rss_2.0Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism Journal of Sport and Tourism Feed of Six-Week Pre-Season Complex Contrast Training Intervention on Male Soccer Players’ Athletic Performance<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction.</bold></italic> This study aimed to investigate the effects of a six-week complex contrast training (CCT) intervention on the athletic performance of highly-trained amateur male soccer players during the pre-season period.</p> <p><italic><bold>Material and Methods.</bold></italic> Participants aged 21.3 were randomized to CCT (n = 7) or active (i.e. standard soccer training) control (CG; n = 9) groups. Athletic performance was assessed using the 30 m linear sprint test time, standing long jump distance (SLJ), countermovement jump (CMJ) height, and unilateral right-left knee flexion and extension isokinetic maximal strength tests. The experimental group replaced part of the standard soccer training schedule with three CCT sessions per week for six weeks. A two (pre-post intervention) by two (CCT, CG) mixed ANOVA was used to analyze the exercise-specific effects. In addition, between-group comparisons at post-test were conducted with baseline scores as covariate. Within group changes were analyzed using paired t-test.</p> <p><italic><bold>Results.</bold></italic> Significant group-by-time interaction effects were found for all dependent variables (p &lt; 0.001 – 0.004). Post-hoc tests using paired t-test revealed significant improvements in all dependent variables in CCT (all p ≤ 0.001; effect size (g) = 0.29 – 0.96; %Δ = 4.5 – 14.7), but not in CG (p = 0.174 – 0.633; g = 0.03 – 0.20; %Δ = 0.4 – 2.6). Further, Bonferroni adjusted post-hoc analysis using baseline scores as a covariate showed post-test differences in favor of CCT compared to CG for all variables.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions.</bold></italic> CCT is recommended as an effective training strategy during the pre-season to improve athletic performance among highly-trained amateur male soccer players.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Hockey Players Using Andersen and Petersen's Super-Efficiency Model: Who is the Best Czech Hockey Player in the NHL?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction.</bold></italic> The aim of this article is to measure and assess the efficiency of Czech hockey players in the NHL, to create a ranking, and to reveal the best Czech hockey players in the NHL.</p> <p><italic><bold>Material and methods.</bold></italic> The methodology is based on data envelopment analysis (DEA), namely a basic input-oriented model with constant returns to scale and an advanced Andersen and Petersen's model. Using the Andersen and Petersen's model, a ranking of the best Czech forwards, defenders, and goalkeepers was created based on the super-efficiency scores. DEA models worked with several variables and allowed for greater objectivity to be incorporated into the rankings. The input variable chosen was the number of seasons played. The output variables included the number of games played, the number of minutes played, the number of goals, the number of assists, save percentage, and the number of Stanley Cups won.</p> <p><italic><bold>Results.</bold></italic> The research named Jaromír Jágr, Jan Rutta, and Pavel Francouz as the best Czech forward, defender and goalkeeper in the NHL in terms of technical efficiency.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions.</bold></italic> The ranking of hockey players based on super-efficiency scores revealed, among other things, that hockey players with a high number of seasons, games played or goals scored are not necessarily technically efficient.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Union Funds as Stimulators of Sustainable Tourism Development in Municipalities of the Lower Silesian Region in Poland in 2014-2019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction.</bold></italic> The study assessed the impact of EU funds on sustainable tourism in the Lower Silesian region of Poland in the years 2014-2019.</p> <p><italic><bold>Material and methods.</bold></italic> A literature review and the following research methods were used in the study: logical analysis and construction, as well as documentary and statistical analyses. A database was compiled containing statistical data on implemented tourism projects subsidized with EU funds in municipalities of Lower Silesia. Each project was then assigned to one of sustainable tourism sections in accordance with the Global Sustainable Tourism Council Destination Criteria. Statistical analysis included structure analysis, basic statistics, and the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test and post-hoc test.</p> <p><italic><bold>Results.</bold></italic> The Kruskal-Wallis test results (H = 20.01 for project values, and H = 23.34 for the amount of EU funding) and the probability level (p = 0.001) demonstrated that project expenditures on tourism in each sustainable tourism section differed significantly. The multiple comparisons test (post-hoc test) revealed statistically significant differences between the values of projects implemented in the sections of cultural sustainability and sustainable management (p = 0.009), cultural sustainability and environmental sustainability (p = 0.009), socio-economic sustainability and sustainable management (p = 0.009), and socio-economic sustainability and environmental sustainability (p = 0.008). In terms of the amount of EU funding, statistically significant differences were found between cultural sustainability and environmental sustainability (p = 0.001), and socio-economic sustainability and environmental sustainability (p = 0.001).</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions.</bold></italic> The allocation of EU funds for tourism projects did not contribute to the implementation of sustainable tourism. In the next EU programming period, i.e. 2021-2027, a more sustainable allocation of funds for tourism projects should be pursued. There is a clear need to increase the number and value of tourism projects implemented in the area of environmental sustainability.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Gatekeeping in Sports News During Prime Time Television in a Public Broadcaster<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction.</bold></italic> Based on Shoemaker's model of gatekeeping, this study addresses two questions: What social representations of sports are promoted by the prime time news program of the public television broadcaster Radio Televisão Portuguesa (RTP)? How do editors assess sports news stories during the editorial decision-making process?</p> <p><italic><bold>Material and Methods.</bold></italic> For this, we quantitatively examined all the sports content in the prime time ‘Telejornal’ daily news program of RTP during a trimester. Moreover, we studied the factors that influenced editorial decisions, by conducting naturalistic participant observation and semi-structured interviews.</p> <p><italic><bold>Results.</bold></italic> Results indicate that facts of greater public protagonism, which cause a significant emotional reaction and are relatable to the public, are more newsworthy. The main constraints influencing the editorial decisions were organized in three co-dependent areas: Social System (macro level), RTP Organization (meso level) and Telejornal Newsroom (micro level).</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions.</bold></italic> Findings contribute to a reduction in social stereotypes created by television broadcasters, and to sports actors optimizing their communication strategy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Cross-Cultural Differences in Fundamental Motor Skills Proficiency Between Polish and Latvian Children<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction.</bold></italic> Fundamental motor skills (FMS) are a critical component of success in various sports and lifelong physical activity (PA). This study aimed to evaluate and compare the FMS proficiency levels of 7-9-year-old children from Poland and Latvia, providing insights into the current state of motor competence in these populations.</p> <p><italic><bold>Material and Methods.</bold></italic> A cross-sectional study design was utilized, incorporating a sample of 163 boys and girls. The FUS test (Fundamental Motor Skills in Sport), a comprehensive, qualitative, and process-oriented assessment tool was used to assess FMS. The FUS test encompassed a range of movement tasks, including hurdles, jumping rope, forward roll, ball bouncing, ball throwing and catching, and kicking and stopping a ball that allows for a thorough evaluation of FMS proficiency.</p> <p><italic><bold>Results.</bold></italic> The study revealed alarmingly low FMS proficiency levels in both countries, with 93.3% of students displaying ‘insufficient FMS proficiency’. The Mann-Whitney U test showed that Latvian boys outperformed their Polish peers in jumping rope and forward roll (p &lt; 0.05), while Polish boys exhibited superior results in kicking and stopping a ball (p &lt; 0.05). In contrast, Polish girls achieved significantly higher scores in hurdles and kicking and stopping a ball (p &lt; 0.05) compared to Latvian girls, who scored higher in jumping rope (p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions.</bold></italic> These findings highlight the urgent need for effective, evidence-based interventions to improve motor competence in both countries, emphasizing the importance of incorporating FMS development into physical education curricula and promoting regular PA for children.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of COVID-19 on Maintaining Balance in Highly Skilled Handball Players<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction.</bold></italic> The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of COVID-19 on maintaining balance in highly skilled handball players during the performance of the modified Romberg test.</p> <p><italic><bold>Material and Methods.</bold></italic> As part of a larger investigation that was initiated in 2019, twelve professional handball players were recruited to participate in a study that was designed to measure static balance performance. Following the initial pre-test, six participants (body height 184.8 ± 4.7 cm; body weight 85.5 ± 3.3 kg; age 21.3 ± 1.2 years) contracted COVID-19. The remaining six participants (body height 188.7 ± 2.6 cm; body weight 92.3 ± 3.7 kg; age 26.3 ± 3.3 years) never tested positive for COVID-19 and pre-sumably were not infected with the virus. The experimental design required all participants to complete an initial balance assessment (pre-test) and a later balance assessment (post-test). To fully analyze our data, we conducted a 2 (condition: COVID, no-COVID) X 2 (test: pre-test, post-test) ANOVA with repeated measures on the second factor.</p> <p><italic><bold>Results.</bold></italic> Our research results showed that the skilled handball players who contracted COVID-19 mani-fested a significant decrease in balance performance from the pre-test which occurred prior to being infected with COVID-19 relative to the post-test which occurred following the COVID-19 infection.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions.</bold></italic> In conclusion, the results we have reported here are the first to show an objectively measured association between COVID-19 and the ability to maintain balance. Further intensive multifaceted research on this issue is needed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Vision in Basketball Players at Different Level of Experience<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold><italic>Introduction.</italic></bold> This study focuses on the sensory information delivered by the visual system, particularly in the peripheral visual field (PVF). Visual abilities, especially the ability to detect peripheral information, have been identified as important factors for successful performance in team sports. Athletes often need to divide their visual focus between central and peripheral fields to achieve optimal performance. However, research on visual perception in athletes with varying levels of experience is still limited. The aim of the study was to compare peripheral perception of basketball players at different level of experience.</p> <p><bold><italic>Material and Methods.</italic></bold> In study 165 basketball players took part at different level of experience. An analysis compare abilities general visual functions (i.e. field of vision) and reaction time to visual stimuli. Peripheral perception was examined using the peripheral test included in Vienna Test System (VTS, Schuhfried, Austria). During the test variables were recorded: total field of vision, viewing angle of the left and right eye., tracking deviation, number of correct reactions, the number of omitted responses and median reaction time – left and right stimuli.</p> <p><bold><italic>Results.</italic></bold> The results indicate that the E and U19 groups had significantly shorter response time to stimuli appearing in the peripheral field of vision compared to U15 group. Two more experienced groups had bigger field of vision than U15. No statistically significant differences were observed between E and U19 group.</p> <p><bold><italic>Conclusions. </italic></bold>The study highlights the importance of perceptual skills, particularly in anticipation and decision-making processes, for basketball players due to the high number of stimuli involved in the sport. Understanding these differences can inform training strategies and help identify areas that may require additional attention for optimal performance. The accumulation of high volume of sport specific exercises may facilitate the development of perceptual expertise in basketball players.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Sports Tourism Destinations in Emerging Countries: The Case of Zrebar Lake in Iran<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold><italic>Introduction. </italic></bold>Sports tourism is considered an effective strategy for developing local economies, creating jobs, and developing local infrastructure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify key factors contributing to the development of sports tourism in emerging countries. To accomplish this goal, we studied Zrebar Lake in western Iran.</p> <p><bold><italic>Material and Methods. </italic></bold>Administrative documents were reviewed and experts were interviewed to identify the critical factors affecting the development of sports tourism. Afterwards, interpretive structural modeling was used to determine the relationships between these factors.</p> <p><bold><italic>Results. </italic></bold>TThe findings of our study indicate six factors, i.e. infrastructure, management, economic factors, competitive advantage, environmental and cultural factors. Using MICMAC analysis, we determined their role in developing sports tourism.</p> <p><bold><italic>Conclusions. </italic></bold>The current efforts of tourism authorities to develop sports tourism in emerging destinations should be directed at the effective management of the factors identified by our study. This article is the first attempt to shed light on important factors that need to be considered when developing sports tourism in emerging countries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Issues and Methodological Profiles of Academic Works Pertaining to Physical Activity and Tourism Management in Mountain Areas (An Analysis of Research Papers Published in the Journal “Folia Turistica” in the Years 1990-2020)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold><italic>Introduction.</italic></bold> The paper aims to analyse publications on physical activity and tourism management in mountain areas which appeared in the over 30-year period of publishing the journal “Folia Turistica” (FT).</p> <p><bold><italic>Material and methods.</italic></bold> The research consisted of four stages: preliminary analysis of titles and abstracts of research papers published in FT in the years 1990-2020, a detailed analysis of the content of research papers pertaining to mountain issues, collecting and processing the data necessary to prepare methodological profiles of research papers using the OMPN©, analysis and discussion of the results obtained.</p> <p><bold><italic>Results.</italic></bold> Among the 75 scientific articles qualified for the study, works in the field of social sciences, as well as in the field of natural sciences and humanities prevailed. Four leading thematic areas can be distinguished: physical or tourist activity, resource management and governance, nature and protected areas, tourist and recreational infrastructure. The share of papers on historical issues, law and security issues, and education and leadership was clearly smaller. Research and the resulting scientific articles were more often interdisciplinary (rather than monodisciplinary), the positivist approach prevailed (rather than interpretative), empirical research was undertaken more often (rather than theoretical studies), while scientific reasoning and inferences were much more often based on induction (not deduction).</p> <p><bold><italic>Conclusions. </italic></bold>The research shows that articles on physical/tourism activity in mountain regions published in FT were highly diverse in their methodological approaches, and in many works there is a scholarly approach known as triangulation, which involves joining various approaches and research methods and drawing conclusions based on various kinds of data. This situation, together with the relatively low-level development of tourism research compared to other more advanced fields and disciplines, does not facilitate our task of evaluating the various articles and their significance in attaining valuable knowledge.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue, Physical Activity and (Harmful) Alcohol Drinking in University Students During the First Year After COVID-19 Pandemic: Gender-Stratified Cross-Sectional Study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold><italic>Introduction.</italic></bold> COVID-19 pandemic increased consumption of alcohol (including harmful drinking – HD), and decreased physical activity levels (PAL) globally, but there is an evident lack of studies examining the problem in the post-pandemic period. This study aimed to evaluate gender-specific associations between sport participation and PAL (independent variables), and HD (dependent variable) among college/university students during the first post-pandemic year of the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> <p><bold><italic>Material and Methods.</italic></bold> The participants were college/university students, aged 18 to 21 years (n = 788; 409 females) from Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. They were tested on socio-demographic factors, HD (using the AUDIT scale), sport participation and PAL (using the IPAQ questionnaire). Analysis of variance, Chi square test, and t-test for independent samples were used to evaluate differences, while logistic regression with dichotomized criterion (HD vs. non-harmful drinking – NHD) was calculated to establish associations between independent and dependent variables.</p> <p><bold><italic>Results.</italic></bold> T-test indicated significant differences between HD and NHD in PAL (t-test = 2.16, p = 0.02), but only in males. Also, logistic regression indicated a significant correlation between PAL and HD in males (OR: 1.41, 95%CI: 1.11-1.76), while no association was evidenced: (i) between sport participation and HD (in both males and females), and (ii) between PAL and HD (in females).</p> <p><bold><italic>Conclusions. </italic></bold>Results indicated that an overall increase in PAL could be helpful in decreasing HD among college/university students; however, to evaluate it more specifically, prospective analyses are needed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Activity of Poles in the Era of the Covid-19 Pandemic in the Light of Survey Results<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold><italic>Introduction.</italic></bold> The phenomenon of the SARS-CoV-2 virus pandemic poses a new challenge for the entire tourism sector in the local, regional, national and international dimension. The aim of the article is to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the tourist activity of Poles. The article will fill the research gap on this topic.</p> <p><bold><italic>Material and methods.</italic></bold> The study was conducted in the period from February till July 2022. 350 randomly selected respondents presenting different age and economic situation took part in it. The study was carried out using a questionnaire containing 27 open and closed questions.</p> <p><bold><italic>Results.</italic></bold> The survey shows that in 2021 most of the respondents traveled for tourism reasons. In 2021, the largest number of people traveled for tourism in July, and slightly less in August, in September and October, respectively. Undoubtedly, these restrictions caused difficulties in traveling for tourism purposes. It was the time of uncertainty and many people decided not to travel for tourism in the first months of the year as they were afraid of more confining restrictions being imposed.</p> <p><bold><italic>Conclusions.</italic></bold> The 2021 tourist season had two different faces. Poles spent the first half of 2021 in re-closure along with the accompanying restrictions. May and June brought about a significant revival in the tourism industry and the so-called revenge travel. Poles set off on a holiday getaway, although in many cases the directions, ways of traveling, expectations and requirements have changed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in Peripheral Vision Between Contemporary Dancers, Folk Dancers and Non-Dancers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold><italic>Introduction.</italic></bold> In stage performances, dancing requires synchronous connections, choosing paths in space, forming, balancing shapes, adjusting tempo and energy, as well as partnering. Therefore, in addition to proprioceptive abilities and central vision, peripheral vision is used to a large extent. Will the role of peripheral vision be relevant in selected dance styles and techniques? The aim of this study was to compare peripheral perception between contemporary dancers, folk dancers and non-dancers.</p> <p><bold><italic>Material and Methods.</italic></bold> The study included 126 individuals. This group consisted of 48 contemporary dancers, 19 folk dancers and 58 non-dancers (the control group – students who did sports other than dance). The Vienna Test System was used to assess peripheral perception. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).</p> <p><bold><italic>Results.</italic></bold> Interpretation and analysis of the test results indicate that the dancers’ visual range is relatively large, averaging 175.3° for contemporary dancers and 175.58° for folk dancers. As for the control group, the visual range was 172.64°. In the case of peripheral vision, statistically significant differences were noted between the control group and the contemporary dance group (p &lt; 0.01) as well as between the control group and the folk dance group (p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><bold><italic>Conclusions. </italic></bold>Contemporary and folk dancers did not show variation in peripheral vision. However, differences occurred between dancers and non-dancers. It was noted that the studied groups of contemporary and folk dancers had a better range of visual functions related to the peripheral visual field than the control group.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Led Lighting Training on Response Time in Greco-Roman Wrestlers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction</bold></italic> Response time is one of the determinants of performance effectiveness in wrestling competitions. Its high levels help wrestlers fight more effectively when performing appropriate technical and tactical actions. Different factors such as a proper warm-up, unexpected situations, muscle fatigue, asthenic reactions, competition prestige and previous injuries may exert an influence on perceptual abilities (including RT and MT) and affect fighting effectiveness. Getting to know determinants of response time may provide a lot of valuable practical information that can be used in wrestling-related training. The study sought to determine changes in response time in Greco-Roman wrestlers produced by LLT.</p> <p><italic><bold>Material and Methods</bold></italic> Twenty-four Greco-Roman wrestlers (age = 18.6 1.8, years of experience = 6.0 1.6) took part in the study. The wrestlers were divided according to two weight classes (lightweight and heavyweight). Within LLT programme, they performed special motor tasks using Batak Pro (15 minutes in total). Between the tasks, response time (reaction time and movement time) was measured. Reaction time test (RT, version S1) of the Vienna Test System was used in the study.</p> <p><italic><bold>Results</bold></italic> Response time changed in a variety of ways (different directions and intensity of changes). The changes were noted both in RT and MT. Contrary to LLT, a standard warm-up did not contribute to an improvement in RT. The greatest changes were observed after ten minutes of exercising. Intragroup differences in response time grew smaller in the course of the task performance. No differences in response time were noted between wrestlers representing different weight classes.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions</bold></italic> Physical exertion within LLT affects response time in Greco-Roman wrestlers regardless of their weight classes. The most favourable changes occur after 10 minutes of exercising that requires high attentional focus (exercises performed after a standard warm-up). The type of warm-up and the exercises used may constitute a factor improving performance effectiveness. It is recommended that in a pre-competition warm-up, more time should be devoted to exercises requiring high attentional focus.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of 10-Week Progressive Stretching Exercise Programme on Functional Limitations of Musculoskeletal System<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction</bold></italic> The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a progressive stretching exercise programme on the functional limitations in physically active women.</p> <p><italic><bold>Material and Methods</bold></italic> Thirty-six women took part in the study. All of them attended fitness classes (step, fat burning) at least twice a week. The study included women aged 19-26 who were randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 consisted of women who performed a set of progressive stretching exercises twice a week for a period of two months after training sessions. Group 2 (the control group) included women who neither performed any exercises nor received any treatment after training sessions. On the first day of the study, each woman was subjected to the Functional Movement Screen (FMS), the Core Muscle Strength and Stability Test (CMS---amp---ST) and the Sit and Reach test (to the right and left side) before starting their fitness class. Afterwards, group 1 performed progressive stretching exercises as instructed, i.e. twice a week for approximately 20 minutes after classes, for a period of ten weeks. After ten weeks, all women performed FMS, CMS---amp---ST and Sit and Reach tests again.</p> <p><italic><bold>Results</bold></italic> The overall FMS test scores of both groups before implementing the exercise programme were not significantly different. After ten weeks, the women from group 1 significantly improved their overall scores in FMS (p ---lt--- 0.001). There were no significant differences in the control group. Significant improvements in the Core Muscle Strength and Stability test scores were observed in both groups. For the Sit and Reach test, there was a significant improvement in performance in group 1 (p ---lt--- 0.001), while a regression was noted in group 2.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions</bold></italic> Stretching exercises can have a beneficial effect on minimising the musculoskeletal system’s functional limitations. It is advisable to include post-training complementary exercises to prevent injury.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Influence of Caffeine and Guarana on Dehydration of Young Soccer Players and Physiological Aspects of Dehydration of the Athlete's Body<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction</bold></italic> The aim of the study was to assess the effect of caffeine and caffeine with guarana on the dehydration of young soccer players and the effect of dehydration on their reaction time.</p> <p><italic><bold>Material and Methods</bold></italic> The study involved 57 players aged 16.8 ± 0.5 years, with an average body weight of 66.5 ± 9.3 kg, and height 178 ± 6.7 cm. An analysis of the body composition was performed. Thus, the results regarding body weight, adipose tissue, muscle tissue, BMI and body hydration were obtained. Next, the competitors performed successively a test for reaction time and speed over a distance of 5 and 15 meters with the use of photocells. After the tests, the players were randomized into 3 groups, where they received 200 mg caffeine, caffeine + guarana (200 mg + 40 mg), and placebo. Then, the players participated in a soccer training of medium intensity on the pitch, which lasted about 60 minutes. Immediately after completing the training, the procedure for testing reaction time and speed as well as body composition analysis were repeated.</p> <p><italic><bold>Results</bold></italic> Water loss occurred in each of the study groups and was the highest in players consuming caffeine with guarana and caffeine, but these were not statistically significant differences compared to placebo. Lower BMI correlated with water loss; however, statistically significant differences were noticed only in the placebo group (p ---lt--- 0.001). Water loss also correlated with a smaller decrease in speed over a distance of the 5-meter sprint (p ---lt--- 0.039) and the 15-meter sprint (p ---lt--- 0.035), but only in the caffeine-guarana group.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions</bold></italic> Caffeine consumption in the amount of about 3 mg/kg of body weight and also caffeine with guarana did not result in significantly greater loss of water in young soccer players. The loss of water during training in players was almost 0.7 l and did not affect the reaction time. The obtained results are important in the context of consuming supplements based on caffeine and guarana for young footballers in order to improve parameters such as speed or reaction time. However, it is also worth conducting research on a group of adult players.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Activities of Inhabitants of Large Cities in Poland during the COVID-19 Pandemic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction</bold></italic> The main goal of the article is to study the structure of time spent on specific leisure activities in the COVID-19 pandemic by inhabitants of large cities in Poland (in the workweek – weekend cycle).</p> <p><italic><bold>Material and methods</bold></italic> Time budget research, including leisure, was based on the self-reporting sheet and was conducted in December 2020 on residents of selected cities.</p> <p><italic><bold>Results</bold></italic> The results indicate differences in the way of spending leisure time concerning social life mainly. The respondents spent most of their leisure time using mass media and the Internet. The time spent on various leisure activities also differed in terms of workweek – weekend. The structure of individual leisure time activities showed that the most common activities during workweek were watching TV and using the Internet. At weekends, the second most popular activity (after watching TV) was home meetings.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions</bold></italic> An important contribution resulting from this work is the identification and analysis of the variability of leisure activities during the pandemic.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity From Selected Oxidative Stress Parameters, Muscle Damage Indices and Inflammatory Markers in Soccer and Hockey Players<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction</bold></italic> The aim of the present study was to find the relation of exercise-induced biomarkers (antioxidant, muscle damage, and inflammatory markers) with endurance capacity and anaerobic power. The study also aimed to develop predicting regression models for maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O<sub>2max</sub>) and relative anaerobic power (W<sub>peak</sub>) to specify the essential performance limiting elements.</p> <p><italic><bold>Material and Methods</bold></italic> Eighty-six endurance male players (i.e., football (n = 39) and field hockey (n = 47)) were selected as test subjects for the present study. Muscle damage indices (creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), cortisol), inflammatory markers (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)), antioxidant variables (malondialde-hyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)) and performance variables (indicated as V̇O<sub>2max</sub> and W<sub>peak</sub>) were assessed using standard protocols.</p> <p><italic><bold>Results</bold></italic> The most significant (sig p ---lt--- 0.001) prediction of V̇<sub>O2max</sub> = (0.763) MDA+ (5.644) SOD+ (0.039) GSH- (0.154) GPx+ (0.002) LDH- (0.011) CK+ (0.038) cortisol+ (1.232) IL+ (1.135) TNF+ 20.018. The strongest correlations were found between V̇O<sub>2max</sub> vs MDA (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.852), V̇O<sub>2max</sub> vs IL-6 (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.589), V̇O<sub>2max</sub> vs TNF-α (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.385).</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions</bold></italic> Artificial neural network perceptron model depicted stronger prediction of V̇O<sub>2max</sub> (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.872) in comparison to W<sub>peak</sub> (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.271), with MDA and CK as the major predictors for V̇O<sub>2max</sub> and W<sub>peak</sub>, respectively. Among all biomarkers, MDA, IL-6, and TNF-α were identified as the most valuable indicators to predict endurance capacity significantly. While MDA, SOD, GPx, IL-6, and TNF-α were strongly correlated with V̇O<sub>2max</sub> and LDH, cortisol was strongly correlated with W<sub>peak</sub>. Contrarily, exercise-induced biomarkers failed to predict anaerobic power.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Use of Social Media in City Marketing Communication with Residents and Tourists – User Segmentation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction</bold></italic> Transformations in the area of technology and communication allowing easy access to information resulted in Polish cities facing the challenge of changing their promotional activity. This activity has been largely transferred to social media. The article presents the definition of social media, their classification and the activity of large Polish cities in social media. The analysis of the collected material was carried out using classification trees.</p> <p><italic><bold>Material and methods</bold></italic> The CAWI method was used to conduct the research in four large cities (Warszawa, Wrocław, Gdańsk and Kraków). It covered 400 residents and 400 tourists. The analysis of the collected material was carried out using classification trees.</p> <p><italic><bold>Results</bold></italic> The application of classification trees allowed identifying the main factors influencing the frequency of using city profiles in social media by tourists and residents along with distinguishing three segments of residents and three segments of tourists using social media. The size of these segments was analysed, and thus the purpose of carrying out various activities by large tourist cities in social media.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions</bold></italic> The importance of social media in marketing communication is recognized mostly by large cities. As a result, these cities change their marketing communication strategies because there are sufficiently numerous and relatively homogeneous segments of residents and tourists who receive the message addressed to them through social media. These activities are valued by their recipients since they allow them to interact.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Component Analysis in the Study of the Structure of Decathlon at Different Stages of Sports Career<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction.</bold></italic> Due to the complexity of decathlon resulting from the number and diversity of the component events as well as difficult and time-consuming training required of athletes, high sports performance in this combined form of competition may depend on several factors.</p> <p><italic><bold>Material and Methods.</bold></italic> The objective of the paper was to subject the careers of the world’s top decathletes competing between 1985 and 2018 to the principal component analysis (PCA) in order to explore and define interdependencies between the component events and the final result in decathlon at four stages of sports career development (from U20 – junior, through U23 and athletic excellence stage to decline in athletic performance).</p> <p><italic><bold>Results.</bold></italic> The results made it possible to define the majority of the principal components determining high performance in decathlon.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions.</bold></italic> The analysis has shown that each sports ontogenesis stage has shared elements and a specific arrangement of events for every age category.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic Threat on Purchase Decisions of Travel Agency Customers in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic><bold>Introduction.</bold></italic> The dynamic increase in world tourism demand was interrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The package holidays market is one of the tourism branches affected by the crisis the most. The study aimed at identifying the direction of changes in purchase behaviors regarding package holidays caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.</p> <p><italic><bold>Material and methods.</bold></italic> The research on tourists purchasing package holidays during the COVID-19 pandemic was quantitative and covered a nationwide online panel of respondents characterized by a representative distribution for the general population of Poles (n = 1502). At the data analysis stage, logit models of buyers’ behaviors were used. In the estimation process, GLM in R (R Core Team 2022) was applied.</p> <p><italic><bold>Results.</bold></italic> The situation related to the COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected how tourists traveled. The conducted analysis made it possible to distinguish four segments of buyers during the pandemic and to identify factors determining the choice of one of the purchase patterns. Compared to the pre-pandemic period, a significant increase in the number of tourists who needed personal contact with sellers at brick-and-mortar travel offices was observed.</p> <p><italic><bold>Conclusions.</bold></italic> The study presented a meaningful contribution to understanding purchase behaviors of tourists who prefer package holidays. It is one of the few studies that compared behavior patterns of holiday package buyers in the period before and during the pandemic. The knowledge of changes in package holiday purchase behaviors is essential for travel agencies to design effective marketing strategies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue