rss_2.0Rural Sustainability Research FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Rural Sustainability Research Sustainability Research Feed of Fatty Acid Composition in Amaranth Pasta Developed for a Vegan Diet<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Consumers’ growing demand for vegan products creates a need for new nutrient-dense products. Amaranth seeds are characterised as a nutritious product due to the content of proteins, fats, etc. Considering the high-quality fats and their amount in amaranth seeds, the aim of this study was to analyse the profile of fatty acids in amaranth pasta which was developed for a vegan diet. Seven samples: amaranth, amaranth-oat, and amaranth-buckwheat pasta in different ratios, were analysed in the study. The preparation of samples for analysis was carried out according to LVS EN ISO 6498:2012; fatty acid composition was determined using the GC/MS analytic method.</p> <p>The highest total fat content was determined in the amaranth pasta – 5453.62 mg 100 g<sup>−1</sup> of product, followed by the amaranth-oat pasta (85%/15%) – 4988.14 mg 100 g<sup>−1</sup> of product and amaranth-oat pasta (70%/30%) – 4772.93 mg 100 g<sup>−1</sup> of product. In the developed pasta samples, over 70% of total fat was unsaturated fatty acids and more than one-third of total fat was PUFA. The highest PUFA/SFA ratio was determined for amaranthoat pasta (70%/30%), amaranth-buckwheat pasta (85%/15%), and amaranth-buckwheat pasta (70%/30%). Quantitatively, the essential fatty acids were oleic acid, linoleic acid, and palmitic acid. The triterpene squalene was detected with a probability of 90% in all amaranth, amaranth-oat, and amaranth-buckwheat pasta samples. The developed pasta for a vegan diet contains good-quality fat.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Fungicide Treatment Schemes on the Severity of Leaf Blotches in Winter Wheat<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The common control method of leaf blotches is the application of fungicides; however, the results of trials are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of the fungicide treatment intensity on the severity of leaf blotches and to assess the correlation between the development of diseases and winter wheat (<italic>Triticum aestivum</italic>) yield in 2018–2021. The development of diseases was evaluated regularly. In this study, the severity of leaf blotches at the medium milk ripening (GS 75–77) was used. Tan spot dominated in 2018, 2019, and 2021, but Septoria tritici blotch dominated in 2020. Fungicides significantly decreased the severity of tan spot and Septoria tritici blotch, but the efficacy of used fungicide treatment schemes differed during trial years – it was more pronounced under higher pressures of leaf blotches. In the year with a high severity of Septoria tritici blotch, the best efficacy was obtained when fungicide was used two times (at GS 32–33 and GS 55–59), but for tan spot – when the dose of fungicide was done in two or three applications. Usage of fungicides increased wheat yield only under high pressure of diseases. A strong significant correlation between the severity of Septoria tritici blotch at GS 75–77 and grain yields was established only in 2020, when the severity of the disease was higher.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Analysis of 81 Feline Lymphoma Cases Diagnosed in Surgical Biopsies in Latvia (2011-2020)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Lymphoma (also known as lymphosarcoma) is a malignant tumor accounting for 20-30% of all neoplasms in cats. There have been no previous studies summarizing trends and characteristics of feline lymphoma in Latvia. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of feline lymphoma cases among biopsy submissions to a private veterinary pathology service in Latvia. Data were retrieved by selecting records from Latvian cats diagnosed with lymphoma between 2011 and 2020, including signalment, clinical history, and type of lymphoma (anatomical classification, cellular morphology). In the 10-year period, the mean prevalence of lymphoma among feline biopsy submissions was 4.8% (range 1.9 – 7.2) without upwards trend. Lymphoma was most common in mixed breed (67%), middle-aged (median 8 years) cats with a slight male predominance (56%). Among purebred cats the development of lymphomas was observed at an earlier age. The predominant anatomical type was alimentary lymphoma (53%) followed by extranodal (38%) and multicentric (7%) lymphoma. Majority of alimentary lymphomas were in the small intestine (73%) and 88% of gastrointestinal lymphomas were transmural with remaining cases limited to mucosa (12%). Overall, representation of anatomical types of lymphoma in Latvian cats was similar to those reported elsewhere; however, the subset of intestinal mucosal lymphoma in our study was underrepresented. This finding suggests that until 2021 intestinal mucosal lymphoma was uncommonly considered as a differential diagnosis for cats with enteritis therefore biopsies from such cats were not performed. This study will help Latvian veterinarians to improve diagnostic work-up of lymphoma cases.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Characterisation of Pigments from Pigment-producing Microorganisms Isolated from Environment and Their Antibacterial Activity<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the food industry, there is always a demand for food products which are colourful, have an attractive appearance, and also have nutritional and health-enhancing properties to attract the attention of consumers. Synthetic pigments are widely used in the global market, however, they can cause many side effects such as hyperallergenicity, carcinogenicity and other toxicological problems. Recent studies have revealed that microorganisms are an abundant source of natural colours that allow the industrial production of safe, environmentally friendly biodegradable pigments. The aim of the work was to isolate pigmented microorganisms from environmental samples, select fermentation conditions, isolate pigments from microorganisms and check their antimicrobial activity. Pigments have been isolated from various sources such as soil, food waste, flour, etc. Growth parameters of pigment-producing microorganisms such as growth temperature, pH, tryptone and NaCl concentration in the medium were optimised to evaluate pigment production. After fermentation, five types of pigments were isolated by cell lysis with an ultrasonic bath and solvent extraction. The antimicrobial activity of the extracted pigments was investigated. During the study, the optimal conditions for the growth of microorganisms were determined: temperature of 30 °C, pH of 7, concentration of 3% tryptone and 6% NaCl in the culture medium. Glycerol was found as an additional carbon source, which had a positive effect on pigments production. The results of the antibacterial effect of the extracted pigments showed that <italic>P. aeruginosa</italic> was the most sensitive to the effect of the pigments. The pink-red pigment showed the highest antimicrobial activity against the tested pathogenic bacteria.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Quality Evaluation of Fresh-Cut Rosemary (L.) Packed and Stored in Biodеgradаblе Film<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fresh-cut herbs satisfy consumer demand owing to the convenience of buying them in food shopping malls as quickly accessible products. Food packaging has an important role in the food industry nowadays, because it helps to preserve the quality of fresh-cut food products at the production and sales sites and provides safety during storage. The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality changes of fresh-cut rosemary packed and stored in biodegradable film packaging. Rosemary has been packed in several materials – two biodegradable packaging materials, NatureFlex<sup>TM</sup> NVS INNOVIA film, Nature Works<italic>®</italic> PLA P-360 containers with hermetically pressed PLA cap and “breathable” conventional BOPP Propafilm<sup>TM</sup> P2GAF film. The samples were analysed over time at 0, 3, 5, 8, 10 and 12 days of storage at a temperature of +5 ±1 °C in terms of physicochemical quality: O<sub>2</sub> and CO<sub>2</sub> concentration, mass loss, pH, content of soluble solids (ºBrix) and tested sensory evaluation. The analysis of the obtained results showed that the cellulose based biodegradable NatureFlex<sup>TM</sup> NVS INNOVIA film was a good way to prolong the storage time of fresh-cut rosemary and ensure sensory quality and high physiochemical quality during the preservation period.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Coating on Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Puffed Wheat Grains<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Durum wheat (<italic>Triticum turgidum</italic>) is used for the production of various ready-to-eat products such as breakfast cereals, puffed grains, and extruded products. Technological processes of grain processing and the addition of different ingredients cause changes in the physical and chemical properties of the product, which give puffed grains a unique porous structure and change their nutritional value. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of coating on the physico-chemical characteristics of puffed wheat grains depending on the coating material. The study revealed that the application of coating increased dry matter and thousand-kernel weight (TKW). Water activity decreased in puffed grain without coating (BZ), and puffed grain with whey powder (MC) compared to wheat grain. The reduction in the moisture content increased the crispiness of product. Application of coating led to a decrease in the hardness of both MC and puffed wheat grain with vanillin and sugar (BV). Applying additives to the product’s surface led to a decrease in the water absorption index (WAI). The water solubility index (WSI) increased in the MC and BV samples. Samples BZ, BV and MC had higher L* (lightness) values than wheat grains because the puffing process expanded the cells, confirmed by scanning electron microscopy, and caused starch gelatinisation. The a* (redness) value of wheat was greater than that of BZ, BV and MC, which may be due to the partial removal of the outer layer of wheat grains. The milled samples of BZ, BV and MC were slightly darker, having lower L* values, compared to unprocessed wheat grain.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Milk as Medium for Lactic Acid Bacteria Growth: a Review<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In recent years, the demand for organic fermented dairy products has been growing. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are of major interest in the food industry due to their ability to form the quality and functionality of fermented products. A significantly higher LAB cell count is presented in organic (ORG) fermented products such as yoghurt and kefir, than their conventional (CONV) counterparts. There is still a lack of information on the possible explanation and evidence of ORG milk as a better medium for LAB growth. The aim of the present review is to summarise the results of research articles on the milk compounds and their effect on LAB growth, and to identify differences between ORG and CONV milk that may provide a plausible explanation for their influence on LAB growth in ORG milk. The monographic method was used in this study. According to the previous research, significant differences were established in a content and range of carbohydrates, nitrogen sources, fats, macroelements and microelements, as well bioactive compounds in ORG and CONV milk. The composition of ORG milk may have potential benefits for the development of LAB due to the higher concentration of peptides and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in it.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Pine Cone Syrups and Changes in Physical Parameters during Storage<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There is an increasing demand for natural and healthy food products that play a multifunctional role in human diet. Pine cone syrup has long been known and used for its medicinal purposes. As part of the research, a syrup was developed from green pine cones, which can be used not only in cases of colds, but also in everyday life. The aim of the research was to evaluate different pine cone syrups produced by brown and white sugar and analyse their physical parameter changes during storage. Syrups were characterised by volatile compounds and their changes depending on the type of sugar used. The content of soluble solids, pH, viscosity and titratable acid during storage were analysed as well. A total of 33 volatile compounds were detected in syrup made with white sugar (SWS) and 36 in syrup with brown sugar (SBS). Of the compounds detected, sample SWS was characterised more by compounds giving a pine and resinous aroma, while sample SBS was characterised by a pine and citrus aroma. The determination of the soluble solids content of syrups, irrespective of the type of sugar chosen, using the t test analysis there is no significant differences (p&gt;0.05). The average soluble solids of 63.2 ± 0.6 °Bx for sample SBS and 62.7 ± 0.6 °Bx for sample SWS, complies with the legislation on soluble solids content of syrups (62 °Bx). No significant difference was found between sample pH, which for both samples was 3.5. Sample SBS on average had a higher viscosity (0.102 ± 0.001 Pa s) than sample SWS (0.09 ± 0.001 Pa s) and it was noticed that the sample became more viscous during storage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Acid Composition of Different Breed Goat Milk<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The chemical composition of goat milk, especially fatty acid profile is recently renewed due to the role of monosaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in human nutrition. These nutrients are important to analysed in connection with the different breeds receiving the same breeding and feed. The aim of this study was to analyse goat milk fatty acid profile in relation to different breeds.</p> <p>Specimens for fatty acid analyses were collected from individual animals of breeds like Latvian Native (n=5), Saanen (n=5), and crossbreeds (n=5). Bulk milk samples (n=5) were also taken for milk quality testing and fatty acid range determination. Fat content was analysed according to ISO 1211:2011 and fatty acids were measured with the chromatographic method. Protein, lactose, casein and urea concentration was analysed according to ISO 13366-2:2007 and somatic cell count to ISO 9622/IDF141:2013.</p> <p>The highest fat concentration was determined in crossbreed milk samples (3.81 g 100 g<sup>−1</sup>) and the lowest (2.96 g 100 g<sup>−1</sup>) in the Latvian Native breed goat milk samples. The highest butyric acid (0.12 g 100 g<sup>−1</sup>) and caproic acid (0.12 g 100 g<sup>−1</sup>) concentration was established in Saanen goat milk samples. Compared to other breeds, the milk of the Latvian Native breed goats is characterised by a higher capric acid (0.20 g 100 g<sup>−1</sup>) concentration, while a higher concentration of total unsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids was detected in the samples of crossbreed goat milk. The average fatty acid composition of bulk milk samples was 68% for saturated fatty acids, 23% for monosaturated fatty acids and 4.3% for polyunsaturated fatty acids. In analysed goat milk samples, fatty acids showed the characteristic fatty acid profile of goat milk.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Storage Period on Acid Value and Sensory Attributes of Puffed Wheat Grains ‘Badyrak Vanilla’ and ‘Badyrak with Whey’<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Puffed grains made from whole wheat, corn or rice grains are ready-to-eat breakfast cereals that do not require additional preparation. Two recipes for puffed grain coatings were developed in the previous studies. Sunflower oil was used in the coating, which may affect storage stability. Due to lipid hydrolysis, free fatty acids may be released, causing rancid off-flavour. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the acid value of lipids and sensory attributes of sweet-coated puffed wheat grains ‘Badyrak vanilla’ (BV) and ‘Badyrak with whey’ (MC) depending on temperature during their eight-month storage. The products were packaged in metallised polypropylene pouches, 30 g each. The acid value was studied monthly at different storage temperatures (20 ± 2 °С and 4 ± 2 °С). In puffed wheat grain products, 65% of fatty acids are polyunsaturated, 25% monounsaturated, and 10% saturated. The high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids over saturated makes oil more susceptible to oxidation. Literature studies and sensory evaluation of puffed wheat grains allowed setting a limiting acid value at 4.0 mg KOH g<sup>−1</sup> lipids. The increase in acid value was storage temperature dependent. Thus, the acid value exceeded the established limit in the fifth month for MC and the sixth month for BV when stored at 20 ± 2 °С. At the same time, noticeable changes in puffed wheat grain flavour were observed. The temperature coefficient (Q<sub>10</sub>) for MC was 2.0, whereas for BV it was 1.5, indicating that the acid value increase in MC was more affected by temperature than that in BV.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of virulence and resistance of genotypes to apple scab using methodology<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The apple scab induced by <italic>Venturia inaequalis</italic> is an economically significant disease of apples worldwide and is predominantly controlled by multiple fungicide applications. Therefore, resistant apple cultivation is important for long-standing disease control. The knowledge about cultivar resistance is mainly founded on their evaluation in orchard conditions and testing in a greenhouse that is laborious and requires a large space. This study evaluated apple cultivar resistance and the virulence of <italic>V. inaequalis</italic> strains by inoculating detached leaves and immature fruits. Nine <italic>V. inaequalis</italic> strains originating from different apple-growing regions and host genotypes were tested on eight apple genotypes. Microscopic and macroscopic symptom development and host tissue reactions were monitored during the experiments. The tested <italic>V. inaequalis</italic> strains and cultivars showed different levels of virulence and resistance, respectively. Cultivar ‘Lobo’ was scored as partially susceptible, with almost all strains tested. The incompatible interaction with or without host tissue reactions was observed only on the cultivar ‘Priscilla’ with all the strains and field populations tested. The results of this study using detached leaves and immature fruits were concordant with the data obtained in the cultivar evaluation trials in the orchards.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Quality Function in Determining the Effectiveness of Example Bioeconomics Tasks<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the publication is to develop theoretical and methodological foundations and practical recommendations for determining the efficiency of biotechnological processes with the subsequent justification of technical parameters to ensure a high level of viability of bio-objects. In the course of the conducted scientific research, the criteria of quality function were defined and formalised, in accordance with which the conditions of biotechnological processes of laser division of embryo were formulated as a single case in the realisation of the economic mechanism of biotechnology. This makes it possible to ensure a high level of cattle (cattle) productivity, reduce the time for the reproduction of livestock and reduce the costs of movement, trade and transportation of cattle. The quality function of the biotechnological process of laser division of embryo is formulated on the basis of criterion of non-exceeding of the temperature field in cells of blastomeres and the predetermined acceptable value that allowed one to take into account the main parameters and to propose the criterion of biotechnological process optimisation. As a promising task for the development of the bioeconomy as an economic mechanism in implementing biotechnologies, the necessity of determining the quality function by formalising the integral indicator of efficiency has been established, This enables one to ensure a high level of commercialisation of biotechnologies, to increase the productivity of agricultural animals, and to suggest alternative methods for the quick renewal of livestock.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue pollination activity in a commercial tomato greenhouse during the winter season<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Bumblebee activity interaction with solar irradiation, solar irradiation and HPS lighting irradiation, the HPS effect of photoperiod, day temperature and hive density were assessed with tomato fruit weights in a commercial tomato glass greenhouse in 2020–2021. Pollination activity was measured by observing ten randomly chosen cv. ‘Beorange’ tomato plants and by counting bumblebee bruised tomato flowers. MANOVA was conducted between factors and bee activity, followed by Pearson’s correlation. A Mann-Whitney U test was calculated to determine the significance between tomato flower bruising levels and fruit weights, followed by Cliff’s delta (<italic>d</italic>). Pollination activity decreased mainly in December and January when solar irradiation decreased to below 110 J cm<sup>−2</sup> day<sup>−1</sup>. Bumblebee activity was significantly affected by solar irradiation with HPS lighting (p&lt;0.001; p&lt;0.01). There was a significant correlation between bumblebee activity and solar irradiation (r= 0.75; p&lt;0.05), and solar irradiation with HPS lighting (r= 0.70; p&lt;0.05). There was no correlation between bumblebee activity and fruit weights (r= −0.20; p&lt;0.05). Bruised flowers had significantly greater fruit weight increases (165.7 g) compared to unbruised flowers (123.4 g) (<italic>d</italic>= 0.12; p&lt;0.05). Bee activity rates between 60% to 80% can be concluded as an effective rate for tomato growers. Bumblebees need at least 110–154 J cm<sup>−2</sup> day<sup>−1</sup> of solar irradiation to achieve a high pollination activity rate in temperate climate zones during the winter season.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Kisezers: analysis of factors influencing morphometry and hydrological regime<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study describes dynamics in hydrology, morphometry, and water mass movement in Lake Kisezers. The analysis of Lake Kisezers’ morphometry dynamics according to the rapidly changing environment has been carried out. The determination of dynamics in morphometry comes before understanding potential exploitation and environmental sustainability of water body. Lake Kisezers is situated in a densely populated area. Without understanding and deciphering all possible environmental factors influencing Lake Kisezers, the water body can degrade and become of poor environmental quality. Such changes can lead to irreversible changes in the lake ecosystem and degradation of the surrounding landscape. This study aims to identify and explain the elements that influence Lake Kisezers’ hydrological regime, catchment area, and bathymetry. Lake Kisezers is hardly influenced body of water with rapid hydrological and morphometric dynamics. The research is possible due to extensive data availability and the importance of the water body location. Lake Kisezers affects the city of Riga and its surrounding area with a danger of flooding and decreasing land exploration potential. This study results in better understanding in the factors influencing hydrology and morphometry in Lake Kisezers and possible environmental sustainability endangerment in the future. The main impact factor is the connectivity to the River Daugava and its unique hydrological regime. For Lake Kisezers, environmental balance is necessary to continue research and develop a hydrological change model. This study was conducted with fieldwork data and open-source cartographic, geospatial, water level, and mass movement data. The research seeks to understand what is necessary to maintain environmental sustainability in Lake Kisezers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in dairy cattle herd: farming practices and infection dynamics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Q fever is a widespread disease affecting reproduction in dairy cattle. Several risk factors can increase the possibility of the herd becoming infected and the persistence of infection. The aim of this study was to characterise the dynamics of <italic>C. burnetii</italic> infection in affected herds and to evaluate reproduction problems and risk factors using a questionnaire within infected and infection-free dairy herds. In total, 25 farms that were serologically positive or shedding <italic>C. burnetii</italic> DNA in milk and 14 <italic>C. burnetii</italic> infection-free farms in Latvia answered the questionnaire. Ten positive herds were studied by testing individual blood and milk samples from up to 10 animals at two times separated by 7.5 to 13 months. The number of serologically positive and suspicious animals was higher in the second sampling even though several animals were culled. In the positive herds, the percentage of dystocia, stillborn calves and abortions during the last year was significantly (p=0.001; 0.01; 0.005, respectively) higher than in the negative herds. Several significant factors were found for the presence of Q fever infection, such as the herd size, the regional population density of ruminants, artificial ventilation systems, and frequent farm visitors. Deratisation was less practised in the negative farms and the presence of ticks was observed more often in the negative farms. Only two identified risk factors can be mitigated – the ventilation system and frequent farm visitors. The other factors cannot be changed arbitrarily but they have to be taken into account by decision makers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue for fodder production in Ukraine during the war<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to identify the most characteristic trends in the area of fodder production and the use of fodder as factors in the development of animal husbandry in Ukraine under conditions of war as the modern challenge for these industries. Russian military aggression is a powerful challenge for the economy of Ukraine, including its fodder production, as well as other countries of the world, reflecting on the aggravation of global problems of food shortages and food security. The effect of the mentioned challenge in Ukraine is superimposed on the identified negative trends and situation, which were formed before the beginning of 2022. Calculations based on them show that the occupation of large areas of Ukraine by Russian aggressors and hostilities caused a significant decrease in the production of livestock products due to a 13–17% decrease in the number of animals. Accordingly, consumption of fodder at the expense of these regions decreased by 16%. However, the situation is very dynamic as the war continues. Given the limitations of state support for the industry, until the end of the war the main efforts to improve fodder production in Ukraine should objectively be related to the maximum optimization of the structure of fodder rations by increasing the share of less energy-intensive forages. Every challenge creates new opportunities, therefore the post-war development of fodder production and use in Ukraine will become highly innovative.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Analysis of 101 Canine Lymphoma Cases Diagnosed in Surgical biopsies in Latvia (2011–2020)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Lymphoma is a malignant tumor commonly diagnosed in dogs representing 7–24% of all canine tumors. There has been no previous studies focused on characterization of canine lymphoma cases in Latvia. The goals of this retrospective study were to determine prevalence and characteristics of lymphoma cases among biopsy submissions to a private veterinary pathology service that receives approximately 80% of all biopsy submission in Latvia and to compare this data with published canine lymphoma reviews. Data were retrieved to select records from Latvian dogs diagnosed with lymphoma between 2011 and 2020, determining characteristics of dogs and types of lymphoma based on anatomic distribution and cellular morphology. In a ten-year study period, diagnosis of lymphoma constituted 1–4% of surgical biopsy submissions each year without upwards trend. Affected dogs were middle age (median 8 years; range 2–13), with a slight male predominance (58%). The majority of dogs (19%) were mixed breed. Top 3 affected dog breeds were Rottweiler, American Staffordshire terrier and French bulldog with 6–7 cases in each breed. Multicentric form of lymphoma predominated (55%) followed by alimentary and mucocutaneous lymphoma (21% and 14%, respectively). Within multicentric form of lymphoma two thirds were intermediate to large cell lymphomas. Included in this group would be diffuse large B cell lymphomas, the most common subtype of canine lymphomas; however, lack of immunohistochemical testing precluded complete lymphoma classification according to WHO guidelines. Results of this study correlate well with the previously published results and provide important information to Latvian small animal veterinarians and pathologists.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Role of Cereal and Pulse Constituents and Processing Technology in Flake Texture Development: a Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>To meet the rising consumer demand for higher nutrition foods and to increase flake nutritional value and functionality, it is possible to combine cereals with pulses. For consumers, one of the most important quality parameters along with appearance and taste, is texture. To produce the appropriate quality of flakes, the knowledge about the relationship between chemical composition, processing parameters, and texture is necessary. The aim of this study was to characterise the role of cereal and pulse constituents and processing technologies in flake texture development, which could be used in flake production for achieving the appropriate hardness and crunchiness of new products. The monographic method was used to characterise the constituent and processing technology‘s role in cereal and pulse flake texture development. Information published from 2003 till 2022, in total 77 full text research articles, books and databases were analysed and summarised. Data analysed show if pulse and cereal nutritional information, mineral and vitamin content is known, it is possible to combine different cereals and pulses to provide a specific nutrient composition in the developed products. The main change in high starch products is a specific gelatinization and retrogradation behaviour of starch. Constituents such as lipids and proteins as well as processing technology and parameters, can significantly modify the properties and functionality of starch. Proteins can encapsulate starch granules, inhibit starch digestion and gelatinization, reduce starch structural order, and inhibit starch retrogradation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of urban agriculture and its characteristics in Latvia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the 21st century, urban agriculture renews and diversifies approaches to the practice within the context of urban regeneration, climate change risks, sustainable development and resource consumption balance problems. Influenced by the long historical evolution and intensification of various risks, food production in urban areas involves the widest multifunctionality to date. Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify the main functions of urban agriculture and to evaluate their significance in Latvia. The following tasks were set to achieve the aim: 1) to identify and classify functions of urban agriculture, 2) to analyse the performance and significance of functions in Latvia. Several methods were employed to perform tasks and achieve the aim: the monographic and descriptive methods for making a theoretical discussion; the analysis, synthesis and deduction methods for obtaining information, systematisation and classification of functions; a structured expert interview for rating and ranking functions and identifying interactions between them. The research identified 14 functions of urban agriculture, which were classified into 5 groups: political, economic, social, environmental and technological. The most significant functions of urban agriculture in Latvia are social (promotion of social cohesion and public health, education and maintaining traditions and values) and technological innovations. There are interactions between all functions, and support for urban sustainability, education, provision of ecosystem services and technological innovations have the strongest impact on other functions. Interactions of functions proved the multifunctionality of urban agriculture, which could be an important support tool to contributing to sustainable urban development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of COVID-19 on the Food Supply Chain for Arable Crops in Latvia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented stress to food supply chains, pointing to weaknesses in the labour, processing, transport and logistics spheres, as well as significant changes in demand. Food supply chains have shown considerable resilience in the face of such stress. Monitoring of the food sector during the COVID-19 pandemic indicates that the effects of COVID-19 on food supply, demand and access are interlinked processes and have a complex impact on food systems. In addition, high-value food supply chains in developed countries are even more complex, so countries need to respond quickly to restore them and also develop mechanisms that balance business and public interests and protect farmers and food business workers during future potential pandemic crises. The research aims to identify the main demand and supply side factors that affect the resilience of local and global food supply chains during the COVID-19 crisis, as well as assess the resilience of the supply chain for arable crops during the COVID-19 crisis in Latvia, identifying the main risk factors. The research found that arable crop farmers were relatively less affected by the COVID-19 crisis than other agricultural employees. The impact of the crisis was larger on the crop processing industry than on the other industries, and the main risk factors related to changes in demand and the industry’s dependence on imported raw materials and the successful operation of export markets. Based on an in-depth risk analysis, the research developed recommendations for policy makers and actors in the agri-food chain that would improve the resilience of local (domestic) participants of the arable crop food supply chain in Latvia.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue