rss_2.0Psychology of Language and Communication FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Psychology of Language and Communication of Language and Communication Feed psychological focus of white house press secretaries during scandal: A case study of the Obama and Trump administrations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This case study investigated how the language of White House press secretaries is modified by periods of scandal and by administration goals. We evaluated two administrations and their associated scandals: The Benghazi attack from the Obama administration and Russian election interference from the Trump administration. Results suggested the psychological and emotional focus of press secretaries changed during scandal compared to before scandal. That is, press secretaries had a more negative tone during each scandal compared to before each scandal. Contrary to prior evidence, time after scandal was not associated with a reduction in self-focus, and press secretary language patterns were largely not moderated by administration (nor their goals). Therefore, language patterns of press secretaries reveal their psychological and emotional processing during a scandal using naturally occurring and in-the-moment text data.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the comparison between item-based tests and language samples in Portuguese kindergarteners’ language assessment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current study aimed to examine the relationships between item-based tests and a narrative retelling by analyzing concurrent associations, regression coefficients, language progress, and sex differences. Thirty-one kindergarteners with typical language development were assessed at the beginning (<italic>M</italic><sub>age</sub> = 64.77 months) and the end of the school year. The statistically significant associations and predictive relations between the item-based tests and narrative retelling were scarce and occurred mainly at the same language level (words and sentences). Accordingly, language progression was mirrored differently by the two assessment conditions. Sex was not related to language skills. Overall, the results indicate these two kinds of tools assess different language constructs and should be used complementarily. Additionally, two relatively innovative trends emerged: errors produced in the narrative seem to be a good discriminative metric for this age range, and testing language by units (words and sentences) might be appropriate to assess language development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Memory Capacity, TL Grammar Attainment and Length of Study as Predictors of Explicit and Implicit (Automatized) Knowledge of English Passive Voice<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigated the relationship between phonological short-term memory (PSTM), working memory capacity (WMC), and receptive and productive dimensions of explicit and implicit (automatized) knowledge of English passive voice, also taking into account the effect of grammar attainment and self-reported length of study. Participants were 152 Polish university students majoring in English. Two measures of PSTM and WMC were applied. Receptive and productive explicit knowledge were measured by means of an untimed grammaticality judgment test and a test requiring the provision of correct verb forms, respectively. Receptive implicit (automatized) knowledge was assessed with a timed grammaticality judgment test while its productive dimension was assessed through a focused communication task. Canonical correlation for the entire model was rather high, which means that the original variables were strongly related to each other. However, finer-grained analyses showed that it was primarily overall grammar attainment, and, to a lesser extent, WMC that determined the levels of explicit and implicit (automatized) grammar knowledge.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Involvement and Attention Sharing in Interactions of Premature and Full-Term Infants with Fathers: A Brief Report<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>The aim of this study was to analyze possible links between paternal involvement and children’s competence in coordinated joint attention (CJA) in preterm versus full-term 12-month-old babies. Paternal involvement was measured through the amount of time fathers allocated to different activities with their infants, whereas children’s capacity for CJA was inferred on the basis of episodes of joint attention (EJA), empirically derived from father-infant interactions. Fifty-nine father-infant dyads participated in the study. Fatherinfant interactions in free-play situations, diaries of infant activities, and semi-structured family interviews were analyzed. Episodes of joint attention were more frequent in interactions of fathers with full-term babies in comparison to extremely premature babies, and in the case of preterm infants, in dyads with highly involved fathers as compared to those with a relatively low level of involvement.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue target-related variables and compliance resistance in different interpersonal influence situations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current study investigated compliance resistance in various interpersonal contexts. The 242 respondents who answered an online questionnaire were asked to recall a situation where they refused to comply with a request and to rate the degree of their compliance resistance. They also rated certain factors that were predicted to be related to noncompliance. Results indicated that the three dimensions of self-perceived credibility, intention to refuse compliance, and perceived control over refusal to comply had statistically significant correlations with compliance resistance. Two relational components—immediate interpersonal trust and relational closeness—also had statistically significant correlations with the strength of refusal to comply. Post hoc analysis demonstrated that four of the variables tested in the current study could serve as predictors of compliance resistance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of vocabulary knowledge in dominant bilingual children with different language profiles: The impact of vocabulary size and verbal working memory<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current study investigated the depth of vocabulary knowledge (VK) through word definitions, examining the effect of word characteristics, breadth of VK, and verbal working memory (VWM). Forty children (11-12 years old) participated (12 Greek-Albanian children Greek-dominant, 14 Turkish-Greek children Turkish-dominant, and 14 monolinguals). An expressive vocabulary task (breadth of VK), a word definition task (depth of VK) in Greek, and a VWM task were administered. The results revealed that monolinguals had larger vocabulary than bilinguals in Greek. Greek-Albanian children had also larger vocabulary than Turkish-Greek bilinguals. In the VWM task, monolinguals had better abilities than Turkish-Greek bilinguals. Controlling for vocabulary and VWM, few differences emerged in definitional skills. In simple concrete nouns and compound verbs, Greek-Albanian children gave more formal definitions than monolingual children, exhibiting a bilingual advantage. Finally, breadth and depth of VK correlated with VWM only in Greek-Albanian and monolingual children, indicating the impact of vocabulary on VWM performance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue scientific communication mentoring intervention benefits diverse mentees with language variety related discomfort<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We studied social-psychological effects over time of a faculty-mentor workshop intervention that addressed attitudes associated with language variety and their impact on scientific communication (SC) skill development of PhD and postdoctoral STEM research trainees (<italic>N</italic> = 274). Six months after their mentors attended the workshop, all mentees had significant gains in productivity in speaking tasks. In particular, mentees with high language discomfort rated their quality of communication with their mentor and their enthusiasm about communicating more highly (<italic>p</italic> &lt; .05 for both measures), compared to mentees with low language discomfort. In addition, mentees raised speaking nonstandardized varieties of English reported significant reductions in discomfort related to language use (<italic>p</italic> = .003), compared to mentees raised speaking standardized English. We conclude that training mentors to understand and respond to language diversity and development results in multiple beneficial outcomes for mentees, including the amelioration of language-variety related discomfort in the research environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Polish CLIL learners more willing to communicate in English than non-CLIL learners?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Willingness to communicate (WTC) is the probability that one will choose to initiate communication given the opportunity to do so. We investigated the second language (L2) WTC (L2WTC) in Polish teenagers aged 16-19 (<italic>N</italic> = 177) attending bilingual Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) and general English classes in the same Polish school. Using a tailor-made WTC questionnaire, we gathered data twice, before and after the summer holidays, assuming that WTC would depend on the time of testing. The results did not reveal high WTC in English in both groups, and the time of testing did not influence the results. Students’ age, but not gender, influenced the L2WTC, with older students being more willing to communicate than the younger ones. Contrary to expectations, L2WTC in the bilingual CLIL and non-CLIL groups did not differ. The findings suggest that the bilingual programmes in Polish secondary schools may not increase students’ WTC in English.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue star is born? The German gender star and its effects on mental representation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Although generic masculine forms supposedly include everyone, they seem to evoke masculine representations to the exclusion of other genders (Stahlberg &amp; Sczesny, 2001). Gender-inclusive alternatives may yield more inclusive representations, but this has not been investigated extensively. The current study focused on German and contrasts generic masculine forms (<italic>Politiker</italic>, politicians) with the gender star (<italic>Politiker*innen</italic>, politicians [m/f/d]) in order to assess whether they differ in the mental availability of nonmasculine exemplars. The findings suggest that linguistic form matters, as more female exemplars were listed when participants were exposed to the gender star, although very few other nonmasculine exemplars were mentioned. Furthermore, female participants listed more nonmasculine exemplars than male participants, but, as the sample was skewed (more female than male participants), this result is tentative. Thus, the gender star leads to more inclusive mental representations, but other factors likely also play a role in determining the prominence of nonmasculine exemplars.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue language samples reflect collective emotional responses following political leaders’ rhetoric during the pandemic across four countries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>During the Covid-19 pandemic, the global public has relied on their political leaders to guide them through the crisis. The current study investigated if and how political leader’s rhetoric would be associated with collective emotional responses. We used text analytical methods to investigate association between political leader speech and daily aggregates of expressed emotions on Twitter. We collected posts concerning Covid-19 and all speeches by the highest executive power from the USA, UK, Germany, and Switzerland. We applied cross-lagged time series analyses. Political leaders whose communication was more analytic and communal corresponded to increased positivity on Twitter. Collective communal focus, in turn, increased after speeches which were more analytic and negative. Processes of socio-affective dynamics between political leaders and the general public are apparent. Our findings demonstrate that political leaders who present public crises competently and with a sense of community are associated with more positive responses on Twitter.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue health information-seeking experiences during the COVID-19 lockdown among social media users in four countries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Most countries imposed lockdown restrictions on high-risk cities due to the coronavirus (COVID-19) disease. Although individuals adopted social media use during the lockdown, it is unclear how online information-seeking experiences affected their health and quality of life. We conducted an online survey among people living in cities in Ghana, India, Indonesia, and Pakistan that were affected by lockdown restrictions. Using Colaizzi’s method, we thematically analyzed 166 participants’ (males = 93, females = 73) online text responses. We observed that uncertainties about COVID-19 and the feeling of boredom predisposed participants to become victims of misinformation. Once they were misinformed, they felt anxious about COVID-19. Consequently, some overused social media to obtain additional information while others decreased or avoided its usage entirely. Our study provides insight into a recent global phenomenon. There is a need for adequate psychological support services through social media to lessen the use of unhealthy coping mechanisms.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue metaphorical framing influence the decision-making process in a judicial conflict? An empirical study on the case of surrogates<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Metaphors can be used to influence people´s decision-making processes. In the judicial context, the use of metaphors is widespread, but its influence on the decision-making process in court has rarely been studied. This study aims to empirically determine the influence of metaphorical frames on judicial decision-making processes in the case of a surrogate against the intended parents. Two hundred and four participants were assigned to one of three groups with different metaphorical frames for surrogacy and were instructed to imagine being jurors in a mock trial. To investigate if the participants´ decisions were influenced by the frame used for surrogacy, χ<sup>2</sup> calculations were carried out. Results revealed that the decision-making process of several issues concerning the surrogate, including a penalty fee, was influenced by metaphorical framing. The metaphorical term “mother to rent” might have framed surrogacy as an unemotional business act, leading to resentment in the participants.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue binding is not a gradually learned association between specific stimuli and their responses: Evidence from a teenage bilingual population<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the current study, participants made a verbal naming response to a prime target word flanked by a distractor word, followed by a lexical decision response to a probe target word or nonword, flanked by a distractor word. By tracking potential priming effects from having either the prime target become the probe target (attended repetition condition) or the prime distractor become the probe target (ignored repetition condition), consistent positive and negative priming effects were obtained. These results broaden our understanding that stimulus-response binding does not need to be gradually learned (Henson et al., 2014). Rather, it can be formed from a single S-R pairing.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of hate speech and social evaluation of a politician’s image<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We investigated whether the use of hate speech by politicians impacts the social evaluation of their image, as measured by the semantic differential method developed by Cwalina et al. (2000). The participants (N = 105, Polish nationals) evaluated the profiles of three well-known Polish politicians from different parties – Krzysztof Bosak, Radosław Sikorski, and Włodzimierz Czarzasty – and a fictional politician named Jacek Wiśniewski. Participants made evaluations before and after reading hateful posts from each politician. The participants’ political views and their alignment with the electoral programs of the politicians being evaluated, as well as demographic variables such as gender and age were also measured. The results showed that hate speech adversely affected the politician’s image, as evaluated by the participants. As a consequence of the experimental manipulation, all of the politicians whose profiles were presented for evaluation were judged more negatively. In particular, the negative evaluations concerned the politicians’ competences (unqualified and provincial), their emotionality (excitable and aggressive), and their attitude towards other people (insincere and unfriendly). Detailed analyses also showed that: (a) respondents who sympathized with the views of specific politicians tended to evaluate them more positively, (b) hate speech was more harmful to the image of politicians judged by women than by men, and (c) there was a relationship between age and evaluations on several dimensions of the semantic differential.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue semantic inflation of “trauma” in psychology<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Trauma is an increasingly prominent concept in psychology and society at large. According to the theory of concept creep, it is one of several harm-related concepts that have undergone semantic inflation in recent decades, expanding to encompass new kinds of phenomena (horizontal expansion) and less severe phenomena (vertical expansion). Previous research has demonstrated that “trauma” has come to be used in a widening range of semantic contexts, implying horizontal expansion, but has not investigated vertical expansion. The present study developed a methodology for evaluating vertical expansion and implemented it using an English-language corpus of 825,628 scientific psychology article abstracts from 1970 to 2017. Findings indicate that “trauma” has come to be used in less severe contexts, and this trend may be linked to its rising frequency of use. These findings support the predictions of the concept creep theory and provide a new method for investigating the language dynamics of harm-related concepts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue toward integrating social psychological and communicative parameters of intergroup relations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This prologue to a special issue on social psychological processes and intergroup communication begins by outlining the constituents of the field of intergroup communication. This includes many of the major publications, disciplines and orientations involved, the methods, social groups, and communicative features studied together with selected research paradigms, applied and social domains, and theories featured. The empirical articles that follow are discussed with respect to two fundamental issues. The first refers to a seminal distinction manifest in social identity theory, namely, how social interactions can be distinguished, conceptually and operationally, as either interindividual or intergroup. Consequently, the articles are discussed in terms how they are variably manifest as intergroup encounters. The second issue relates to past principles of intergroup communication that are articulated, refined, and elaborated further by recourse, in the main, to the emergent concepts in this special issue.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue search of a “sweet spot:” Can understanding how language influences intimidation maximize the quality of valued compliance?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Intimidation is often defined, received, and perceived pejoratively. The current study sets out to find a “sweet spot” in situations where intimidation cannot be avoided and compliance is the goal, where one can maximize compliance but keep fear as low as possible. This experimental study predicted that by lessening mean-spirited speech, a moderate amount of intimidation, as opposed to greater or lesser degrees of it, would produce more compliance with a request, positive interpersonal attributions, and communicative accommodations. The results supported the idea of such a “sweet spot” and implications for authority figures are considered and discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue threat and opportunity to derogate: A social neuroscience approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Intergroup communication is at the core of intergroup relations. Studies demonstrate that intergroup threat and having an opportunity to derogate the outgroup result in heightened cortisol levels. However, biomarkers associated with different stress systems may show distinct patterns under the same conditions. We investigated whether perceptions of threat and the opportunity to derogate would result in an increase in alpha-amylase levels. White Canadian university students (<italic>N</italic> = 77) read discriminatory or favorable comments that Chinese individuals made towards Canadians. Subsequently, they were given the opportunity to derogate the outgroup. Salivary alpha-amylase was collected at baseline, following the threat, and after the opportunity to derogate. Participants showed an alpha-amylase response to threat, albeit delayed, but no further increase in concentration values due to derogation. The findings illustrate the impact of intergroup communication on physiological stress as well as the importance of using multiple biomarkers to elucidate that relationship.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue effects of situational contexts and occupational roles on listeners’ judgements on accented speech<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Much language attitude research has demonstrated that people make biased judgements based on speakers’ language choice and accent. However, the influence of occupational context on listeners’ perceptions of accented English is largely unknown. This verbal guise study examined the extent to which academic contexts and workforce-related professional contexts affect listeners’ judgements of accented speech. Results revealed that simulated contexts made a significant difference in listeners’ perceptual judgements, with speakers perceived as significantly more comprehensible and acceptable in service-occupational roles than in academic contexts. These findings suggest that listeners’ speech judgements can be heavily influenced by speakers’ situational contexts. The study also provides evidence in support of the fluency principle, showing that listeners may evaluate accented speech more negatively if it requires more processing effort. The findings inform the domains of linguistic stereotyping and listeners’ attitudes towards accented speech.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue voice signals nationality and sexual orientation: Speakers’ self-perceptions and perceived stigmatization<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Research has shown that individuals speaking low-prestige language varieties are often negatively evaluated and stigmatized by others. However, less is known about how speakers of such language varieties perceive their own speech. Here, we examined self-perceptions and perceived stigma of speakers who belong to multiple social categories signaled by auditory cues. Specifically, we examined beliefs of sexual minority and heterosexual male speakers who were either British nationals (native English speakers) or foreigners living in the UK (non-native English speakers). British speakers believed their voices cue their nationality more than foreigners. Heterosexuals believed their voices reveal their sexual orientation, but only when they self-perceived as sounding masculine. Sexual minority and foreign speakers felt more stigmatized because of the way they sound than did heterosexual and British speakers, respectively. These findings have implications for intergroup communication and voice-based stigmatization literature.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue