rss_2.0Polish Journal of Public Health FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Polish Journal of Public Health Journal of Public Health 's Cover disease X: waiting for the next pandemic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In 2008 the WHO published a report on infectious diseases against which there is no effective treatment or vaccines and therefore – diseases able to cause pandemic. In addition, so called disease X was mentioned – potentially deadly, with no herd immunity against it, holding pandemic potential, unknown in medicine yet. In 2019 such disease X was COVID-19. There is a plausibility, that next pandemic will be induced by zoonotic RNA virus (alike SARS-CoV-2) infecting people in place of intensified human-animal contacts (like high-density animal farming) without proper legal regulations in terms of animal husbandry and high population density. Also in the past major pandemics in XX and XXI centuries were result of zoonotic transmissions (HIV/AIDS, SARS, MERS, Spanish flu, avian flu, swine flu, Ebola). The key in risk recognising is governments and international healthcare agencies’ reaction – proper countermeasures to control pandemic range should be taken. Animal trade should be legally regulated and deforestation limited. There is also an urgent need for funding R&amp;D studies on diseases listed by the WHO.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Nicotine addiction – a health problem in adolescents in a neurobiological context<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Smoking is one of the leading causes of death which can be prevented in the developed countries. Smoking begins mainly in adolescence. Smoking in early adolescence is known to be associated with an increased risk of later addiction. Also the growing popularity of e-cigarettes, which attract young people with a variety of flavors, and are still little associated with harmful effects on health, unlike regular cigarettes. Exposure to nicotine in young people can affect learning, memory and attention, and lead to increased impulsivity, mood disorders and drug dependence. Nicotine and its derivatives are harmful to the human body, causing a significant increase in blood pressure, deterioration of blood supply to the vessels and acceleration of atherosclerotic processes, it has a detrimental effect on the gastric mucosa, causing gastric disorders. In addition, smoking is associated with the risk of many cancers: oral cavity, larynx, esophagus, lung, pancreas, kidney, liver and bladder. Nicotine addiction causes many health, social and financial consequences for the individual and the community as a whole. Multiple nicotine addiction risk SNPs were found in the <italic>CHRNA5/A3/B4</italic> gene cluster, with the best reported results for the risk allele derived from the non-synonymous SNP, rs16969968, in <italic>CHRNA5</italic>. Therefore, in the problem of addiction, including nicotine addiction, it seems important to know the neurobiological factors, including genetic ones, involved in these processes. This could lead to the development of new pharmacological and behavioral treatment strategies in the future.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-10-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Socio-professional adaptation of a nurse in a new workplace<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> The period of socio-professional adaptation is a time when the new employee often feels insecure and is accompanied by emotional tension. Already in the initial period of work, an employee develops a specific attitude towards the environment, which, at a later stage, influences professional development or motivation.</p> <p><bold>Aim.</bold> The aim of the study is to assess the course of the process of social and professional adaptation among nurses who, after graduation, started their first job in hospital departments in the Lubuskie Voivodeship, as well as to characterize the adaptation process and factors influencing its effective course.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods.</bold> The material for the research was collected by means of a proprietary questionnaire. The number of 118 people participated in the study.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> There was a statistical dependence between the socio-professional adaptation process and the existence of procedures related to it. Then a relationship was noted between the procedures for the adaptation process and the presentation of the adaptation plan to the new employee. Statistically significant differences were demonstrated by analyzing the feeling of being ready to work independently depending on the duration of the adaptation period in a new workplace.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion.</bold> The adaptation process is often ineffective and important elements, such as access to adaptation procedures, adaptation plan, employee final evaluation, are often overlooked. These elements have a statistically significant impact on the overall assessment of the adaptation process. The adaptation period is often too short, which translates into the lack of readiness to work for new employees.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-10-17T00:00:00.000+00:00The role of the gene polymorphism and its methylation in people in dependence on substances and with different intensity of pain<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Opioid receptors belong to the group of Gi and Go coupled receptors, inhibiting the activity of the neuron. Opioid receptors regulate reward and aversion. The opioid system contributes to self and species survival by promoting reward elicited by natural stimuli (such as food, sex and social interaction), regulating mood states and facilitating efficient coping with pain and stress. It is suggested that <italic>OPRM1</italic> polymorphism is associated with alcohol consumption especially increased in the case of G alleles subjects than A-alleles homozygotes. In several studies, <italic>OPRM1</italic> methylation was suspected to be predictive factor of opioid dependence in pain treatment.</p> <p>The relationship of postoperative or preoperative pain with methylation of some CpG sites in the <italic>OPRM1</italic> promoter has also been demonstrated. It is known that <italic>OPRM1</italic> SNPs provide changes in the structure of the MOR receptor, so by confirming the pharmacogenetic effects of <italic>OPRM1</italic> polymorphisms and using these results to guide therapeutic decisions, patients can be prescribed treatment options with the best efficacy and greatest tolerance. Pharmacogenomics of <italic>OPRM1</italic> can improve pain management by predicting individual response to pain medications before treatment and facilitate the development of new and more effective pain medications for post-operative pain.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-10-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Gut microbiome in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The human gut microbiome is composed of communities of bacteria, viruses and fungi. Bacteria live in each part of digestive tract, increasing their density and changing composition in distal parts. The composition of gut microbiome mainly depends on method of childbirth, age, gender, diet, stress, infections, alcohol intake, diurnal variation, smoking, drugs (antibiotics), physical activity. Dysbiosis is defined as an imbalance or maladaptation in the gut microbial community. This imbalance favors many pathological states and it could be due to some diseases. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become increasingly common in parallel with the increasing prevalence of obesity and other components of the metabolic syndrome. In year 2020, a more comprehensive new definition of NAFLD was proposed – fatty liver disease associated with metabolic dysfunction (MAFLD). NAFLD/MALFD will become the major form of chronic liver disease in adults and children and could become the leading indication for liver transplantation within a decade. An increased level of <italic>Bacteroidetes</italic> and decreased level of <italic>Firmicutes</italic> is observed in fatty liver disease. This imbalance favors the collection of energy and insulin resistance. The prevention and treatment of dysbiosis in NAFLD/MAFLD is essential.</p> <p>The purpose of this review is an understanding related to the dysbiosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in order to help physicians of different specialties in their clinical practice because of growing in population patients with metabolic syndrome and liver steatosis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-20T00:00:00.000+00:00SARS-CoV-2 antibody screening in healthcare workers: lessons learned from the first months of COVID-19 outbreak in Europe. Significance of serology testing for effective pandemic management and reduction of the occupational risk<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> Detected in 2019 in Wuhan, China, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has changed almost all aspects of human lives. It has had an enormous impact on societies, economies and politics across the world. Nevertheless, first and foremost, it has led to a global health crisis on an unprecedented scale. Since the pandemic’s beginning, one of the greatest global challenges has been to stop the spread of infection among healthcare workers (HCWs). As a front-line fighters, they are at higher risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 than other professions.</p> <p><bold>Aim.</bold> The study aimed to determine the role of serological testing among HCWs by analyzing screening results for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in this group in 12 European countries during the first wave of the pandemic.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods.</bold> Pubmed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and WHO COVID-19 databases were searched for studies on screening among HCWs using immunoassays or chemiluminescence assays for preventive purposes and determining the percentage of HCWs with acquired immunity to SARS-CoV-2. The number of 30 papers were selected. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) percentage was analyzed, and determination of immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies and their diagnostic usefulness.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> The screening results of HCWs were juxtaposed with epidemic situation of that time and public health measures in given country.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion.</bold> Introduction of routine serological testing of HCWs could be a valuable strategy to monitor the occupational risk in this group and effectiveness of local epidemic management strategies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Human Milk Banks – biobanking for preterms and newborns<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Breast milk banks are specialized hospital-located laboratories. Their role is to provide breast milk to newborns and infants who, for various reasons, cannot be fed with their mother’s milk. They are an inseparable part of intensive neonatal care units and an element of the mother and child care system. They are financed by hospitals in which they operate. Milk is obtained from donors, thoroughly examined, pasteurized and passed directly to children in need. Food recipients are mainly premature babies in the neonatal intensive care unit. As proven by numerous scientific studies, breast milk is the most appropriate food for newborns and infants. Breast milk is also recommended by Polish, foreign and international organizations and institutions involved in nutritional problems of children.</p> <p>There are 226 Breast Milk Banks in Europe (first organized in 1909 in Vienna) and the organization of additional 16 is planned. In Poland there are only 9 banks and two more are in the organizational phase. Breast milk banks in Poland operate on the basis of in-hospital regulations. The European Association of Milk Banks strives to unify the procedures of conduct in all units, including Poland.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Dental care in opinion of senior patients from Lublin<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> The issues of dental office accessibility, professionalism of the service as well as treatment reimbursement often determine geriatric patients’ decision regarding treatment. In the era of an aging society, struggling with the intensification of disease processes of the entire system, the belief of the elderly about the value and availability of dental treatments is the key to the wide use of the achievements of modern dental medicine. Thanks to this, there is a chance to improve oral health, which will directly improve the overall health condition of this age group.</p> <p><bold>Aim.</bold> The aim of the study was to know the opinions of senior patients about the quality and availability of dental care for this age group.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods.</bold> The study was conducted during the Lublin Seniors Meeting LUB-SENIOR 2019 among 100 randomly selected people of both sexes aged 60-75 living in Lublin, who are not residents of retirement homes. An anonymous direct questionnaire with 7 questions regarding dental care was used.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> After analyzing the answers given by the respondents (n=100), it was found that 84% of them showed satisfaction with the dental care available to them. Among the surveyed seniors, 81% declared having their own dentist, while 25% expressed the willingness to change him. As much as 80% of the respondents declared that dentists pay attention to seniors dental health problems. A friendly approach of the dental team to a senior patient was declared by 61% of the respondents. Preferences concerning the use of dental treatment in private offices were reported by 44% of thepeople, and within the procedures provided by the NHF – by 45%.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> The surveyed senior patients show attachment to their dentist, while expressing a positive opinion on dental care and the treatment. Few people in the studied age group show the willingness to change dentists, which is directly influenced by the doctors’ interest in health problems of the elderly.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-30T00:00:00.000+00:00PTSD symptoms and coping mechanism of nurses in Poland before the COVID-19 pandemic. A cross-sectional study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> Secondary traumatic stress (STS) is a consequence of the indirect experience of trauma. The symptoms of STS are similar to those experienced by people who directly experience traumatic events in the form of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).</p> <p><bold>Aim.</bold> The aim of the study was to determine the frequency of the symptoms of PTSD and to establish the role of coping strategies in the development of PTSD symptoms among Polish nurses. The study was conducted before the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods.</bold> The study was conducted in the Podkarpackie Province (Poland) in clinical hospitals and hospital out-patient clinics. The results of studies conducted among 509 nurses were analyzed. The mean age of the respondents was 35 years, and the mean work seniority was 11 years. The IES-R scale and Mini-COPE were used in the study.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> At least moderate PTSD symptoms were found in 42.4% of the surveyed nurses. The results showed that maladaptive stress coping strategies played a major role in the development of PTSD symptoms in the group of nurses.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion.</bold> Nurses are a professional group exposed to a high risk of traumatic encounters that may result in PTSD/STS, therefore this professional group should be targeted at prophylactic programs and training in dealing with traumatic stress. The COVID pandemic and the related restrictions, organizational chaos, constant fear and a sense of danger are serious traumatizing factors and can seriously contribute to the increase in stress disorders among nurses and other medical professionals.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The attitude of students of Lublin universities to vaccination in the COVID-19 period<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> Vaccines are one of the greatest achievements of modern medicine. The compulsory vaccination schedule was introduced in Poland in the 1950s. Vaccinations are sometimes followed by adverse effects (ARV). The most common symptoms of ARV are swelling, redness and soreness at the injection site, usually lasting up to 24 hours after vaccination.</p> <p><bold>Aim.</bold> The aim of our study was to check the attitude of students of Lublin universities to vaccination in the COVID-19 period.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods.</bold> In December 2020 we conducted an anonymous and voluntary survey. It was uploaded and shared on the Google online survey platform. A total of 75 students participated in the study.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> The respondents were 56 women and 19 men. Out of them 30 (40%) were from Medical University of Lublin (MUL), 15 (20%) from University of Life Sciences (ULS), 21 from University of Marie Sklodowska-Curie (UMCS) (28%) and 9 from Lublin University of Technology (LUT) (LP) (12%). Their mean age was 22 years ± 1.1 (SD). More than half of the respondents were not interested in compulsory vaccinations before the COVID-19 pandemic. Only about 35% (18 persons) of people expressed a positive opinion about vaccines and they were students of MUL. Although 80% of respondents answered that the anti COVID-19 vaccine is necessary, but 81% thought that Poles had not enough knowledge about the vaccine. Students themselves most often obtained information about vaccines and ARVs from Internet.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion.</bold> Students of MUL were the most enthusiastic about mandatory vaccinations and anti COVID-19 immunization. Poles need more reliable information about vaccine to change their attitude towards it.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Patient safety in the operating theatre<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In connection with medical services provided, many patients are exposed to harm that may lead to permanent health impairment, hospitalisation, extended hospital stay or even death. Adverse events are reported and are the result of a complex nature of current healthcare systems, in which effective therapy and treatment outcomes of every patient depend on numerous factors, and not only on competencies of individual healthcare professionals.</p> <p>Individual healthcare professionals can contribute to improving the safety of care by establishing respectful relationships with patients, following procedures, learning from mistakes, and communicating effectively with other members of the therapeutic team. This also decreases costs associated with reduction of harm sustained by patients. Reporting and analysis of errors may help identify major factors that have contributed to their occurrence. In order to consider changes that could prevent errors, at first it is necessary to learn about factors that led to them. An operating theatre is the heart of every hospital. It is where complex and highly specialized surgical procedures are performed in line with state-of-the-art procedures and applicable standards. It is also where employees of various wards meet to perform their crucial tasks that save lives.</p> <p>Patient’s well-being is a paramount value for a therapeutic team working in the operating theatre. The main goal of surgical nurse is, in turn, to ensure a holistic and individual approach to the patient in accordance with applicable law, procedures and recommendations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Air pollution and emergency department visits for urticaria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> This study investigates associations between air pollution and emergency department (ED) visits for urticaria in Toronto, Canada.</p> <p><bold>Aim.</bold> To verify the hypothesis that urticaria are related to air pollution.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods.</bold> The National Ambulatory Care Reporting System database is used to draw the daily ED visits. The L50 section of the International Classification of Disease 10<sup>th</sup> Revision is applied to extract ED visits whose primary causes was urticaria-related skin condition. Statistical models (condition Poisson regression) using daily counts of ED visits are constructed for urticaria (health response) with ambient air pollution concentrations and weather factors as independent variable. Two air quality health indexes and six ambient air pollutants: fine particulate matter PM<sub>2.5</sub>, O<sub>3</sub>, CO, NO<sub>2</sub>, SO<sub>2</sub>, and maximum 8-hour average ozone are considered as an exposure.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> A total of 176 statistically significant (P-Value &lt;0.05) positive correlations were identified over the 15 day lag period (0-14 days). For daily average of ambient ozone, 74 positive correlations were observed with the following relative risks (RR) for a one interquartile range (IQR=12.8 ppb) increase: RR=1.361 (95% confidence interval: 1.302, 1.404), 1.359 (1.299, 1.401), 1.351 (1.281, 1.404) in the warm season (April-September), lag 0, and RR=1.019 (1.013, 1.025), 1.023 (1.016, 1.030), 1.014 (1.007, 1.021), lag 1, in the cold period (October-March), for all, females, and males, respectively. 10, 45 and 45 positive correlations were also obtained for sulfur dioxide, fine particulate matter, and daily maximum 8-hour average ozone concentrations, respectively.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> The results indicate that urban ambient air pollution could influence the numbers of ED visits for urticaria. Ambient ozone was determined as the main environmental factor contributing to these associations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Does the use of step counting devices affect the level of physical activity and body mass index of the youth studying in Lublin during COVID-19 pandemic?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> Due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) many people give up exercises. International physical activity guidelines recommend 150 minutes per week of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity or 75 minutes at high intensity per week. Healthy adults should take 10,000 steps per day. Wearable devices (smartwatches, step counters, physical activity monitoring applications) have the potential to promote a healthy lifestyle at the time of COVID-19 pandemic. They are accepted by the youth.</p> <p><bold>Aim.</bold> The aim of the study was to find out if using step counting devices affects the level of physical activity and body mass index (BMI) in students.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods.</bold> A total of 303 participants (227 women, 76 men) studying in Lublin, Poland of mean age 19.5 years participated in the study conducted with use of an internet questionnaire.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> Before the COVID-19 pandemic their mean BMI was 22.17 kg/m2 and after 9 months of COVID-19–related restrictions it was 22.57 kg/m2. Among the respondents 204 (67.3%) did a physical activity for 50 min 3 times a week in 2019 and 99 (32.7%) did not. In December 2020 there was a significant decrease in the number of students doing physical activity to 128 (42.2%) (p&lt;0.05) and an increase in the number of students who did not do any physical activity to 175 (57.8%) (p&lt;0.05). In 2019 as many as 110 (36.3%) of the respondents used to use step counting devices and 192 (63.7%) did not. In 2020 the number of students using activity tracking devices significantly decreased to 58 (19.2) (p&lt;0.05). The number of students who did not use any step counting device in 2020 was 245 (80.8%).</p> <p><bold>Conclusion.</bold> Due to the COVID-19 pandemic the number of students who don’t do enough physical activity significantly increased. The use of step counting devices helps students in continuing physical activity despite COVID-19-related restrictions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Controversies about selenium supplementation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> Selenium (Se) is a trace element found mainly in meat, seafood, nuts and grains. Se is found in selenoproteins such as selenocystein or selenomethionin. A well balanced diet provides enough Se. Many regulatory and metabolic enzymes contain Se as their component, which is why Se supplementation is used in the treatment as well as prevention of multiple disorders. Se may, however, be toxic if overdosed.</p> <p><bold>Aim.</bold> The aim of this review is to summarize the data about functions of Se in human body and to discuss its use in treatment and prevention of diseases.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods.</bold> The search was conducted using the PubMed and Google Scholar databases in March and April 2020. The key words used were: ‘selenium’, ‘cardiovascular disease’, ‘selenium supplementation’, ‘Keshan disease’, ‘source of selenium’. A total of 68 articles were analysed.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> The first cases of chronic Se deficiency cases were documented 85 years ago in China. The patients with cardiomyopathy, extensive fibrosis and degenerative changes in the heart were diagnosed with Keshan disease. Human selenoproteonome consists of at least 25 selenoproteins. Se plays a role in immunity and metabolism via its role in functioning of numerous enzymes: glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxine and methionine sulfoxide reductase, methionine-sulfoxide reductase B1. Se plays a role in glucose homeostasis, Alzheimer’s disease, thyroid disorders, infectious, inflammatory diseases, vascular diseases and fertility.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion.</bold> Se deficiency increases the risk of Keshan disease, but there is not enough evidence to recommend its supplementation for prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, Se status is important part of health assessment. Se supplementation should not exceed the dose of 55μg/day.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-18T00:00:00.000+00:00How do the officials sleep? The assessment of sleep of the public administration workers using objective and subjective methods<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Sleep impacts our functioning, both on a physical and mental level. This study aimed to assess the officials’ sleep using objective (actigraphic examination) and subjective evalutation methods (self-administered questionnaire and sleep diary).</p> <p>The analysis revealed that among the officials, sleep deprivation was common. The average actual sleep time in this group was 1-hour shorter than recommended. Officials holding managerial positions more frequently presented worse sleep outcomes affecting their sleep efficiency than lower-level office workers. Workplace stress was associated with reduced sleeping hours and household stress with more frequent night waking.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Thyroid diseases and mental illness together with behavioural disorders versus mental illness together with behavioural disorders and thyroid diseases<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> Numerous authors have undertaken research on the coexistence of mental health disorders and thyroid disease. They have not been able to clearly demonstrate which illness came first.</p> <p><bold>Aim.</bold> The main purpose of this work is to asses the coexistence of thyroid disease with mental health conditions and disorders in behaviour. This work is based on a retrospective study and has shown frequent coexistence of thyroid disease with mental health or behaviour disorders.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods.</bold> The research method was a retrospective study carried out on the basis of medical records of patients of primary care clinics in the city of Lublin. The criterion for qualifying patients for the study was having a diagnosis, according to ICD 10, from at least one of the following groups: thyroid diseases E03-E07, mental health conditions F00-F 99 and behavioral disorders R44-R46.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> In total, 243 patients were qualified for the study. In this group 193 people are women and the remaining 50 are men. Among patients with isolated diseases, 28% of them have only diagnosed thyroid disease; every third patient (30%) has diagnosed mental health illness or behavioural disorders. The Fisher test showed a relationship between thyroid diseases and mental health conditions including behavioural disorders (p=0.0000). A group of people with hypothyroidism in the course of Hashimoto’s disease has been identified. The results of the prevalence of the disease were observed dividing by gender and age. Hashimoto’s disease occurs in the group of 15% women and 4% men. Pearson’s Chi<sup>2</sup> test showed a relationship between the incidence of Hashimoto’s disease and gender (p=0.037). The quota coefficient showed that this relationship is weak (0.13). The disease is more common in women.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> There is a close relationship between the incidence of thyroid disease and mental health illness, including behavioural disorders. Patients with co-morbidity are significantly more likely to present mental illnesses and disorders. The dominance of mental illnesses and disorders is three times higher compared to thyroid diseases.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The concentration-response functions for short-term exposure to ambient air pollution<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> There are a few statistical approaches to estimate health impacts of the ambient air pollution concentrations. Air health effects are often studied in short-term exposure. In this context two main techniques are used; time-series and case-crossover (CC). This work focuses on the CC methodology. In the standard method risk is estimated using log-linear models.</p> <p><bold>Aim.</bold> This work proposes other types of the models.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods.</bold> The CC design is applied with various transformations of air pollution concentration. The mortality data are used for the period from 1987 to 2015 for Toronto, Canada. Daily concentration level of ambient ozone is considered as an exposure. The ozone concentration is transformed and used in the statistical models. The transformation is a product of two parts; a simple function such as logarithm and a logistic function as a weight. The transformed concentration is used in the CC statistical models. The models estimate the coefficient related to transformed concentration. It allows to construct the concentration-response function. The generated models are assessed using the Akaike information criterion (AIC).</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> The relative risks (RR), reported at 75th percentile of the concentration (55 ppb) are different. The standard CC model gives RR=1.0195 with the 95% confidence interval (1.0035, 1.0358), whereas the model with the transformation gives better fit and estimates RR=1.0054 (1.0026, 1.0082).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> The proposed methodology allows to construct an accurate approximation of the concentration-response functions. These functions provide adequate approximations and also identify a potential threshold.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-13T00:00:00.000+00:00The knowledge of young women about cervical cancer<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> Women in Poland suffer from and die of cervical cancer more often than women from other European countries. The reason for this phenomenon is the fact that women in Poland are reluctant to perform Pap smear tests. Reluctance to undergo a Pap smear is due to low awareness of its course. Numerous studies show that women do not know much about the course of illness, risk factors and prevention of cervical cancer. In its prevention, health behaviors are important from the moment of sexual initiation, so it is important that young women have sufficient knowledge about it.</p> <p><bold>Aim.</bold> Determining the state of knowledge of the respondents, comparing social awareness to previous research and proposing new preventive solutions.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods.</bold> An anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted in electronic form among women aged 16-25 from all over Poland. The study was conducted using a proprietary questionnaire (Google form) completed online. The questionnaire contained closed questions verifying the knowledge of the topic under study and personal information. The following computer programs were used for statistical analysis of data: Statistica and Microsoft Excel.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> Almost half of the surveyed women believes that the use of oral hormonal contraception does not increase the risk of developing cervical cancer. One in ten women does not know about the existence of an HPV vaccine. Nearly one third of the respondents do not see a gynecologist at all. Nearly two-thirds of women do not perform a Pap smear.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> The surveyed women have some knowledge concerning cervical prophylaxis, but they rarely use it in practice. However, the knowledge of women about the symptoms and risk factors of cervical cancer is small. Too few women know about the existence of a cervical cancer prevention program in Poland.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Women’s health in times of COVID-19 pandemic. Do sex and gender matter?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The COVID-19 epidemic has negatively affected all spheres of life, leading to the deterioration of health and quality of life. Although it has affected both men and women, it has had an extraordinary impact on the latter, exposing and exacerbating the existing health inequalities among those groups.</p> <p>There is increasing evidence that both sex and gender-related factors make women more prone to the harmful effects of SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, it is expected that the crisis caused by coronavirus will have long-term severe medical, social, and economic consequences in this population. This paper aimed to investigate the key factors contributing to the different outcomes of COVID-19 in men and women and present multi-dimensional effects of coronavirus pandemic from the perspective of women.</p> <p>Sex and gender differences must not be ignored in analyzing the impact of COVID-19. Sex/gender-oriented approach should be implemented in all public health actions: from collecting sex-disaggregated data to designing tailored repair post-COVID policies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-23T00:00:00.000+00:00The knowledge of young women about breast cancer<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction.</bold> Breast cancer is the most common malignant neoplasm among women in Poland. Many factors, both non-modifiable and modifiable, are involved in the development of this cancer, so it is important that women know the risk factors and the principles of cancer prevention. Numerous studies show that the knowledge of women in this area is small.</p> <p><bold>Aim.</bold> Determining the state of knowledge about breast cancer of young women in Poland, comparing the analysis of social awareness on this subject with previous research, and identifying the most important preventive measures in this area.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods.</bold> An anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted in electronic form among women aged 16-25 from all over Poland. The study was carried out using a proprietary questionnaire (Google form) completed online. The questionnaire contained closed questions verifying the knowledge of the topic under study and a certificate. The following computer programs were used for statistical analysis of data: Statistica and Microsoft Excel.</p> <p><bold>Results.</bold> Less than a third of women knows the typical age at which breast cancer develops and is aware of the relationship between the use of oral hormonal contraceptives and the development of this cancer. Few of the respondents are able to correctly identify the risk factors for breast cancer, practically every tenth respondent knows the principles of breast cancer prevention, and nearly one third of them correctly indicated its symptoms.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> There are gaps in the knowledge of young women about breast cancer that need to be filled. Education in the field of breast self-examination and risk factors for breast cancer development is a priority, which in the future may contribute to increasing the detection of breast changes and reducing the number of breast cancer cases.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-30T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1