rss_2.0Psychology of Language and Communication FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Psychology of Language and Communicationhttps://sciendo.com/journal/PLChttps://www.sciendo.comPsychology of Language and Communication Feedhttps://sciendo-parsed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6472807c215d2f6c89dca94f/cover-image.jpghttps://sciendo.com/journal/PLC140216Do words compete as we speak? A systematic review of picture-word interference (PWI) studies investigating the nature of lexical selectionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2024-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This review synthesizes findings from 117 studies that have manipulated various picture-word interference (PWI) task properties to establish whether semantic context effects reflect competitive word retrieval, or are driven by noncompetitive processes. Manipulations of several PWI task parameters (e.g., distractor visibility) have produced contradictory findings. Evidence derived from other manipulations (e.g., visual similarity between targets and distractors) has been scarce. Some of the manipulations that have furnished reliable effects (e.g., distractor taboo interference) do not discriminate between the rival theories. Interference from nonverbal distractors has been shown to be a genuine effect dependent on adequate lexicalization of interfering stimuli. This supports the swinging lexical network hypothesis and the selection-by-competition-with-competition-threshold hypothesis while undermining one of the assumptions of the response exclusion hypothesis. The contribution of pre-lexical processes, such as an interaction between distractor processing and conceptual encoding of the target to the overall semantic context effect is far from settled.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2024-00112024-06-30T00:00:00.000+00:00“I could not understand anything they said!”: Non-native English-speaking instructors, online learning, and student anxietyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2024-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Non-native English-speaking instructors often receive lower course evaluations and are criticized for their accents (Doubleday &amp; Lee, 2016; Rubin, 1992; Sanchez &amp; Khan, 2016; Subtirelu, 2015). This phenomenon has received much research attention in face-to-face classroom settings but less so in a distance education setting. The current study sought to determine if a lecture video with a non-native English-speaking instructor would cause more learner anxiety compared to a lecture video where the instructor had a standard American accent. The study also divided participants into high and low accented-speech experience groups. Participants in the study watched four videos, two with a non-native Englishspeaking instructor and the other two with an instructor with a Southern American English accent. After each video, participants were asked to recall questions about the information that they had just received before moving on to the following video. Participants were also given an anxiety scale to measure the anxiety they felt while listening to the lecture videos. Our findings indicated that participants with low second language experience had higher anxiety and worse recall performance in the non-native English speaking instructor condition. We also found that participants with high second language experience could potentially benefit from the non-native English speaking instructor’s video as they exhibited higher recall performance. Results from the current study have implications for distance education and pedagogical practices.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2024-00102024-06-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Mitigating acceptance and resistance in the fatwas on the ruling of learning Englishhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2024-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current study investigated fatwa discourse to reveal the attitudes and rulings of scholars towards English. In doing so, English and Arabic fatwas were analyzed employing modality. It was found that deontic auxiliary modals and similarly functioning markers were utilized to represent acceptance through median value modals to express obligation, for example, “should,” often followed by a justification, and low value modals to express permissibility, for example, “may.” Modality is also used to show resistance through a median value modal, such as “should” and “can.” The manipulation and power of such discourse are evident in the use of modality markers, including auxiliary, semi-auxiliary, and conditional modals. They function on the opposite poles of rulings, permissible and impermissible, to hedge permission and cast hesitation or uncertainty; yet, they show a lack of commitment on the part of the scholars to their fatwa, thus mitigating acceptance and resistance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2024-00092024-05-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Drawing on social approval as a linguistic strategy: A discourse semantic analysis of judgement evaluation in suspected online romance scammer dating profileshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2024-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Online romance fraud is a crime carried out largely using language, as the victim and scammer typically do not meet in person in their entire interaction. As a language-enabled crime, a linguistic analysis of scam communication can shed light on how language is used to attract victims and influence their thoughts and actions. This study examined the first stage in the online scam strategy, that is, the putting up of a dating profile (user biography) on online dating service websites. The analysis employs the judgement evaluation framework of appraisal theory to examine the extent to which scammer profiles differ from a set of general user profiles in terms of their use of social approval as a linguistic strategy to attract a more compliant victim type. Findings from the study can help in raising public awareness about how linguistic resources are employed in luring potential victims in scammer dating profiles.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2024-00082024-05-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Who lies to protect another? Motivational, behavioral, and socio-cognitive predictors of children’s interventional deceptionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2024-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of the current study was to examine how the expected rewards, theory of mind, and false praise-telling relate to interventional deception that prevents moral transgression. A sample of 114 children aged 4-7 years participated in the study. The expected rewards ratio was a statistically significant predictor of interventional deception, with the children being most likely to deceive to prevent moral transgressions when the deception involved high personal gain. Overall, children who gave false praise and who passed the hidden emotion task were more likely to deceive than those who told another individual an unpleasant truth and failed the emotion understanding task. The results are discussed with respect to diverse developmental conceptions and studies on prosocial behaviors and sociocognitive and cultural factors involved in deception.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2024-00072024-05-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Working Memory Capacity, TL Grammar Attainment and Length of Study as Predictors of Explicit and Implicit (Automatized) Knowledge of English Passive Voicehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2024-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigated the relationship between phonological short-term memory (PSTM), working memory capacity (WMC), and receptive and productive dimensions of explicit and implicit (automatized) knowledge of English passive voice, also taking into account the effect of grammar attainment and self-reported length of study. Participants were 152 Polish university students majoring in English. Two measures of PSTM and WMC were applied. Receptive and productive explicit knowledge were measured by means of an untimed grammaticality judgment test and a test requiring the provision of correct verb forms, respectively. Receptive implicit (automatized) knowledge was assessed with a timed grammaticality judgment test while its productive dimension was assessed through a focused communication task. Canonical correlation for the entire model was rather high, which means that the original variables were strongly related to each other. However, finer-grained analyses showed that it was primarily overall grammar attainment, and, to a lesser extent, WMC that determined the levels of explicit and implicit (automatized) grammar knowledge.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2024-00012024-01-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Phonetic imitation by young L2 learners: English VOTs for speakers of Polishhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2024-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Phonetic imitation, understood as adjustment of one’s pronunciation towards that of a model speaker, plays an important role in second language speech learning. The current study was intended to determine the degree to which young native Polish learners of English imitate native English models’ speech, with gender as a potential influencing factor. Thirty-four participants shadowed words with both voiceless /p, t, k/ and voiced /b, d, g/ consonants as onsets, which differ in terms of voice onset time (VOT) in the two languages. Having compared VOT measurements in three tasks, no significant differences were found for /p, t, k/, suggesting no imitation effect regardless of gender, and an apparent increase of prevoicing for /b, d, g/ in the imitation tasks. Some of the null results may be attributed to high baseline values and to the stimuli’s conflicting modalities. Noticeable variability in the data may have masked the true impact of imitative exposure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2024-00062024-04-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Prototypically American: The influence of accent and race on evaluation of job candidateshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2024-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Immigrants and racial minorities continue to face hiring discrimination. The current study examined the influence of accent, race, as well as perceived Americanness on hiring evaluations. White US adults (<italic>N</italic> = 375) were randomly assigned to one of six conditions based on two factors: (a) accent (standard versus foreign) and (b) race (White, Black, and Asian). Accented speakers were perceived to be less American and were subsequently less likely to be hired. However, this effect was stronger or only emerged for White and Black candidates. The perception and evaluation of the Asian candidate were not explained by perceived Americanness. Implications for being perceived as American are discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2024-00052024-04-06T00:00:00.000+00:00The impact of the COVID-19 quarantine on the estimated quality of parent-child interactions in Saudi Arabia: Parental perspectiveshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2024-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of the current study was to explore parental beliefs about the effect of the COVID-19 quarantine on the subjectively estimated quality of parent-child interactions as well as their beliefs about its impact on early childhood language development within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A cross-sectional observational study was conducted via an electronic survey. The study surveyed 439 parents of typical children aged between 24 and 60 months. The survey was distributed online to cover a wide range of participants across the KSA. Based on the parental subjective measure used in the current study, parent-child interactions and children's language skills had significantly increased during the quarantine (<italic>p</italic> &lt; .001). In conclusion, the study highlighted the important role of parents during the critical period of language development in promoting their children's speech and language skills.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2024-00042024-03-23T00:00:00.000+00:00The psychological focus of white house press secretaries during scandal: A case study of the Obama and Trump administrationshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2024-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This case study investigated how the language of White House press secretaries is modified by periods of scandal and by administration goals. We evaluated two administrations and their associated scandals: The Benghazi attack from the Obama administration and Russian election interference from the Trump administration. Results suggested the psychological and emotional focus of press secretaries changed during scandal compared to before scandal. That is, press secretaries had a more negative tone during each scandal compared to before each scandal. Contrary to prior evidence, time after scandal was not associated with a reduction in self-focus, and press secretary language patterns were largely not moderated by administration (nor their goals). Therefore, language patterns of press secretaries reveal their psychological and emotional processing during a scandal using naturally occurring and in-the-moment text data.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2024-00032024-02-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Replicating the comparison between item-based tests and language samples in Portuguese kindergarteners’ language assessmenthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2024-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current study aimed to examine the relationships between item-based tests and a narrative retelling by analyzing concurrent associations, regression coefficients, language progress, and sex differences. Thirty-one kindergarteners with typical language development were assessed at the beginning (<italic>M</italic><sub>age</sub> = 64.77 months) and the end of the school year. The statistically significant associations and predictive relations between the item-based tests and narrative retelling were scarce and occurred mainly at the same language level (words and sentences). Accordingly, language progression was mirrored differently by the two assessment conditions. Sex was not related to language skills. Overall, the results indicate these two kinds of tools assess different language constructs and should be used complementarily. Additionally, two relatively innovative trends emerged: errors produced in the narrative seem to be a good discriminative metric for this age range, and testing language by units (words and sentences) might be appropriate to assess language development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2024-00022024-02-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Working Memory Capacity, TL Grammar Attainment and Length of Study as Predictors of Explicit and Implicit (Automatized) Knowledge of English Passive Voicehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/plc-2024-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigated the relationship between phonological short-term memory (PSTM), working memory capacity (WMC), and receptive and productive dimensions of explicit and implicit (automatized) knowledge of English passive voice, also taking into account the effect of grammar attainment and self-reported length of study. Participants were 152 Polish university students majoring in English. Two measures of PSTM and WMC were applied. Receptive and productive explicit knowledge were measured by means of an untimed grammaticality judgment test and a test requiring the provision of correct verb forms, respectively. Receptive implicit (automatized) knowledge was assessed with a timed grammaticality judgment test while its productive dimension was assessed through a focused communication task. Canonical correlation for the entire model was rather high, which means that the original variables were strongly related to each other. However, finer-grained analyses showed that it was primarily overall grammar attainment, and, to a lesser extent, WMC that determined the levels of explicit and implicit (automatized) grammar knowledge.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/plc-2024-00012024-01-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Paternal Involvement and Attention Sharing in Interactions of Premature and Full-Term Infants with Fathers: A Brief Reporthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/plc-2014-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>ABSTRACT</title> <p>The aim of this study was to analyze possible links between paternal involvement and children’s competence in coordinated joint attention (CJA) in preterm versus full-term 12-month-old babies. Paternal involvement was measured through the amount of time fathers allocated to different activities with their infants, whereas children’s capacity for CJA was inferred on the basis of episodes of joint attention (EJA), empirically derived from father-infant interactions. Fifty-nine father-infant dyads participated in the study. Fatherinfant interactions in free-play situations, diaries of infant activities, and semi-structured family interviews were analyzed. Episodes of joint attention were more frequent in interactions of fathers with full-term babies in comparison to extremely premature babies, and in the case of preterm infants, in dyads with highly involved fathers as compared to those with a relatively low level of involvement.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/plc-2014-00192014-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Persuasion target-related variables and compliance resistance in different interpersonal influence situationshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2023-0022<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current study investigated compliance resistance in various interpersonal contexts. The 242 respondents who answered an online questionnaire were asked to recall a situation where they refused to comply with a request and to rate the degree of their compliance resistance. They also rated certain factors that were predicted to be related to noncompliance. Results indicated that the three dimensions of self-perceived credibility, intention to refuse compliance, and perceived control over refusal to comply had statistically significant correlations with compliance resistance. Two relational components—immediate interpersonal trust and relational closeness—also had statistically significant correlations with the strength of refusal to comply. Post hoc analysis demonstrated that four of the variables tested in the current study could serve as predictors of compliance resistance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2023-00222023-12-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Depth of vocabulary knowledge in dominant bilingual children with different language profiles: The impact of vocabulary size and verbal working memoryhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2023-0021<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current study investigated the depth of vocabulary knowledge (VK) through word definitions, examining the effect of word characteristics, breadth of VK, and verbal working memory (VWM). Forty children (11-12 years old) participated (12 Greek-Albanian children Greek-dominant, 14 Turkish-Greek children Turkish-dominant, and 14 monolinguals). An expressive vocabulary task (breadth of VK), a word definition task (depth of VK) in Greek, and a VWM task were administered. The results revealed that monolinguals had larger vocabulary than bilinguals in Greek. Greek-Albanian children had also larger vocabulary than Turkish-Greek bilinguals. In the VWM task, monolinguals had better abilities than Turkish-Greek bilinguals. Controlling for vocabulary and VWM, few differences emerged in definitional skills. In simple concrete nouns and compound verbs, Greek-Albanian children gave more formal definitions than monolingual children, exhibiting a bilingual advantage. Finally, breadth and depth of VK correlated with VWM only in Greek-Albanian and monolingual children, indicating the impact of vocabulary on VWM performance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2023-00212023-11-01T00:00:00.000+00:00A scientific communication mentoring intervention benefits diverse mentees with language variety related discomforthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2023-0020<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We studied social-psychological effects over time of a faculty-mentor workshop intervention that addressed attitudes associated with language variety and their impact on scientific communication (SC) skill development of PhD and postdoctoral STEM research trainees (<italic>N</italic> = 274). Six months after their mentors attended the workshop, all mentees had significant gains in productivity in speaking tasks. In particular, mentees with high language discomfort rated their quality of communication with their mentor and their enthusiasm about communicating more highly (<italic>p</italic> &lt; .05 for both measures), compared to mentees with low language discomfort. In addition, mentees raised speaking nonstandardized varieties of English reported significant reductions in discomfort related to language use (<italic>p</italic> = .003), compared to mentees raised speaking standardized English. We conclude that training mentors to understand and respond to language diversity and development results in multiple beneficial outcomes for mentees, including the amelioration of language-variety related discomfort in the research environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2023-00202023-10-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Are Polish CLIL learners more willing to communicate in English than non-CLIL learners?https://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2023-0019<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Willingness to communicate (WTC) is the probability that one will choose to initiate communication given the opportunity to do so. We investigated the second language (L2) WTC (L2WTC) in Polish teenagers aged 16-19 (<italic>N</italic> = 177) attending bilingual Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) and general English classes in the same Polish school. Using a tailor-made WTC questionnaire, we gathered data twice, before and after the summer holidays, assuming that WTC would depend on the time of testing. The results did not reveal high WTC in English in both groups, and the time of testing did not influence the results. Students’ age, but not gender, influenced the L2WTC, with older students being more willing to communicate than the younger ones. Contrary to expectations, L2WTC in the bilingual CLIL and non-CLIL groups did not differ. The findings suggest that the bilingual programmes in Polish secondary schools may not increase students’ WTC in English.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2023-00192023-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00A star is born? The German gender star and its effects on mental representationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2023-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Although generic masculine forms supposedly include everyone, they seem to evoke masculine representations to the exclusion of other genders (Stahlberg &amp; Sczesny, 2001). Gender-inclusive alternatives may yield more inclusive representations, but this has not been investigated extensively. The current study focused on German and contrasts generic masculine forms (<italic>Politiker</italic>, politicians) with the gender star (<italic>Politiker*innen</italic>, politicians [m/f/d]) in order to assess whether they differ in the mental availability of nonmasculine exemplars. The findings suggest that linguistic form matters, as more female exemplars were listed when participants were exposed to the gender star, although very few other nonmasculine exemplars were mentioned. Furthermore, female participants listed more nonmasculine exemplars than male participants, but, as the sample was skewed (more female than male participants), this result is tentative. Thus, the gender star leads to more inclusive mental representations, but other factors likely also play a role in determining the prominence of nonmasculine exemplars.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2023-00182023-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Twitter language samples reflect collective emotional responses following political leaders’ rhetoric during the pandemic across four countrieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2023-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>During the Covid-19 pandemic, the global public has relied on their political leaders to guide them through the crisis. The current study investigated if and how political leader’s rhetoric would be associated with collective emotional responses. We used text analytical methods to investigate association between political leader speech and daily aggregates of expressed emotions on Twitter. We collected posts concerning Covid-19 and all speeches by the highest executive power from the USA, UK, Germany, and Switzerland. We applied cross-lagged time series analyses. Political leaders whose communication was more analytic and communal corresponded to increased positivity on Twitter. Collective communal focus, in turn, increased after speeches which were more analytic and negative. Processes of socio-affective dynamics between political leaders and the general public are apparent. Our findings demonstrate that political leaders who present public crises competently and with a sense of community are associated with more positive responses on Twitter.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2023-00172023-08-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Online health information-seeking experiences during the COVID-19 lockdown among social media users in four countrieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2023-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Most countries imposed lockdown restrictions on high-risk cities due to the coronavirus (COVID-19) disease. Although individuals adopted social media use during the lockdown, it is unclear how online information-seeking experiences affected their health and quality of life. We conducted an online survey among people living in cities in Ghana, India, Indonesia, and Pakistan that were affected by lockdown restrictions. Using Colaizzi’s method, we thematically analyzed 166 participants’ (males = 93, females = 73) online text responses. We observed that uncertainties about COVID-19 and the feeling of boredom predisposed participants to become victims of misinformation. Once they were misinformed, they felt anxious about COVID-19. Consequently, some overused social media to obtain additional information while others decreased or avoided its usage entirely. Our study provides insight into a recent global phenomenon. There is a need for adequate psychological support services through social media to lessen the use of unhealthy coping mechanisms.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.58734/plc-2023-00162023-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1