rss_2.0Rural Sustainability Research FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Rural Sustainability Research Sustainability Research Feed Composition of Soybean Harvested in Different Stages of Maturity and Its Suitability for Forage Production<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Climatic conditions for soybean cultivation in Latvia are challenging because of their variability. In addition, the sum of sunlight hours and the ratio of temperature and precipitation required to produce a quality crop are unpredictable. There is a risk that even early soybean varieties will not ripen due to weather conditions in a region. Studies show that soybean plants, including the green part of the crop, are well suited for animal nutrition prepared as hay or silage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition of different soybean varieties harvested before ripening and assess them as hay or silage raw material. Weight, protein, fat, ash, fibre, acid detergent fibre (ADF) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) of soybean varieties ‘Erica’, ‘Bolgar’ and ‘Viola’ green mass were determined at different stages of maturity. The results of the study showed a significant increase in protein (from 9.18% to 12.06%) and fat (from 1.18% to 4.40%) content of the dry matter variety ‘Bolgar’ from September to October. The protein content of the dry soya green mass was not affected by variety at the same developing stage but significantly changed among different stages of maturity. As the plant develops, the sucrose content in the green mass increases, the same as the total sugar content.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue as wheat flour substitute in gluten-free pastry cream<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Pastry cream contains wheat flour, which is not suitable for celiac patients who require a gluten-free diet. Potatoes are known as a good source of starch, minerals and vitamins. They also contain protein, dietary fibre and various phytochemicals. Their addition to pastry cream can both serve as a texturising agent and enrich the nutritional value of the final product. This study aimed to evaluate the suitability of potatoes as a replacement for wheat flour in pastry cream. For study purposes, the physicochemical attributes of eleven potato varieties were evaluated. Among other varieties, the boiled potato variety Gala exhibited higher fibre, fat, phosphorus and potassium content; however, significantly higher protein (12.48 ± 0.08 g 100 g<sup>−1</sup> DW) and iron (3.12 ± 0.02 g 100 g<sup>−1</sup> DW) content. Higher antiradical activity (18.72 ± 0.74 mM TE 100<sup>−1</sup> g DW) was detected in potatoes of the variety Blue Congo. After preliminary investigation, wheat flour was replaced with mashed potatoes, making up 30% of the cream weight, and its impact on the pastry cream was studied. It was established that potatoes had a significant effect on pastry cream colour and texture. American Rose, Imanta, Rigonda and Viviana were selected as the most suitable from the eleven varieties tested. The addition of potatoes in pastry cream doubled its fibre and potassium content, whereas, other changes in nutritional value of the creams were variety dependent.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Different View on the Country’s Sustainable Development Indicators – Latvia’s Example<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The contemporary scientific and technical community claims that the new development paradigm will be based on the priority of the universal laws of nature, the principles of ecological economics and the widespread use of digital transformation. The analysis of the sustainable development strategy Latvia 2030 and the presented changes in the value of indicators showed that, it is quite difficult to put together a common unified picture of Latvia’s movement towards sustainable development. The main goal of the article is to present a new approach to the assessment of sustainable development and to monitoring system, using a system’s power changes analysis method. In the context of a Latvian sustainable development strategy, the authors presented the results of the formalisation of new approach to the sustainable development monitoring, using an invariant coordinate system in units of power (energy flow) in compare with calculated data in monetary terms. Calculations and the initial interpretation of the results of Latvia as well as of the five EU countries from the Baltic Sea region – Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Estonia and Lithuania – were carried out for the period 1990.-2019. The presented indicators of sustainable development show that achieving the strategic goals of Latvia 2030 would be very difficult without any serious internal and external incentives. The results can provide a basis for creation of the development strategy both the country as a whole and each region separately.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Absorption Properties of the Patented Wood, Lightweight Stabilised Blockboard<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>It is well known that wood tends to shrink and swell as the relative humidity of the air changes. There have been, and still are, attempts to make dimensionally stable wood panels such as Dendrolight<sup>®</sup>. The physical-mechanical, operational, including acoustic, properties of this material have been significantly improved compared to traditional wood-based panels. However, the production of this material requires very specific processing equipment and a large energy investment. The developers of this material in Latvia invented and patented wood, Lightweight Stabilised Blockboard (LSB). In order for this material to be used in the production of various products, it is necessary to clarify its characteristic, technological, as well as operational properties. The study gathers information about the sound absorption properties of various natural and wood materials, characteristics, and the sound absorption of the studied material at different sound frequencies. The reviewed sources of information indicate that nowadays there are still problems in sound conduction and absorption and isolation issues are being addressed in building acoustics. The production of samples and the determination of sound absorption were carried out using a developed methodology developed in accordance with regulatory requirements. The data obtained in the practical study were compared with the relevant indicators of the Dendrolight<sup>®</sup> and wood-based panels used for building structures and to determine their compliance with the requirements set forth in the standards ISO 10534-2 and ISO 11654. Research data show that LSB corresponds to E sound absorption class in some of the investigated frequencies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Comparison of Maximum Permissible Concentrations for Pesticides in Brazilian Water Supply<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Pesticides have been used for a long time in agriculture to prevent the growth of undesired organisms. However, depending on the type of production (i.e., conventional, organic, and regenerative), they might not be applied. Adequate types and uses of pesticides should not cause any damage to any non-target species or environments due to the exposure to it, especially if all farming operations have been done properly. Reversely, when pesticides are applied in inappropriate time, amount or technique, they may cause several impacts, among which is water contamination. Brazil stands out worldwide for its agricultural potential, but it is exposed to risks concerning the water supply security to its population. The current study is a comparison of the Maximum Permissible Concentrations (MPC) for pesticides in potable water supply in Brazil with the values set in the United States, Canada, European Union countries, Japan, and the guidelines issued by the World Health Organization. The regulations of each country were used, as well as the trading, consumption and agricultural production data. The Brazilian regulation is the one accounting for the largest number of pesticides. However, their MPC is 5,000 times more permissible than that from the European Union for the herbicide known as glyphosate, 300 times than that for 2,4-d and 20 times than that for atrazine. Finally, it was possible to observe the relevance of revising the regulation and public policies in place to minimize the indiscriminate use of pesticides in Brazil and adapt these compounds to the standards in a global level.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue to agricultural products diversification: An empirical analysis from lotus farming in Central Vietnam<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Poverty alleviation, employment creation, environmental conservation and income augmentation can be transformed based on agricultural diversification. Lotus farming is considered as a solution to improve income and livelihood for smallholder farmers. Many different products and values can be explored from lotus farming including lotus flower, lotus root, lotus seed, lotus fiber, as well as combining ecotourism. But many barriers are preventing the lotus products diversification of lotus growers. This study will provide a better understanding of lotus farming and explore the barriers to lotus products diversification and causes of these barriers. Phong Dien district, central Vietnam was selected as a case study. The qualitative research was applied through 54 semi-structured interviews including lotus growers, lotus buyers and officers of local government, as well as one focus-group discussion, observation method and secondary data from statistical data and reports were also conducted. The research findings indicated that there is a big gap between lotus products diversification of lotus growers and available lotus products on the market. Lotus growers only grow and sell raw products, of which, fresh unshelled lotus seed is the main product. Lack of knowledge, worries on loss, lack of market and market information, lack of labour and machines and traditional production habits are main determinants of the barriers. Characteristics of lotus seed, high production and monopoly of collectors are different features in barriers to lotus product diversification compared to other crop diversification.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue on Potential Pests of Japanese Quince ( (Thunb.) Lindl. ex Spach) in Latvia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of this research was to study potential pests of Japanese quince (<italic>Chaenomeles japonica</italic>) plantations in Latvia. Studies were carried out in eight plantations during 2017–2019. Major pests that would regularly cause significant yield losses for this plant were not observed. Black-veined white (<italic>Aporia crataegi</italic>) was considered a local pest, mass outbreaks of which can occur in individual plantations and cause significant losses of plant foliage. Four species were considered minor pests: garden chafer (<italic>Phyllopertha horticola</italic>), yellow-banded weevil (<italic>Chlorophanus viridis</italic>), silver-green weevil (<italic>Phyllobius argentatus</italic>) and copse snail (<italic>Arianta arbustorum</italic>); they are also pests of plant foliage. The European red spider mite (<italic>Panonychus ulmi</italic>) was not considered as a pest of Japanese quince. A small population was observed in summers only in one plantation, which was located next to a heavily infested orchard. Overwintering eggs were not found on the plants in any year, and we concluded that the species was an accidental immigrant in this plantation. No aphid (Aphididae) colonies were observed on the quince plants. Monitoring and evaluation of potential harmfulness of four tortrix moths – large fruit-tree tortrix (<italic>Archips podana</italic>), rose tortrix (<italic>Archips rosana</italic>), codling moth (<italic>Cydia pomonella</italic>) and holly tortrix (<italic>Rhopobota naevana</italic>) – was done. It was concluded that rose tortrix is a minor fruit pest, but the other three species were not yet considered pests of Japanese quince. Significant pests of quince flowers and fruits were not detected in our study.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Sustainability Aspects in Short Food Supply Chains: the Views of Organic Farmers and Consumers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Globally, food systems are the most significant cause of environmental change; therefore, efforts to create more environmentally sustainable food systems are presented. One of the directions is strengthening the local actors and short food supply chains. Simultaneously, changes in farming systems are needed, and organic agriculture is one of the ways to make food systems more environmentally sustainable. Despite the abundance of research on the environmental consciousness of consumers in short food supply chains, the question is raised whether local food chain farmers are also committed to environmental sustainability. Therefore, this paper aims to explore the importance of environmental sustainability to organic short food supply chain actors. More specifically, the research depicts the views of organic farmers and consumers and their relation to the actual environmental sustainability of short food supply chains. During the research, a specific short food supply chain – a direct purchasing network – was explored. A qualitative approach was applied to reach the aim. Thus, in-depth interviews and observations were used as a research method. The research results demonstrated the views of farmers and consumers of the specific network regarding environmental sustainability aspects in the network. In the research, such environmental aspects as the circularity of resources, biodiversity, chemicals in the environment, seasonality and locality of diets, and the distance (food miles) were admitted as crucial ones by the specific short food supply chain actors. The differences in opinions of consumers and farmers emerged when thinking about the scale of their views.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Influencing Work-Related Attitudes of Top Managers: An Expert Perspective<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This research in progress paper investigates the multifaceted factors shaping the work-related attitudes of top managers in organizations with a focus on Germany. Through in-depth interviews with seasoned experts, it reveals crucial work attitudes, examines the impact of interpersonal and procedural factors, and evaluates information’s role in the principal-agent relationship at top management levels. The findings challenge conventional assumptions, providing different perspectives on leadership and highlighting the evolving nature of management practices in the digital age. The study also explores potential differences between top IT managers and other C-level roles, investigating their implications.</p> <p>The results of this research based on expert interviews are used in a broader context of research to triangulate literature analysis findings and quantitative surveys in order to develop a comprehensive understanding of factors influencing top managers’ work attitudes. Semi-structured expert interviews were conducted to gain a comprehensive perspective on the influencing factors of work attitudes in top management functions. Six German experts participated, bringing diverse backgrounds and affiliations with professional associations. Despite varied perspectives, universal importance was identified in key work attitudes, challenging assumptions of significant differences between employer and employee representatives. A novel contrast between hierarchical and broader perspectives within owner and worker associations emerged, suggesting a need for a more comprehensive understanding of management approaches. Additionally, interpersonal factors in leadership, information flow, trust-building, were highlighted as contributions. Furthermore, distinctions and commonalities between IT management and other top managerial roles were identified. This study both confirms existing knowledge and introduces valuable insights to management science, potentially shaping future research and practices.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Transport Route Planning Based on Fair Mobility Budget<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A series of initiatives have been adopted in the European Union to address greenhouse gas emissions and establish a society that is resilient to climate change. In response to these initiatives, the implementation of mobility budgets offers a more precise strategy for addressing carbon footprints associated with travel. Prioritizing localized carbon footprint control, mobility budgets are calculated and customized according to distinct regions, goals, and target demographics. When prioritizing the mobility budget as the central objective in municipal transport route planning, the focus should encompass principles of fairness and equity in travel. This entails considering factors such as accessibility, variety of mobility choices, inclusivity of transportation modes, and social justice. Therefore, this article aims to formulate an enhanced activity modelling methodology that would aid data-driven decision-making in municipal transport route planning, while upholding the principles of travel fairness and equity. Тhe results obtained from scrutinizing data related to public bus services and mobile networks are presented. The evaluation of Jelgava’s city transportation network to facilitate mobility budget reduction is undertaken, and this assessment is based on an analysis of data derived from a survey on public transport use coupled with an examination of the city’s mobility budget. The research presents the communication challenges that municipalities will face in planning and implementing changes that are needed to meet the greenhouse gas emission targets and outlines the possible use of visualization tools for modelling, explanation and communication of scenarios.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Fatty Acid Composition in Amaranth Pasta Developed for a Vegan Diet<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Consumers’ growing demand for vegan products creates a need for new nutrient-dense products. Amaranth seeds are characterised as a nutritious product due to the content of proteins, fats, etc. Considering the high-quality fats and their amount in amaranth seeds, the aim of this study was to analyse the profile of fatty acids in amaranth pasta which was developed for a vegan diet. Seven samples: amaranth, amaranth-oat, and amaranth-buckwheat pasta in different ratios, were analysed in the study. The preparation of samples for analysis was carried out according to LVS EN ISO 6498:2012; fatty acid composition was determined using the GC/MS analytic method.</p> <p>The highest total fat content was determined in the amaranth pasta – 5453.62 mg 100 g<sup>−1</sup> of product, followed by the amaranth-oat pasta (85%/15%) – 4988.14 mg 100 g<sup>−1</sup> of product and amaranth-oat pasta (70%/30%) – 4772.93 mg 100 g<sup>−1</sup> of product. In the developed pasta samples, over 70% of total fat was unsaturated fatty acids and more than one-third of total fat was PUFA. The highest PUFA/SFA ratio was determined for amaranthoat pasta (70%/30%), amaranth-buckwheat pasta (85%/15%), and amaranth-buckwheat pasta (70%/30%). Quantitatively, the essential fatty acids were oleic acid, linoleic acid, and palmitic acid. The triterpene squalene was detected with a probability of 90% in all amaranth, amaranth-oat, and amaranth-buckwheat pasta samples. The developed pasta for a vegan diet contains good-quality fat.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Fungicide Treatment Schemes on the Severity of Leaf Blotches in Winter Wheat<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The common control method of leaf blotches is the application of fungicides; however, the results of trials are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of the fungicide treatment intensity on the severity of leaf blotches and to assess the correlation between the development of diseases and winter wheat (<italic>Triticum aestivum</italic>) yield in 2018–2021. The development of diseases was evaluated regularly. In this study, the severity of leaf blotches at the medium milk ripening (GS 75–77) was used. Tan spot dominated in 2018, 2019, and 2021, but Septoria tritici blotch dominated in 2020. Fungicides significantly decreased the severity of tan spot and Septoria tritici blotch, but the efficacy of used fungicide treatment schemes differed during trial years – it was more pronounced under higher pressures of leaf blotches. In the year with a high severity of Septoria tritici blotch, the best efficacy was obtained when fungicide was used two times (at GS 32–33 and GS 55–59), but for tan spot – when the dose of fungicide was done in two or three applications. Usage of fungicides increased wheat yield only under high pressure of diseases. A strong significant correlation between the severity of Septoria tritici blotch at GS 75–77 and grain yields was established only in 2020, when the severity of the disease was higher.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Analysis of 81 Feline Lymphoma Cases Diagnosed in Surgical Biopsies in Latvia (2011-2020)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Lymphoma (also known as lymphosarcoma) is a malignant tumor accounting for 20-30% of all neoplasms in cats. There have been no previous studies summarizing trends and characteristics of feline lymphoma in Latvia. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of feline lymphoma cases among biopsy submissions to a private veterinary pathology service in Latvia. Data were retrieved by selecting records from Latvian cats diagnosed with lymphoma between 2011 and 2020, including signalment, clinical history, and type of lymphoma (anatomical classification, cellular morphology). In the 10-year period, the mean prevalence of lymphoma among feline biopsy submissions was 4.8% (range 1.9 – 7.2) without upwards trend. Lymphoma was most common in mixed breed (67%), middle-aged (median 8 years) cats with a slight male predominance (56%). Among purebred cats the development of lymphomas was observed at an earlier age. The predominant anatomical type was alimentary lymphoma (53%) followed by extranodal (38%) and multicentric (7%) lymphoma. Majority of alimentary lymphomas were in the small intestine (73%) and 88% of gastrointestinal lymphomas were transmural with remaining cases limited to mucosa (12%). Overall, representation of anatomical types of lymphoma in Latvian cats was similar to those reported elsewhere; however, the subset of intestinal mucosal lymphoma in our study was underrepresented. This finding suggests that until 2021 intestinal mucosal lymphoma was uncommonly considered as a differential diagnosis for cats with enteritis therefore biopsies from such cats were not performed. This study will help Latvian veterinarians to improve diagnostic work-up of lymphoma cases.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Characterisation of Pigments from Pigment-producing Microorganisms Isolated from Environment and Their Antibacterial Activity<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the food industry, there is always a demand for food products which are colourful, have an attractive appearance, and also have nutritional and health-enhancing properties to attract the attention of consumers. Synthetic pigments are widely used in the global market, however, they can cause many side effects such as hyperallergenicity, carcinogenicity and other toxicological problems. Recent studies have revealed that microorganisms are an abundant source of natural colours that allow the industrial production of safe, environmentally friendly biodegradable pigments. The aim of the work was to isolate pigmented microorganisms from environmental samples, select fermentation conditions, isolate pigments from microorganisms and check their antimicrobial activity. Pigments have been isolated from various sources such as soil, food waste, flour, etc. Growth parameters of pigment-producing microorganisms such as growth temperature, pH, tryptone and NaCl concentration in the medium were optimised to evaluate pigment production. After fermentation, five types of pigments were isolated by cell lysis with an ultrasonic bath and solvent extraction. The antimicrobial activity of the extracted pigments was investigated. During the study, the optimal conditions for the growth of microorganisms were determined: temperature of 30 °C, pH of 7, concentration of 3% tryptone and 6% NaCl in the culture medium. Glycerol was found as an additional carbon source, which had a positive effect on pigments production. The results of the antibacterial effect of the extracted pigments showed that <italic>P. aeruginosa</italic> was the most sensitive to the effect of the pigments. The pink-red pigment showed the highest antimicrobial activity against the tested pathogenic bacteria.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Quality Evaluation of Fresh-Cut Rosemary (L.) Packed and Stored in Biodеgradаblе Film<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fresh-cut herbs satisfy consumer demand owing to the convenience of buying them in food shopping malls as quickly accessible products. Food packaging has an important role in the food industry nowadays, because it helps to preserve the quality of fresh-cut food products at the production and sales sites and provides safety during storage. The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality changes of fresh-cut rosemary packed and stored in biodegradable film packaging. Rosemary has been packed in several materials – two biodegradable packaging materials, NatureFlex<sup>TM</sup> NVS INNOVIA film, Nature Works<italic>®</italic> PLA P-360 containers with hermetically pressed PLA cap and “breathable” conventional BOPP Propafilm<sup>TM</sup> P2GAF film. The samples were analysed over time at 0, 3, 5, 8, 10 and 12 days of storage at a temperature of +5 ±1 °C in terms of physicochemical quality: O<sub>2</sub> and CO<sub>2</sub> concentration, mass loss, pH, content of soluble solids (ºBrix) and tested sensory evaluation. The analysis of the obtained results showed that the cellulose based biodegradable NatureFlex<sup>TM</sup> NVS INNOVIA film was a good way to prolong the storage time of fresh-cut rosemary and ensure sensory quality and high physiochemical quality during the preservation period.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Coating on Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Puffed Wheat Grains<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Durum wheat (<italic>Triticum turgidum</italic>) is used for the production of various ready-to-eat products such as breakfast cereals, puffed grains, and extruded products. Technological processes of grain processing and the addition of different ingredients cause changes in the physical and chemical properties of the product, which give puffed grains a unique porous structure and change their nutritional value. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of coating on the physico-chemical characteristics of puffed wheat grains depending on the coating material. The study revealed that the application of coating increased dry matter and thousand-kernel weight (TKW). Water activity decreased in puffed grain without coating (BZ), and puffed grain with whey powder (MC) compared to wheat grain. The reduction in the moisture content increased the crispiness of product. Application of coating led to a decrease in the hardness of both MC and puffed wheat grain with vanillin and sugar (BV). Applying additives to the product’s surface led to a decrease in the water absorption index (WAI). The water solubility index (WSI) increased in the MC and BV samples. Samples BZ, BV and MC had higher L* (lightness) values than wheat grains because the puffing process expanded the cells, confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, and caused starch gelatinisation. The a* (redness) value of wheat was greater than that of BZ, BV and MC, which may be due to the partial removal of the outer layer of wheat grains. The milled samples of BZ, BV and MC were slightly darker, having lower L* values, compared to unprocessed wheat grain.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Milk as Medium for Lactic Acid Bacteria Growth: a Review<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In recent years, the demand for organic fermented dairy products has been growing. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are of major interest in the food industry due to their ability to form the quality and functionality of fermented products. A significantly higher LAB cell count is presented in organic (ORG) fermented products such as yoghurt and kefir, than their conventional (CONV) counterparts. There is still a lack of information on the possible explanation and evidence of ORG milk as a better medium for LAB growth. The aim of the present review is to summarise the results of research articles on the milk compounds and their effect on LAB growth, and to identify differences between ORG and CONV milk that may provide a plausible explanation for their influence on LAB growth in ORG milk. The monographic method was used in this study. According to the previous research, significant differences were established in a content and range of carbohydrates, nitrogen sources, fats, macroelements and microelements, as well bioactive compounds in ORG and CONV milk. The composition of ORG milk may have potential benefits for the development of LAB due to the higher concentration of peptides and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in it.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Pine Cone Syrups and Changes in Physical Parameters during Storage<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There is an increasing demand for natural and healthy food products that play a multifunctional role in human diet. Pine cone syrup has long been known and used for its medicinal purposes. As part of the research, a syrup was developed from green pine cones, which can be used not only in cases of colds, but also in everyday life. The aim of the research was to evaluate different pine cone syrups produced by brown and white sugar and analyse their physical parameter changes during storage. Syrups were characterised by volatile compounds and their changes depending on the type of sugar used. The content of soluble solids, pH, viscosity and titratable acid during storage were analysed as well. A total of 33 volatile compounds were detected in syrup made with white sugar (SWS) and 36 in syrup with brown sugar (SBS). Of the compounds detected, sample SWS was characterised more by compounds giving a pine and resinous aroma, while sample SBS was characterised by a pine and citrus aroma. The determination of the soluble solids content of syrups, irrespective of the type of sugar chosen, using the t test analysis there is no significant differences (p&gt;0.05). The average soluble solids of 63.2 ± 0.6 °Bx for sample SBS and 62.7 ± 0.6 °Bx for sample SWS, complies with the legislation on soluble solids content of syrups (62 °Bx). No significant difference was found between sample pH, which for both samples was 3.5. Sample SBS on average had a higher viscosity (0.102 ± 0.001 Pa s) than sample SWS (0.09 ± 0.001 Pa s) and it was noticed that the sample became more viscous during storage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Acid Composition of Different Breed Goat Milk<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The chemical composition of goat milk, especially fatty acid profile is recently renewed due to the role of monosaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in human nutrition. These nutrients are important to analysed in connection with the different breeds receiving the same breeding and feed. The aim of this study was to analyse goat milk fatty acid profile in relation to different breeds.</p> <p>Specimens for fatty acid analyses were collected from individual animals of breeds like Latvian Native (n=5), Saanen (n=5), and crossbreeds (n=5). Bulk milk samples (n=5) were also taken for milk quality testing and fatty acid range determination. Fat content was analysed according to ISO 1211:2011 and fatty acids were measured with the chromatographic method. Protein, lactose, casein and urea concentration was analysed according to ISO 13366-2:2007 and somatic cell count to ISO 9622/IDF141:2013.</p> <p>The highest fat concentration was determined in crossbreed milk samples (3.81 g 100 g<sup>−1</sup>) and the lowest (2.96 g 100 g<sup>−1</sup>) in the Latvian Native breed goat milk samples. The highest butyric acid (0.12 g 100 g<sup>−1</sup>) and caproic acid (0.12 g 100 g<sup>−1</sup>) concentration was established in Saanen goat milk samples. Compared to other breeds, the milk of the Latvian Native breed goats is characterised by a higher capric acid (0.20 g 100 g<sup>−1</sup>) concentration, while a higher concentration of total unsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids was detected in the samples of crossbreed goat milk. The average fatty acid composition of bulk milk samples was 68% for saturated fatty acids, 23% for monosaturated fatty acids and 4.3% for polyunsaturated fatty acids. In analysed goat milk samples, fatty acids showed the characteristic fatty acid profile of goat milk.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Storage Period on Acid Value and Sensory Attributes of Puffed Wheat Grains ‘Badyrak Vanilla’ and ‘Badyrak with Whey’<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Puffed grains made from whole wheat, corn or rice grains are ready-to-eat breakfast cereals that do not require additional preparation. Two recipes for puffed grain coatings were developed in the previous studies. Sunflower oil was used in the coating, which may affect storage stability. Due to lipid hydrolysis, free fatty acids may be released, causing rancid off-flavour. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the acid value of lipids and sensory attributes of sweet-coated puffed wheat grains ‘Badyrak vanilla’ (BV) and ‘Badyrak with whey’ (MC) depending on temperature during their eight-month storage. The products were packaged in metallised polypropylene pouches, 30 g each. The acid value was studied monthly at different storage temperatures (20 ± 2 °С and 4 ± 2 °С). In puffed wheat grain products, 65% of fatty acids are polyunsaturated, 25% monounsaturated, and 10% saturated. The high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids over saturated makes oil more susceptible to oxidation. Literature studies and sensory evaluation of puffed wheat grains allowed setting a limiting acid value at 4.0 mg KOH g<sup>−1</sup> lipids. The increase in acid value was storage temperature dependent. Thus, the acid value exceeded the established limit in the fifth month for MC and the sixth month for BV when stored at 20 ± 2 °С. At the same time, noticeable changes in puffed wheat grain flavour were observed. The temperature coefficient (Q<sub>10</sub>) for MC was 2.0, whereas for BV it was 1.5, indicating that the acid value increase in MC was more affected by temperature than that in BV.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue