rss_2.0Psychology of Language and Communication FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Psychology of Language and Communication of Language and Communication 's Cover a fictional false belief in narrative<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Narrative ability is an important life-skill and mature narrators do not only provide information about actions and events when telling a story but also include the motivations, emotions and beliefs experienced by protagonists. It is rare for young children to spontaneously explain the beliefs of story characters but the reasons are unclear. In the current study, frog story data from 143 Swedish children aged 4–6 showed that children’s level of explicitness in conveying a fictional false belief was associated with referential narrative ability and use of mental vocabulary, but not to the ability to formulate embedded propositions. Socioeconomic status predicted level of explicitness, whereas no associations were found to age, sex or being multilingual. Future work should examine narrative practices in preschool and in the home more closely, enabling improved support to provide children with equal opportunities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Avicii’s S.O.S.: A psychobiographical approach and corpus-based discourse analysis on suicidal ideation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study explored the linguistic patterns and discourse on suicide of the Swedish artist Avicii. Focusing on key events in his life, career, and compositions, a triangulation of data sources was employed grounded on psychobiographical research framework and corpus-based discourse analysis. Texts with reference to suicidal risk factors were then evaluated based on the interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide to establish linguistic representations of emotional distress and suicidal ideation. The findings suggest that lexical features associated with mental health struggles, that is, high volume of first-person deixis and death-themed linguistic references, were evident in his writing. There were substantial implications of his predisposition to mental stress and his call for help, his S.O.S. This study helps in further understanding the language and discourse of artists like Avicii on the immense dislocation of emotions and the complexities of navigating (inter)personal relationships.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Parasocial relationships and YouTube addiction: The role of viewer and YouTuber video characteristics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>YouTube is a popular social media platform that fosters the development of social bonds between viewers and YouTubers called parasocial relationships (PSR). These relationships might be associated with both viewer characteristics, such as social anxiety, and YouTuber video characteristics, such as self-disclosure. Additionally, PSR might be associated with the level of addiction to the platform. Data from 370 college students were extracted from a previous study and 360 videos of 72 YouTubers were coded to (a) explore the different dimensions of PSR and (b) examine a mediation model of YouTube addiction. The results support the existence of three PSR dimensions. The results also showed that PSR dimensions were associated with both viewers’ social anxiety and YouTubers’ evaluative self-disclosure. One PSR dimension was positively associated with YouTube addiction. This study encourages the development of qualitative studies to more precisely identify the different facets of PSR with social media figures.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00How children with developmental language disorders solve nonverbal tasks<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>While solving tasks that test their intelligence, children suffering from developmental language disorders (DLD) usually receive lower scores than their typically developing (TD) peers. The present study aimed to assess how children with DLD solve typical nonverbal tasks. Sixty-five children (ages 6-9 years), monolingual users of the Polish language, participated in this study (34 with DLD, 31 TD). The Test of Language Development (TLD) was used to assess language development. Three tasks from the ABC II Kaufmann were used: triangles, story completion, and conceptual thinking. Children with DLD scored significantly lower than TD children in conceptual thinking and story completion. Scores on the triangles test did not correlate significantly with scores on the linguistic tests, whereas conceptual thinking and story completion were highly intercorrelated. While solving the task that required choosing an object that does not match other objects, children with DLD frequently selected different answers than TD children.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-06T00:00:00.000+00:00The relationship between narrative microstructure and macrostructure: Differences between six- and eight-year-olds<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current study aimed to investigate age-related differences in narrative abilities at the macrostructural and microstructural levels and to examine which microstructural aspects explain narrative macrostructure at ages six and eight. Oral narratives were elicited from 89 Croatian monolingual children using the Multilingual Assessment Instrument for Narratives (MAIN). At the microstructural level, the measure of lexical diversity D, clausal density, and mean length of clause were assessed. Macrostructure was assessed using the standardized MAIN scoring procedure. We found differences between the two age groups in lexical diversity, clausal density, and macrostructure, with eight-year-olds scoring higher on all measures. Variance in the macrostructure was explained to a significant extent by lexical diversity in the case of six-year-olds, and by both lexical diversity and clausal density in the case of eight-year-olds. Our results suggest that six-year-olds rely mostly on lexical abilities when telling a story, while eight-year-olds also draw on syntactic abilities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-16T00:00:00.000+00:00How does prosodic deficit impact naïve listeners recognition of emotion? An analysis with speakers affected by Parkinson’s disease<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to understand the impact of the prosodic deficit in Parkinson’s disease (PD) on the communicative effectiveness of vocal expression of emotion. Fourteen patients with PD and 13 healthy control subjects (HC) uttered the phrase “non è possible, non ora” (“It is not possible, not now”) six times reading different emotional narrations. Three experts evaluated the PD subjects’ vocal production in terms of their communicative effectiveness. The PD patients were divided into two groups: PD+ (with residual effectiveness) and PD− (with impaired effectiveness). The vocal productions were administered to 30 naïve listeners. They were requested to label the emotion they recognized and to make judgments about their communicative effectiveness. The PD speakers were perceived as less effective than the HC speakers in conveying emotions (especially fear and anger). The PD− group was the most impaired in the expression of emotion, suggesting that speech disorders impact differently at the same stage of the disease with varying degrees of severity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-06T00:00:00.000+00:00An extension of the QWERTY effect: Not just the right hand, expertise and typeability predict valence ratings of words<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Typing is a ubiquitous daily action for many individuals; yet, research on how these actions have changed our perception of language is limited. One such influence, deemed the QWERTY effect, is an increase in valence ratings for words typed more with the right hand on a traditional keyboard (Jasmin &amp; Casasanto, 2012). Although this finding is intuitively appealing given both right-handed dominance and the smaller number of letters typed with the right hand, an extension and replication of the right-side advantage is warranted. The present paper re-examined the QWERTY effect expanding to other embodied cognition variables (Barsalou, 1999). First, we found that the right-side advantage is replicable to new valence stimuli. Further, when examining expertise, right-side advantage interacted with typing speed and typeability (i.e., alternating hand key presses or finger switches), portraying that both skill and procedural actions play a role in judgment of valence on words.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Testing the impact of paraverbal irony signals. Experimental study on verbal irony identification in face-to-face and computer-mediated communication<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper reports the results of an experimental study with a between subject design (<italic>N</italic> = 122) whose aim was to compare irony comprehension rates in face-to-face (FTF) and computer-mediated communication (CMC), and examine the influence of paraverbal irony signals on irony identification rates. An irony comprehension test was intersemiotically translated to three conditions: FTF (<italic>n</italic> = 46), paraverbal signal-rich CMC (<italic>n</italic> = 30), and paraverbal signal-poor CMC (<italic>n</italic> = 46). The study adopted a relevance theoretic account of irony. There was a statistically significant difference between the signal-rich CMC and FTF conditions - irony identification rates were higher in the signal-rich CMC condition. The results are important since they suggest that paraverbal irony signals are not essential for correct irony identification if relevant contextual information is available, and the CMC medium is not only unlikely to be an obstacle in communicating the ironic intent, but with the addition of the medium-specific irony signals, may be significantly better.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Identity markers in the Internet usernames adopted by female users of a Persian public discussion forum: A sociolinguistic analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Drawing on the feminist poststructuralist perspective, the current study explored the usernames adopted by female users of Ninisite, that is, a Persian discussion forum, and aimed at identifying their identity markers. To this end, a corpus of 947 usernames in Ninisite was compiled. Using thematic analysis, the recurrent themes in the usernames were pinpointed, which led to the identification of six themes as identity markers, namely, gender, religion/ideology, ethnicity, occupation/profession, being humorous, and sense of uniqueness. With regard to the socioculturally unique context of Iran, a continuum of specificity versus generality can be observed in the usernames on Ninisite, with specificity emphasizing differences, sense of uniqueness, and individualization of the users, and generality highlighting neutrality, commonalities, and conventionality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Understanding gender bias toward physicians using online doctor reviews<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Gender bias continues to be an ongoing issue in the field of medicine. While bias may come in many forms, patients’ biases and perceptions have been understudied and may impact adherence to treatment, leading to unequal outcomes. Online reviews for doctors are a naturalistic way to study gender bias. In this study, we leveraged the LIWC psychological linguistic analysis tool to analyze the language styles of ZocDoc and RateMDs reviews and understand the potential role of gender in patients’ perceptions of their doctors. Mean differences were calculated using bootstrapped hierarchical linear modeling. We found that reviews for female physicians are generally more informal and emotional than those for male physicians. While our study was exploratory, the results suggest that both patients and physicians need to increase their awareness of how their biases may be affecting how they give and receive vital health information.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Stuttering frequency on content and function words in pre-school and school-age Jordanian Arabic-speaking children who stutter<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigated the influence of loci of content and function words on stuttering frequency in the speech of Arabic children who stutter. Participants were 85 children who stutter (24 preschool, 61 school age). The preschool children who stutter were 17 males and 7 females with a mean age of 4.58 ± 0.50 (range: 4-5 years old). The school age children who stutter were 56 males and 5 females with a mean age of 10.64 ± 2.76 (range: 6-16 years old). No significant difference was found between the preschool and school age children who stutter in the mean percentage of stuttering on both content and function words. For school age children who stutter, results showed a significantly higher percentage of stuttering on function words compared to content words in the mild level of stuttering (<italic>p</italic> = .010). Taking severity as a continuous variable, results indicated a significant positive correlation between scores on the Stuttering Severity Instrument-4 (SSI-4) and loci of stuttering on both content and function words. The results also revealed a significant negative correlation between age (as a continuous variable) and loci of stuttering in the category of function words. The findings of the current study provide new information about the impact of word type (function vs. content words) on stuttering in Arabic-speaking children.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Animals, foods, and household items—oh my! Evidence of 24-30-month-old children’s increasing flexibility in word learning from naturalistic data<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>At 18 months of age, children frequently generalize (and overgeneralize) novel objects’ labels by shape (Landau et al., 1988). However, data from laboratory studies using ostensive word-learning paradigms indicate that, by three years of age, children generalize the labels of novel objects depending on the objects’ perceptual characteristics and taxonomy (Lavin &amp; Hall, 2001; Jones et al., 1991). The current study sought to document this shift in children’s word-learning strategies using naturalistic data. We tracked children’s vocabularies over a six-month period of time (between 24-30 months of age) and classified their known words according to perceptual organization of the object categories to which they refer (e.g., shape-based, material-based). Children’s vocabulary sizes and rates of growth varied in meaningful ways between types of object categories and between the superordinate categories (e.g., animals, toys) to which the object categories belong. Findings carry implications for two popular accounts of vocabulary acquisition.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Editorial: Same mission, new standards integration of talk and note-taking<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper contributes to the current line of research that examines how participants interactionally engage in simultaneous multiple courses of actions. It looks into how institutional interactants jointly integrate two concurrent engagements: talk and note-taking. It builds upon video recordings of naturally occurring monitoring visits in Denmark, where social supervision representatives interview foster parents and facility leaders and simultaneously take notes on their laptop computers. Data suggest that talk and note-taking concur very commonly, that is, representatives take notes extensively while the other party talks. The paper investigates three factors that advance our knowledge about interactional reasons why this dual engagement can take place so commonly. First, when initiating concurring writing or talk, both parties orient towards simultaneous engagement in the two activities as appropriate. Second, whilst writing, representatives verbally display recipiency to talk, which prompt speakers to continue. Third, representatives frequently suspend the act of writing in order to briefly face the speakers, which they similarly treat as an encouragement to continue.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Lexical and morphological development: A case study of Malay English bilingual first language acquisition<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Many first language acquisition (FLA) studies have found a strong correlation between lexical and grammatical development in early language acquisition. For bilingual first language acquisition (BFLA), the development of grammar is also found to be correlated with the size of the lexicon in each language. This case study investigates how a Malay-English bilingual child developed the lexicon and grammar in each of her languages and considers possible evidence of interaction between the languages during acquisition. The study also aims to show that the predominant linguistic environment to which the child was alternatively exposed might have played an important role in her lexical and grammatical development. Thus, the study presents two sets of data: (a) a 12-month longitudinal investigation when the child was 2;10 up till 3;10 in Australia and (b) a one-off elicitation session at age 4;8 when the family was in Malaysia. The findings show that not only the emergence of grammar is linked to the lexical size of the developing languages, but that other variables, mainly the linguistic environment and the bilingual language mode, also influenced the child’s language productions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Managing patient aggression in healthcare: Initial testing of a communication accommodation theory intervention<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Patient-perpetrated workplace violence (WPV) in healthcare is common. Although communication skills trainings are helpful, they may be strengthened by having a theoretical framework to improve replicability across contexts. This study developed and conducted an initial test of a training framed by Communication Accommodation Theory (CAT) using longitudinal mixed-methods surveys of healthcare professionals in an American primary care clinic to increase their self-efficacy, patient cooperation, and use of CAT strategies to de-escalate patient aggression. Results of the intervention indicate that the CAT training significantly increased professionals’ efficacy and reported patient cooperation over time. Findings showed that those who reported using more of the five CAT strategies also reported situations that they were able to de-escalate effectively. This initial test of a CAT training to prevent WPV demonstrates promise for the applicability of CAT strategies to de-escalate patient aggression, and the need to scale and test these trainings in settings that experience high WPV levels.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Developing tolerance to eye contact in autism: A feasibility study with adults using behavioral, interview, and psychophysiological data<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Many individuals with autism report that eye contact makes them stressed or uncomfortable. Besides expressing their right to respect for neurodiverse ways of nonverbal communication, some autistic individuals also express the wish to improve their capacity to tolerate eye contact. In the current study, five autistic adults completed a 21- to 28-day computerized program that combines psychoeducation with graduated exposure to eye contact through photos. Interview data, questionnaires, gaze patterns, and psychophysiological measures indexing stress and arousal (pupillary and galvanic skin response levels) were collected to monitor and evaluate outcomes. At intake, discomfort resulting from eye contact in everyday life was described as overwhelming and multifaceted. Post-training data showed that observed increases in eye contact were not happening at the expense of heightened arousal. These results provide information about the (complex) nature of eye gaze discomfort in autism while pointing toward promising techniques to increase discomfort tolerance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Stepping up to Global Challenges (SGC): Empowering Students across the World<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Stepping up to Global Challenges (SGC) aimed to provide students with opportunities for language practice through task-based learning activities and the use of digital platforms for interaction. Marketing students at the Polytechnic of Viseu, Portugal, collaborated with peers from Poland and Turkey, choosing an image on entrepreneurship and posting it on the SGC Facebook page to solicit comments from their own and other groups. This was one of the tasks assigned during the 2nd semester of 2019/20, under the constraints of COVID-19. We analyzed the students’ choices, main difficulties, and motivation to persist in learning and improving their skills to share knowledge with (inter)national peers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Who is kissing whom? Two-year-olds’ comprehension of pronouns, case and word order<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Two-year olds’ comprehension of pronouns in transitive sentences was examined. Previously, children at this age have been shown to comprehend transitive sentences containing full nouns and pronouns in subject position (Gertner et. al. 2006; Hirsh-Pasek &amp; Golinkoff 1996;), but little is known about when children begin to comprehend the nominative and accusative case in pronouns. Using a preferential looking task, we found that 27-month-old children were able to comprehend transitive, grammatical sentences that had subject-verb-object (SVO) word order and nominative pronouns in subject position or accusative pronouns in object position, but 19-month-old children did not demonstrate this comprehension. Furthermore, neither group showed a consistent interpretation for ungrammatical sentences containing pronouns, in contrast to adult participants. Our results suggest that the ability to use pronouns as an aid to understanding transitive sentences develops by 27 months, before children are capable of producing these pronouns in their own speech.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-18T00:00:00.000+00:00The role of vocabulary knowledge on inference generation: A meta-analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Successful text comprehension results in a coherent mental model of the situation being described. To achieve this, the reader has to infer certain information by connecting parts of the text to their prior knowledge. An important construct involved in this process is vocabulary knowledge, usually divided into breadth and depth. We conducted a meta-analysis on 23 studies, and explored the fit of five different models to establish an effect size of both dimensions of vocabulary on inference making, as well as its developmental trajectory in children aged 3-12. We found a significant and moderate effect of vocabulary knowledge of both modalities. Vocabulary type was not a significant moderator, but age was, meaning that there was a similar effect for both breadth and depth and that the strength of the correlations decreased with age. Heterogeneity was high overall, meaning that more moderators should be assessed in future studies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-09T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1