K9 (<italic>Penicillium piceum</italic>) and K10 (<italic>Penicillium restrictum</italic>). Thus, K8 fungal isolate was found to be more efficient with maximum bioremediation capacity, for copper and lead removal efficiency, and selected for FTIR and SEM to find out the uptake of Cu and Pb which of the functional groups are involved, and further to detect the effects of bioleaching of both heavy metals on to the surface of K8 fungus biomass. The current study indicates that indigenous fungal isolates could be used with high potency to remediate or clean up the heavy metals-contaminated soil either by the technique of in situ or ex-situ bioremediation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue composition and antioxidant activity of leaves extracts of . collected from Al-Leith Area, Saudi Arabia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Background: wild <italic>Coleus forskohlii L</italic>. is a well-known traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases because of its high forskolin content and several diterpenes. Objective: this study aimed phytochemical screening, finding of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC) and antioxidation activity of <italic>Coleus forskohlii L</italic>. leavse extracts in Al-Leith area, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: dry leaves of wild <italic>C. forskohlii L</italic>. were used. Four solvents from diverse polarity groups were tested on these leaves, which are ethanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and hexane. Moreover, obtained extracts were used in phytochemical analyzing, finding of total phenols, and antioxidation activity. Results: showed the presence of phenols, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids, Proteins, carbohydrates, saponins, and glycosides in <italic>Coleus forskohlii L</italic>. leaves. The highest value of total phenolic content (TPC) was significantly (P &lt; 0.001) in ethanol extract (280.5±2.33 mg GAE/gm. Also, the highest value of total flavonoid content (TFC) was in ethanol extract (141.4±1.30 mg QE /g). The antioxidation activity was significantly (P &lt; 0.001) higher in ethanol extract (78.55±2.23%), followed by ethyl acetate extract (60.18±1.21%), chloroform extract (36.11±2.54%), and lowest value in hexane extract (20.71±0.59%). The study clearly indicated that the leaves extract of <italic>C. forskohlli L</italic>. collected from Al-Leith region- Saudi Arabia has properties to be useful in pharmacological and biological industries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Total Phenolic, Protein Contents, Antioxidant and Pharmacological Effects of Extracts Against and<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study was aimed to characterize the antioxidant and anti-microbial activities of <italic>Cynodon dactylon</italic> with special reference on its precise biochemical analysis. Physiological analysis that total carotenoids content (0.3884 ± 0.0172 mg/g), total chlorophyll content (6.1460 ± 0.2915 mg/g), total phenolic contents (13.4703 ± 0.1494 mg/g), chlorophyll a (3.7708 ± 0.1528 mg/g, catalase (CAT) contents (40.2844 ± 0.1515 units/mg), total anthocyanin contents (5.0166 ± 0.2966 g<sup>–1</sup> FW) total soluble proteins (2.9916 ± 0.1734 mg/g) and total flavonoids content (TFC) (4.7863 ± 0.0442 μg/g) was found higher in the leaves of the <italic>Cynodon dactylon</italic> whereas, chlorophyll b (2.4881 ± 0.1326 mg/g) was found higher in the stem of <italic>Cynodon dactylon</italic>, while, peroxidase (POD) contents (81.8763 ± 4.6609 units/mg) and superoxidase dismutase (SOD) activity (80.4346 ± 5.9367 units/mg) was investigated higher in roots of <italic>Cynodon dactylon</italic>. The anti-microbial activity of <italic>Cynodon dactylon</italic> extracts was performed using a good diffusion technique against two microbial strains. Among all the plant extracts, the methanolic extracts showed a maximum inhibition zone (26.87 mm) against anti-bacterial strain Escherichia coli whereas n-hexane extract showed a maximum inhibition zone (17.88 mm) against anti-fungal strain Candida albicans. This study reported the antimicrobial activity of <italic>Cynodon dactylon</italic> against some common pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans, which are highly associated with nosocomial infection. From the given results it is concluded that <italic>Cynodon dactylon</italic> could be exploited in pharmacology due to its antioxidant and anti-microbial properties.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Effluent Quality from Sludge Dewatering on Electricity Consumption<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>During the dewatering process, centrate is produced, which is returned to the beginning of the technological system. The quality of the resulting centrate, and therefore the size of the returned load of pollutants, affects the demand for electricity in the process of biological wastewater treatment. The following study presents the results of centrate quality tests at five wastewater treatment plants located in Poland. The dependence between suspended solids content and ammonia and COD concentrations in the centrate was determined. It was estimated that an increase in the overall suspended solids leads to an increase in COD by about 1.15 kgCOD/kgTSS. No correlation was found between TSS concentration and ammonia. It was calculated that the complete elimination of suspended solids from the sludge would reduce the electricity consumption for all five objects by about 535 MWh/y.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of drying and granulation process conditions on the characteristics of micronutrient chelates granules<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fluidized-bed spray granulation (FBSG) enables manufacturing particles with desired characteristics, including particle size distribution (PSD), density, or dust content. This study investigated the effect of selected factors on the granules obtained in a continuous FBSG of chelated fertilizers for foliar applications. The effect of surfactant addition to the solution sprayed into the bed and perturbations of operating parameters on PSD and granules morphology was studied. The experiments were supplemented with calculations based on a population balance equation (PBE). It was shown that granules manufactured with the tenside addition are more regular in shape, and thus less prone to mechanical wear. It was demonstrated that increasing rotational mill speed does contribute to a slight increase in the amount of dust, but in the long term, it does not disturb the regular agglomeration process. The computational results confirm that, despite the complexity of the process, its description with PBE is feasible.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue simulation of dense-phase pneumatic conveying in vertical pipe for gasifier<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The stable transportation of pulverized coal in the vertical pipe is significant for the operation of the gasifier. There are few studies on the flow characteristics and flow pattern transition of particles in vertical pipes with small diameters. This paper has modeled and analyzed the flow characteristic of powder in dense-phase pneumatic conveying through 25 mm vertical pipe using CFD. Firstly, the grid independence is verified to determine the optimal mesh size. Then, the influences of different solid loading ratios (SLRs) and conveying velocities on particle flow characteristics, flow stability, and flow pattern transition are investigated. The results show that the flow pattern in the vertical pipe changes from annular flow to uniform flow at high SLR and low conveying velocity. Moreover, the evolution regulation of resistance characteristics under different conveying velocities is further revealed. Considering the conveying stability and economic benefit, the most suitable conveying velocity is 6 m/s.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue investigations into the Spectrophotometrically Analyzed Niobium (V)-6-Chloro-3-hydroxy-7-methyl-2-(2’-thienyl)-4-chromen-4-one Complex<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Pentavalent niobium cation forms a stable yellow-colored binary complex with 6-chloro-3-hydroxy-7-methyl-2-(2’-thienyl)-4<italic>H</italic>-chromen-4-one (CHMTC) in the ratio of 1:2. The complex is quantitatively extractable into carbon tetrachloride from HClO<sub>4</sub> solution maintained at pH 1.26–1.75 and strictly adheres to Beer’s law as verified by the Ringbom plot with an optimized range of determination as 0.385–1.211 ppm of Nb(V). The ligand-metal complex system shows good precision, accuracy, sensitivity, and selectivity and handles satisfactorily the analysis of several samples of varying complexity. The results are highly reproducible as confirmed by statistical data. The stability of the complex is theoretically confirmed with the help of HOMO-LUMO values and the energy gap [for CHMTC, Δ<italic>E</italic><sub>gap</sub> = 3.62 V and for Nb(V)-CHMTC Complex, Δ<italic>E</italic><sub>gap</sub> = 2.97 eV]. The reactivity descriptors were calculated for detailed computational study to probe into the chemical behavior of the studied ligand and its complex. Further, mapped electrostatic potential diagrams help in justifying the donor sites of CHMTC ligand which is in accordance with the analytical findings.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of and their antibacterial activities against selected species<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Silver nanoparticles have special plasmonic and antibacterial characteristics that make them efficient in a variety of commercial medical applications. According to recent research, chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles are harmful even in low concentrations. It was crucial to identify appropriate synthesis methods that may have low costs and be nontoxic to the environment. Zingiber officinale (ginger) extracts used to prepare silver nanoparticles were inexpensive and environmentally friendly, and the best physicochemical characteristics were analyzed. Silver nanoparticles were characterized by using UV-visible spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The surface Plasmon resonance peak at 425 nm was observed using UV-Visible spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy observed that the nanoparticles were spherical and ranged in size from 5 to 35 nm. The XRD pattern values of 2θ: 38.2<sup>o</sup>, 46.3<sup>o</sup>, and 64.58<sup>o</sup> are used to determine the planes (111), (200), and (220). The silver nanoparticle’s existence was verified by the face-centered cubic (FCC). Silver nanoparticles were found to have antibacterial efficacy against gram-positive <italic>Staphylococcus</italic> and gram-negative bacteria such as <italic>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</italic>, <italic>Klebsiella Aerogenes</italic>, <italic>Salmonella</italic>, <italic>Staphylococcus</italic> and <italic>Escherichia coli</italic>. The antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was observed using the agar well diffusion (AWD) method at three different concentrations (100 μg/ml, 75 μg/ml, and 50 μg/ml). The zone of inhibition measured against the bacterial strains <italic>pseudomonas Aeruginosa</italic>, <italic>Klebsiella aerogenes</italic>, <italic>Escherichia coli</italic>, <italic>Salmonella</italic> and <italic>Staphylococcus</italic> which were (18.4±1.25 mm, 16.9±0.74 mm, 14.8±1.25 mm), (16.8±0.96 mm, 14.6±0.76 mm, 14.0±1.15 mm), (19.7±0.76 mm, 18.2±0.66 mm, 15.4±1.15 mm), (16.6±0.67 mm, 14.2±0.23 mm, 12.8±0.78 mm) and (12±0.68 mm, 10±0.20 mm, 08±0.15 mm). These nanoparticles’ potent antibacterial properties may enable them to be employed as nanomedicines for a variety of gram-negative bacterial illness treatments.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue