rss_2.0Pakistan Journal of Geology FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Pakistan Journal of Geology Journal of Geology 's Cover Seismic Multiples Detection and Attenuation In Bornu-Chad Basin, Nigeria<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Three dimensional (3D) seismic survey was acquired and processed in Bornu-Chad basin, Nigeria with the aim of detecting and attenuating multiples to aid proper imaging of the subsurface. The 25.5km2 volume was processed using SeisUp processing software on a 32-Node Cluster Infrastructure (CI) hardware. Considering the imaging objectives and depth of interest of 1.2s-4.5s, the minimum, middle and maximum offsets were set at 500-2300m, 2500-4300m and 4500-7300m respectively. Since the study area comprised of dry open land and swampy Lake Chad, vibroseis and dynamite sources were used respectively. Charge depth was 0m (surface) for vibroseis and 25m dynamite. The dataset was first pre-conditioned, normalized, regularized before application of demultiple process. The detection and demultiple processes based on multiple characteristics of periodicity and velocity discrimination were applied as the multiples have comparable velocity with the primaries. The near-surface reverberations and short-period multiples were attenuated using predictive deconvolution and radon transform algorithms. High resolution radon was performed on post-migrated common-mid-point (CMP) gathers and stacked with 1kmx1km target line velocities. Internal multiples were detected and attenuated using data-driven methodology of extended internal multiple prediction (XIMP). Multiples detected were short, long period and interbed multiples on all frequencies ranges of 0 – 90Hz but useful seismic frequency range was between 20Hz and 70Hz. The frequencies and amplitudes of the primaries and multiples were very comparable, therefore great care was taken in the attenuation processes. The results of this work has produced better seismic section for interpretation of subsurface geology in the study area.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-05T00:00:00.000+00:00A Review of Electrical Methods as A Worthy Tool for Mineral Exploration<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper focuses on the review of electrical geophysical methods such as electrical resistivity and induced polarization as a technique for mineral exploration. It highlights the general fundamental principles of the electrical methods and result from other investigations. Most rock – forming minerals are insulators, and electrical current is carried through rocks mainly by the passage of ions in pore waters. In light of this, most rocks conduct electricity by electrolytic rather than electronic processes. Since metals and most metallic sulphides conduct electricity efficiently by the flow of electrons, electrical method is efficient and important in environmental investigation especially in areas where metallic objects are the targets and also in the search for sulphide ores. The results from various research showed the applicability of these geophysical ground methods, specially the Induce Polarization method, as a support tool in the identification and selection of exploration targets for test drilling.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Geology and Petrology of Omzha Block, Zhob Ophiolite, northern Balochistan, Pakistan<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The Zhob Ophiolite is divided into three detached blocks including the Omzha block. The Omzha block is mapped and divided into lithological units such as ultramafic rock, mafic-felsic rock, and volcanic–volcaniclastic–pelagic rocks. These units are quite deformed and mixed up and are associated with one another by thrust faults. Petrography and geochemistry divide them into gabbro, diorite, plagiogranite, pheno-tephrite and trachy-andesite basalt, trachy basalt, chert, limestone, and mudstone. The ultramafic rocks are dominantly serpentinized harzburgite, dunite, and a minor lherzolite. Petrography of peridotite shows that it may be depleted in nature and may have residual after processes such as partial melting and the melt-rock reaction of a lherzolitic source. The gabbroic rocks are less well-developed and highly deformed. They are cross-cut by diorite, plagiogranite and anorthosite’ intrusions. The gabbro may be the plutonic section of Omzha block’ crust while the intermediate-felsic igneous rocks may have formed by the anataxis of crustal gabbro. The volcanic–volcaniclastic–pelagic rocks unit may be corrected with Bagh complex found underneath the Muslim Bagh Ophiolite. The metamorphic sole rocks of Omzha block are highly deformed and dismembered are comprising of metamorphic facies such as amphibolite, quartz-mica schist, and greenschist.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-05T00:00:00.000+00:00A Study of the Dynamics of Soil Erosion Using Rusle2 Modelling and Geospatial Tool in Edda-Afikpo Mesas, South Eastern Nigeria<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) was used to study the soil erosion processes in Edda-Afikpo mesas, Lower Cross River watersheds,Nigeria. The mesas occupy an area estimated at 60km2 on a surface relief of about 284m. DEM data, satellite images and basemap of the area were used. Remotely sensed data were ground-truthed through extensive field works. The results show that the process is facilitated by the Trifecta of hill slope hydrology, geology and land use practices. Steep hill Slope of values 78 % at the major hot spots, very fragile, dry and non-plastic sandy soils all aid sediment detachment. Analysis of the index properties which include Liquid Limit(LL) of 25-30,moisture content(w%) of 5.9-7.4,permeability of 1.541x10-3 – 1.636x10-3 cm/s and shear strength of 36-42 KN/m2 predispose the sediments to detachment and erosion. Based on the analysis, the amount of soil loss in the project area is about 1373.79 ton per year. Soil erosivity factor is high at the mesas(5023.83 MJ mm ha−1 h−1 yr−1 - 5069.51 MJ mm ha−1 h−1 yr−1) The sandy layer attain thickness of 50m-60m in places and with high pore pressure development, slope failure are triggered during intense storm events. In terms of vulnerability level in erosion risk, high to very high constitute 4.1% of the watershed which translate to 5.05km2 of the 59km2. The various processes occur simultaneously and are exacerbated by human factors through seasonal bush burning and development along drainage lines. The study reveals that 18.8% of the available land for development is at high to very high risk of erosion. The soil loss model has been validated and the hotspots from the map coincide with the gully sites. The results of this research can therefore be used for conservation and adaptation purposes.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Subsurface Cavity Detection Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography (Ert); A Case Study from Southern Quetta, Pakistan<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Dipole-dipole electrical resistivity tomographic method was applied to investigate the subsurface cavities at Staff Welfare Hospital &amp; School Quetta. A total of 890-meter profile line was covered along five smaller profile lines and fracture zones with maximum 21 meters interval. The cavity system along profile line-1 and 2 was very restricted and had no direct impact on infrastructure while major cavity beneath the building was traced at profile line-3 and line-4 thus constituting a ~20m wide cavity system with 3-4 small interconnected cavities between depths of 7 to 21 meters. This system was also traced at profile line-4 at a depth of 10 meters having a reduced width of 10m. At profile line-5, a few other cavities were detected that proved imperceptible due to limitations in data acquisition. To conclude, the cavity systems traced in profile line-3 and profile line-4 were the most perilous ones and are commonly the foremost reason for building collapse.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Sandstone Composition and Provenance of the Nari Formation, Central Kirthar Fold belt, Pakistan<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The Oligocene-Early Miocene Nari Formation is widely distributed in the Kirthar thrust-fold belt. The formation in the study area is mainly consist of sandstone and shale. Field observations and detailed petrographic study reveal that these sandstones are mostly fine to medium grained, subangular to subrounded and poorly to moderately sorted. Detrital grains are dominantly quartz ranging in proportion 36-76%, feldspar 7-17% and lithic grains 1-13%, reflecting that these sandstones are compositionally submature. Quartz is mostly monocrystalline with some polycrystalline grains. Feldspar is dominantly plagioclase (albite) with some alkali feldspar (orthoclase and microcline). Lithic fragments are siltstone, mudstone and chert. Biotite and muscovite are present as accessory minerals. Heavy minerals such as apatite, tourmaline, and zircon are present in trace amount. The QFL diagrams show that the sandstones of the Nari formation are subarkose and lithic subarkose. The QtFL, QmFLt ternary diagrams and paleocurrent direction suggest that the sediments were transported from the Indian shield exposed to the northeast of the Nari Basin.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of The Simulation of The Water Supply Network of The New City of Guelma by Epanet<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Forecasting and monitoring the parameters of a drinking water network such as flow, pressure and quality are essential issues for the operator in order to guarantee a compliant distribution at all times. Water leaks are the main problem in the management of drinking water networks, so a drinking water network must be reliable and sustainable to meet the needs of subscribers. The modeling of a network allows, among other things, to determine distribution strategies in order to guarantee continuous quality of service. The EPANET modeling software, developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, enables the hydraulic and quality behavior of a water distribution network to be simulated on the basis of its parameters. Our work consists of simulating an existing network in the new city of Guelma in order to check all the necessary elements of the network, namely pressure, speed, flow and water quality. The results obtained verified that the pressure at all junctions and the flow rates with their velocities at all mains is sufficiently feasible to supply adequate water to the network in the study area. These results will help to better understand the pipeline network in the Study Area and allow the Study Area to be studied in the future.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Delineating and Interpreting the Gold Veins Within Bida and Zungeru Area, Niger State Nigeria, Using Aeromagnetic and Radiometric Data<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Both Airborne Magnetic and Radiometric datasets were employed to interpret the geology and geological structures that serve as host to gold and associated minerals within the Bida and Zungeru, Niger State, Nigeria. An area of 55 by 110km<sup>2</sup>, contained within the cretaceous sediments of Bida Basin and the meta-sediments of Zungeru-sarkin-pawa schist belt. Data interpretation involve the application of a mathematical algorithm for data enhancing such as, Reduce to the Equator, Analytical signal, First Vertical Derivative, and Centre for Exploration Targeting (CET) to the magnetic data, and Ternary imaging to the radiometric data, with a sole aim of mapping geological structures such as faults fracture folds joints and geological boundaries and possible gold mineralization veins that arise from hydrothermally altered zones. Two major geological units inhibit the study area, the cretaceous sediment, and the meta-sediments, major feature identifies within the Cretaceous sediment are the folds majority of which are located within the contacts. The result of the 1VD display is the vivid picture of the observed structural features such as faults fractures folds’ contacts labeled F1 to F8 both within the high region of magnetic susceptibility (in red) and low regions (in blue) geology contacts (yellow), folds (bold yellow) all across the field. Prominently at the North-Western corner of the study area are sets of linear structure that trend NE-SW, located within the contacts between the mylonites and the amphibolites and the belt-type meta-sediments located around Katakwo, Gindei, Kwange, Gabas and Akusu villages. Equallyworth mentioning are sets of lineament (in blue) trend E-W all across the mid-region of the study area, precisely at the Eastern corner within and below the Federal University of Technology Minna around Kata-eregi, Sabon-Dagan, Kakaki down Minkwoigi, Sunbwagi, Kakagi, Sabon dagga, and Bobo-shiri towns, where the majority of volcanic activities must have been recorded. The airborne radiometric show mobilization of the immobile thorium Th, concentration, and this also indicated hydrothermally altered zones. The increase in potassium concentration and decrease in K/Th relation observed from radiometric interpretation are very pinpointing of hydrothermal activities within the study area. The gold mineralisations are found within this vein and in the adjacent, highly deformed host rock located below the Federal University of Technology Minna Campus. The deformation seems to comprise principally of pebbly schist, amphibolites along fine-grained and magnetite.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Geology of Ali Khanzai Block of Zhob Ophiolite, Balochistan, Pakistan<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The Zhob Ophiolite is divided into Naweoba, Omzha and Ali Khanzai blocks. Ali Khanzai Block is further divided into ultramafic, mafic, and lava units which are surrounded by sedimentary rocks successions. The ultramafic unit contains ultramafic tectonic and ultramafic cumulate, mafic rock unit consists of foliated and layered gabbros and mafic dykes are doleritic in composition. Volcanic–volcaniclastic–pelagic rocks unit consists of thick volcanic pillow basalt, hyaloclastite, bedded chert, pelagic limestone and hemipelagic mudstone. The metamorphic sole rocks are tectonically high distorted and dismembered, comprising of amphibolite and greenschist facies. They might have formed through the process of early intra-oceanic obduction of the ophiolite. All units make thrusted contacts and are highly deformed. Petrography and geochemical studies divide the Ali Khanzai Block into rock types such as gabbro, olivine gabbro, dolerite, basalt, basaltic andesite and basaltic trachy-andesite, chert, mudstone, and limestone, dunite, serpentinite, harzburgite, and wehrlite. Mafic dyke intrusions crosscut mantle rocks of block. The mantle rocks are altered, deformed, and deeply weathered, maybe residual melting of enriched mantle peridotite. The contact relationship of dolerite dykes with peridotite indicta that they are late magmatic intrusions. The Crustal gabbros are partially chloritic and sericitic and occur within mantle peridotite,, they may have formed from fractional crystallization in a magma chamber. The volcanic-volcaniclastic-pelagic sediments surround mantle and crustal rock units. It might be a mélange in nature is much like that of the Bagh Complex found beneath the Muslim Bagh Ophiolite, and other ophiolites around the world.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Groundwater Quality Evaluation in Mando and Rigasa Areas, Kaduna, Northwestern Nigeria<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The quality of groundwater from twenty (20) hand-dug wells around the Mando and Rigasa areas, Northwestern Nigeria was evaluated in this study. Physico-chemical parameters like pH, EC, TDS, temperature, Na<sup>+</sup>, Ca<sup>2+</sup>, K<sup>+</sup>, Mg<sup>2+</sup>, Fe<sup>2+</sup>, Cl<sup>-</sup>, HCO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>, NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>, SO<sub>4</sub><sup>2-</sup> and faecal coliform count were analysed. The degree of compliance of the various parameters with international guidelines for drinking water quality were determined and the groundwater classified. Comparison of the results of physico-chemical analysis with the NSDWQ and WHO guidelines revealed that most of the parameters in the groundwater had 100 % compliance except for pH, Mg<sup>2+</sup>, NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>, K<sup>+</sup> and Fe<sup>2+</sup> with percentage compliance of 80, 90, 75, 70 and 40, respectively. This indicates that some of the groundwater samples are not suitable for drinking purpose. Groundwater quality map based on the Water Quality Index values for the various groundwater sample showed that most parts of the study area have excellent groundwater quality. The faecal coliform bacteria count ranged from 0 CFU/100 ml to too numerous to count. Only two (2) groundwater samples (10%) complied with the 0 CFU/100 ml guidelines of the NSDWQ and WHO, while the rest eighteen (18) groundwater samples (90 %) have faecal coliform bacteria count above the recommended value. Most of the groundwater samples are not suitable for drinking based on the faecal coliform count. The groundwater samples are suitable for agricultural purposes based on the SAR, RSC and PI classifications. The groundwater in the study area is dominated by Na-Cl and CaHCO<sub>3</sub>- type facies water.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Age and Depositional Environment of Walat Formation Based on Palynological Analysis in Sukabumi Regency, West Java, Indonesia<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Walat Formation is equivalent to Bayah Formation. This formation is the beginning of Bogor basin deposition. In this case, age and environment of this formation have been analyzed by previous researchers, but the results of age and environment interpretations have different ranges, especially from its palynological aspect which until now Walat Formation is rarely analyzed using this aspect. This research was conducted to identify the age and depositional environment of Walat Formation in Sukabumi region by using pollen and spores to confirm different interpretations of previous studies. Measure section was carried out in sampling and chemical treatment method was carried out to see palynomorph content in the rock. Furthermore, data analysis was carried out with range of interval zones and pollen grouping based on their environment.</p><p>The results show that Walat Formation has Late Eocene age based on the interval zone between first occurrence of <italic>Verrucatosporites usmensis</italic> and <italic>Meyeripollis naharkotensis,</italic> and <italic>the last occurence of Proxapertites operculatus, Proxapertites cursus, and Cicatricosisporites eocenicus</italic>. Walat Formation has fluvial depositional environment characterized by the dominance of <italic>Proxapertites operculatus</italic> and <italic>Proxapertites cursus</italic>. The results of this study confirm that the Walat Formation has an Eocene age and a fluvial depositional environment from a palinological aspect.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Estimation of The Structural Pattern and Sedimentary Thickness Over Part Of Anambra Basin, Nigeria Using Aeromagnetic Data<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Aeromagnetic data acquired over part of the Anambra Basin is analyzed to determine the structural pattern and sedimentary thickness of the basin. The study area is covered by high resolution aeromagnetic data on sheets 301 (Udi), 302 (Nkalagu), 312 (Okigwe) and 313 (Afikpo), and lies between latitudes 5o30’0’‘-6o30’0’‘ and longitudes 7o0’0”-8o0’0”. The whole area was divided into 25 overlapping blocks of 37.2km2 each and a 2D energy spectral analysis was carried out. Total magnetic intensity data was subjected to filtering and analytical techniques to determine the structural pattern, mineralization potential, depth to the basement, variation in the sedimentary thickness. The structural map generated using the vertical derivatives shows that the major structural orientation of the area is in the ENE-WSW trend and the minor trend is the NW to SE direction widespread all over the area. These structures are as a result of the various near-surface magnetic intrusion within the study area. The spectral analysis result shows two depth layers, the deep and the shallow depth, the depth to magnetic basement for the deep anomalous source ranges from 3.3km to 4.8 4km with an average depth of 3.99km, while the depth to shallow magnetic sources ranges between 0.46km to 0.67km and an average of 0.56km within the area. The mineralization pattern in this area follows the ENE-WSW direction.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-09T00:00:00.000+00:003D Interpretation of Resistivity Data for Groundwater Potential Assessment of Pakhli Plain, Mansehra District, Pakistan<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The present research describes a method of combining geostatistical analysis with geophysical inversion of electrical resistivity data conducted in Pakhli Plain, northwestern Himalayas, Pakistan. The raw data has been collected from the Technical Report VII-I on Ground Water Resources in Pakhli Plain, Mansehra District. Subsequently, the data has been deciphered and broadened from one dimensional resistivity data into a 2D model that can be entirely visualized and deduced in a spatial sense. Interpretation and calibration of the electrical resistivity curves with the lithologies and geophysical logs of boreholes suggests possible identification of distinctive sedimentary accumulations occurring within the Pakhli Plain. The 2D and 3D gridding and visualization is imperative to map the extents of the alluvial deposits within the Pakhli Plain formed during the periods of extreme tectonic activity. The coarser sediments are associated with lower levels of resistivity as measured in the electrical surveys, whereas the finer sediments exhibit characteristically lower resistivities. Therefore, the zones of low and high resistivity values are indicative of particles associated with coarser and finer sediments, respectively. It has been mentioned that the Pakhli Plain has remained a lacustrine zone during some time in the geological past as indicated by low resistivities representing finer sediments in the middle of the Plain. Consequently, the overall transmissivity of the sediments is low, which imply poor conditions for commercial groundwater production in the Pakhli Plain. Moreover, high resistivity zones of coarse material could be further investigated for groundwater potential areas. In particular, the prime objectives of the present study include 3D modeling of underground resistivity and its exploration in terms of groundwater potential on the basis of distribution of low resistivity zones.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Structural Inversion Magnitude and its Impacts on the Hydrocarbon Accumulation<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>West Wadi El-Rayan is located in the Western Desert at about 140 km SE of Cairo. Also, it lies between Gindi basin to the east and Abu Gharadig basin to the west. In order to construct a 3D structural model and to delineate the subsurface structure styles of the area, seismic structural interpretation and structural restoration are used. The structural geometry within the area is inverted half-graben, since the area was controlled by reactivation of older faults. The magnitude of the inversion-related shortening in the study area was estimated and was suggested to be strong. The result of the strong inversion magnitude occurred toward northeast of the study area can be concluded that, the area suffered shortening and part of the Jurassic / Early Cretaceous normal faults are reactivated as reverse faults. Also the cap, the main reservoirs and the source rock sections are brought to the surface and thus breached, as well any previous mature source rock becoming non-generative where the dry wells are located. However, any less severe inversion structure in this case where producing wells are located that remain buried and will have a better chance or preserving the structure geometry and therefore top and lateral seal.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Aeromagnetic Mapping of Iwo Region of Southwestern Nigeria for Lithostructural Delineation<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The IGRF filtered Aeromagnetic data over Iwo, southwestern part of Nigeria within the basement complex was subjected to reduction to magnetic equator filtering, residual filtering, upward and downward continuation filtering, automatic gain control filtering, tilt angle derivative, second vertical derivative, analytical signal and Euler deconvolution. This reveals the geologic information such as structural trend. Based on the result of the total magnetic intensity map, reduction to equator map, analytical signal map and residual magnetic intensity map, it can be concluded that; The rocks in the study area have a trend of approximately northeast-southwest direction as seen on the upward continuation map. Most of the delineated lineaments found within the study area strike mostly in NNE-SSW, NE-SW and NW-SE with minor trend of E-W and ENE-WSW direction. Structural lineament orientation suggested that they were products of Pan-African orogeny (NE-SW, NW-SE and NNE-SSW trends) and pre-Pan-African orogeny (NNW-SSE and E-W trend). The interpretation of the aeromagnetic dataset gave an insight into the regional geology and structural trends of the area.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Provenance of the Early Cambrian Abbottabad Formation in the Hazara region, Pakistan<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The early Cambrian Abbottabad Formation mainly comprises of dolomite, sandstone, shale and conglomerates at Khote-di-Qabar section, Hazara region, Pakistan. The formation makes lower contact with Hazara Formation and upper contact with Hazira Formation. The formation is comprehensively studied during the field and lab work to interpret its provenance. Five distinguishable sedimentary units including 1) Tanaki boulder bed; 2) Sanghargali siltstone/shale; 3) Mohammdagali Dolomite/quartzite; 4) Mirpur sandstone; 5) Sirban dolomite can be identified in the field that indicate variable depositional strata of the formation under various depositional setting. Additionally, petrographic analysis of Sanghargali siltstone/shale unit and Mirpur sandstone unit of the formation indicate the main lithologies of these units are litharenite and sublitharenite respectively. Moreover, the provenance of these sandstone units of the formation most probably belong to Aravali and Malani Ranges located in the South of the study area.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Nevşehir Castle Region in Turkey Interpreted by the Use of Seismic Surface Wave and Electrical Resistance Measurements Together<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The underground city beneath the Nevşehir Castle located in the middle of Cappadocia region in Turkey with approximately cone shape is investigated by jointly utilizing the modern geophysical techniques of seismic surface waves and electrical resistivity. The systematic void structure under the Nevşehir Castle of Cappadocia, which is known to have widespread underground cities, is studied by the use of 33 separate two-dimensional profiles ~4-km long where electrical resistivities and seismic surface waves are concurrently measured. Seismic surface wave measurements are inverted to establish the shear-wave velocity distribution while resistivity measurements are inverted to resolve the resistivity distribution. Several high-resistivity anomalies with a depth range 8-20 m point to a systematic void structure beneath the Nevşehir Castle. We were able to effectively isolate the void structure from the embedding structure since the currently employed resistivity instrument has provided us high resolution quality measurements. Associated with the high resistivity anomalies there exist low-velocity depth zones acquired from the surface wave inversions also pointing to a systematic void structure where three-dimensional visualization techniques are used to show the extension of the void structure under the studied area.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Petrography and Mapping of the Gwal Melange of Khanozai Region, Balochistan, Pakistan<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The Gwal mélange is mapped on a large scale and is divided into the lithological units such as ultramafic, mafic, volcanic, volcanoclastic rocks, pelagic sediments and ophicarbonates. Petrographically, the mapped rocks are classified as harzburgite, dunite, wehrlite, serpentinite, gabbro, basalt, and andesite. These rocks are quite deformed and altered into the secondary minerals. Harzburgite is a layered mantle peridotite consists of olivine and orthopyroxene while dunite lacks the presence of any pyroxene. Serpentinite is the secondary product after peridotite is the product of post magmatic stages. The mesh structure is usually observed when olivine is completely altered to serpentine. The volcanic rocks are structurally sheeted and pillow type while the volcanoclastic rocks are essentially hyaloclastites associated with pelagic sediments. The Ophicarbonate is composed of serpentinite fragments and carbonate minerals, most probably calcite. Minor to trace amounts of opaque minerals are also present in association with major components. The gabbros may be a fragment of the main crustal rocks and have been formed in a magma chamber by fraction crystallization. The origin of ophicarbonate may be due to gas seeps originated by mantle or as the surficial process where ultramafic rocks and carbonates are mixed through processes of gravity, tectonic crushing and sedimentary reworking. The Gwal mélange may the southern extension of Bagh Complex found beneath the Muslim Bagh Ophiolite. The mantle peridotite of the mélange is much like that of the Khanozai peridotite and may represent its detached blocks. Volcanic and volcanoclastic rocks may be the representatives of the uppermost part of ophiolite crust which might have trimmed off from subducting slab and are, now, part of the Gwal accretionary wedge. The mélange may have tectonically emplacement over the Indian platform sediments along with overlying the ophiolite sheet during the Late Cretaceous.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Development of Eia Guidelines of Significant Factors For Diamer Basha Dam Gilgit Baltistan<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Energy crises is the one of the major problem that was faced by Pakistan in order to overcome on that crises Pakistan need to be developed and improvement in energy sector, Throughout in the country the demand of water and power increasing day by day therefore hydropower project are the need of the hour in Pakistan. Before initiation of any project EIA play important role in evaluating the nature of the project on different factors. Government of Pakistan planned one of the mega hydropower project diamer basha dam was planned in Gilgit Baltistan. It was intended to conduct the research work on describing significant factors so as to evaluate the influence of the project on them and develop guidelines for environmental assessment for these factors. To find out these significant factors the methodology was adapted to conducting field investigation. Besides to assess the relevant impact questionnaires were developed. Finally, in order to reduce the negative impact of the project on the predefine factor mitigation measure was suggested. It is anticipated that this study work support in developing structure work to be executed as mitigation measures and boost the advantages of the project.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Integration of Well Logs and Seismic Attribute Analysis in Reservoir Identification on PGS Field Onshore Niger Delta, Nigeria<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Integrated well dataset and seismics delineated the PGS field onshore Niger Delta for reservoir identification. Gamma ray, resistivity, Neutron and density Logs identified four lithologies: sandstone, shaly sandstone, shaly sand and shale. They consist of sand-shale intercalation with the traces of shale sometimes found within the sand Formation. Petrophysical parameters of the reservoirs showed varying degree of lower density, low gamma ray, high porosity and resistivity response with prolific hydrocarbon reservoir G due to its shale volume and the clean sand mapped as a probable hydrocarbon reservoir. 3D seismic data located both seismic scale and sub-seismic scale structural and stratigraphic elements. Risk reduction in dry hole drilling due fault missing in conventional seismic attribute analysis and interpretation, have to be integrated into the Oil companies standard practice.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-11T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1