rss_2.0PRILOZI FeedSciendo RSS Feed for PRILOZI Feed of Polyneuromyopathy in a Critically Ill Patient with a Left Ventricular Assist Device<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Critical illness polyneuromyopathy after cardiac surgery is often unrecognized and is a rarely reported clinical condition. It is characterized by more proximal than distal symmetrical flaccid muscle weakness and difficulty in weaning from a respirator. When done in a timely manner, rehabilitation prevents early complications and reduces the length of hospitalization. Rehabilitation leads to better motor outcome, improves short-term and long-term functionality, and results in a better quality of life.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Alcohol Damages Brain Development in Children<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The world over, people drink in order to socialize, celebrate, and relax, despite the negative health effects of alcohol. Three periods of dynamic brain changes are evidenced to be particularly sensitive to the harmful effects of alcohol: gestation (from conception to birth), later adolescence (15-19 years), and older adulthood (over 65 years). This article is concentrated only on the negative effects of alcohol in children who have been exposed to alcohol before birth, known as foetal alcohol syndrome (FAS).</p> <p>This is a review based on published data in PubMed over the last two decades and is an analysis of more than 150 published papers.</p> <p>Alcohol use during pregnancy can cause miscarriage, stillbirth, and a range of lifelong physical, behavioural, and intellectual disabilities. The effects of ethanol are expressed on a set of molecules involved in neuroinflammation, myelination, neurotransmission, and neuron function.</p> <p>Modern neuroimaging techniques are able to specify some fine structural changes in the affected areas of the brain: volume reductions in the frontal lobe, including the middle frontal gyri in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampal structure, interhemispheric connectivity, abnormalities in glial cells, white matter deficits etc. Corpus callosum myelination is affected, resulting in a lack of the inter-hemispheric connectivity. This is known to facilitate autism, stroke, schizophrenia, as well as dementia, disrupts cognitive performance, and may lead to neurobehavioral deficits.</p> <p>It was pointed out that many symptoms and neuroimaging characteristics are similar in ADHD and FAS, thus the anamnesis for prenatal alcohol and nicotine exposure must be taken very seriously in order to better understand and interpret clinical symptoms.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Sulfoxide Induces Hemolysis and Pulmonary Hypertension<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Vascular and lung injury are well established complications associated with hemolytic disorders, and hemolysis associated pulmonary hypertension (PH) has emerged as the most serious complication of sickle cell disease. The causal relationship between intravascular hemolysis and the development of PH is still under investigation. Previously we have shown that repetitive administration of hemolyzed autologous blood causes PH in rats. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a widely used solvent and anti-inflammatory agent, induces hemolysis in vivo. We hypothesized that repetitive administration of DMSO would induce PH in rats. We also examined hemolysis-induced release of adenosine deaminase (ADA) and arginase from red blood cells, which may amplify hemolysis-mediated vascular injury. Acute administration of DMSO (1.5ml/30 min into the right atrium) induced intravascular hemolysis and pulmonary vasoconstriction. DMSO-induced increase in right ventricular peak systolic pressure (RVPSP) was associated with increased release of ADA. Notably, the acute increase in RVPSP was attenuated by administration of an adenosine A2A receptor agonist or by pretreatment of animals with ADA inhibitor erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine (EHNA). Repetitive administration of DMSO for 10 days produced anemia, hemoglobinuria, hemoglobinemia, splenomegaly, and development of PH. Histopathological analysis revealed pulmonary vascular remodeling. The presented data describe a new model of hemolysis induced PH, suggesting that hemolysis is mechanistically related to pulmonary hypertension, and pointing to a potential pathogenic role that adenosine deaminase and accelerated adenosine metabolism may play in hemolysis associated pulmonary hypertension.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Care and the Effects of Oil Extract in the Treatment of Chronic Wounds During the COVID-19 Pandemic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The COVID-19 pandemic and the need for social distancing brought about sudden changes in the health system and treatment strategies. Patients with chronic wounds were affected by these changes and had limited access to professional treatment in hospitals. They were at a higher risk of infection with COVID-19 due to comorbidities and advanced age. The aim of the study was to develop an appropriate protocol for the in-home treatment of chronic wounds due to the COVID-19 pandemic when access to hospitals is limited and the risk of infection for these patients is high. In our case, <italic>Hypericum tetrapterum</italic> oil extract was applied for four months on a volunteer, a 78-year-old male patient with a chronic wound, additionally infected with <italic>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</italic> and comorbidities. His healing status was monitored by measuring the wound size and microbiological analysis at certain intervals. The scab of wound DPHR<sup>2</sup> (right lower leg chronic wound 2), with its diameters of d1 (40 mm) and d2 (20 mm), fell off after 22 days of the first <italic>Hypericum tetrapterum</italic> oil extract application. The scab of wound DPHR1 (right lower leg chronic wound 1), with its diameters of d1 (74 mm) and d2 (35 mm), fell off after two and a half months of treatment with <italic>Hypericum tetrapterum</italic> oil extract. The results of our study indicated that <italic>Hypericum tetrapterum</italic> oil extract has a significant wound-healing potential and might be used as traditional medicine in the treatment of chronic wounds.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Nephrostomy in the Treatment of Hydronephrosis in Renal Transplant Patients – Case Report<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Percutaneous nephrostomy is a first-line minimal invasive treatment option for ureteral obstruction following kidney transplantation, with high effectiveness and a low complication rate. Percutaneous nephrostomy might be used as a temporary salvage therapy, providing acute decompression of the kidney collecting system and preventing graft loss. It can also function as a permanent and sometimes only possible option in transplant patients with frequent recurrences of ureteral stenosis who either fail an open surgical reconstruction or who are not good candidates for these procedures. We present two patients with acute decline in urine output after renal transplantation with radiologically verified hydroureteronephrosis of the transplanted kidney (graft) caused by stenosis of distal ureter. In both cases, nephrostomy was placed within 48 hours as a temporary salvage treatment that ameliorates renal function and prevents graft loss. The permanent nephrostomy was the only possible solution for the preservation of the graft’s function in the first case because of the recurrences of ureteral stenosis after several percutaneous interventions and open-surgery ureteral reconstruction. A few episodes of nephrostomy tube-related infections were resolved with antibiotics in the first case. The second case was treated with open ureteroneocystostomy with resection of stenotic segment and reinsertion of the ureter into the bladder (ureterocystoneostomy) because of the length of the involved ureteral segment. Both patients had stable graft function in the follow-up period.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Abdominoperineal Excision (ELAPE) is Not Superior to Abdominoperineal Excision (APE) in the Era of Neoadjuvant Treatment in Rectal Cancer<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Aim</bold>: To evaluate the effect of extralevator abdominoperineal excision of the rectum (ELAPE) on the circumferential resection margin (CRM) and overall survival in comparison to standard abdominoperineal excision of the rectum (APE) in patients with advanced rectal cancer.</p> <p><bold>Material and Methods</bold>: This retrospective study encompasses patients with advanced rectal cancer operated on with two different methods: prone Jack-Knife position ELAPE and APE. In part of them, neoadjuvant chemoradiation was conducted. Postoperative patient, tumor, and outcome data were analyzed in terms of differences in CRM positivity and overall survival.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: Of 67 patients treated with either APE (52) or ELAPE (15), 43 were male and 24 were female. Neoadjuvant treatment was conducted on 49 of the total patients. Complete pathological response (T0) was achieved in 3 patients. Positive CRM was reported in 7 patients (11.5 %), 3 in ELAPE and 4 in APE group (p = 0.348). The overall postoperative complication rate was 56.7%. Mean survival period was 42.2 months. Overall survival rate for both groups was 67.2 %. No statistical differences were seen between the ELAPE and APE procedure in terms of overall survival (p = 0.483).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions</bold>: Differences between the use of ELAPE and APE in terms of CRM positivity and overall survival were not statistically significant. Therefore, we conclude that ELAPE is not superior to standard APE in the treatment of advanced rectal cancer.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Overview of Pediatric Approaches to Child with Developmental Delay Especially if There is Suspicion of ASD in First Few Years of Life<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>To be a pediatrician means that one encounters many serious childhood health problems and one finds many ways to help families cope with these problems. Symptoms in children can be discrete, and the responsibility of the pediatrician to distinguish normal development from pathological.</p> <p>We are facing a new era in the developmental assessment of children. A cluster of neurodevelopmental disorders includes ASD (autism spectrum disorder) and ADHD (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Parents often do not recognize the problem on time. Generally, their first concern is speech delay, leading to the suspicion of hearing problems. Therefore, it is very important to obtain objective anamnestic information and for the child to undergo a careful physical examination, a neurophysiological assessment, and metabolic and genetic testing. The etiology usually is multifactorial: genetic, epigenetic, and non-genetic factors act in combination through various paths.</p> <p>Most children seem to have typical neurodevelopment during first their year. It was found that approximately one-third of children with ASD lose some skills during the preschool period, usually speech related, but sometimes also non-verbal communication, social or play skills.</p> <p>In conclusion we must say that it is very important to recognize the early signs of ASD and any kind of other developmental delay and to start with early intervention. Clinical pediatricians tend to correlate clinical manifestations and biological underpinnings related to neurodevelopmental disorder, especially ASD. Therefore, better treatment possibilities are needed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Satisfaction with Health Services at the Emergency Center of the University Clinic in Prishtina<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Purpose</bold>: Safety is a fundamental principle in patient care as well as a key component of quality management of health services. Improving patient safety requires constant energy, including all individuals who have direct or indirect contact with the patient. This means enhancing the approach towards the patient, modifying the workplace, improving the performance of the staff and redesigning systems with the aim of reducing patient risk.</p> <p>This approach involves almost all disciplines and actors, therefore, a complex approach in identifying the gaps, new policy making and policy implementation strategies by the health service providers and the relevant institutions were investigated for this study.</p> <p><bold>Research method</bold>: In this prospective study, two questionnaires were compiled: one was designed to address patients seeking health services at the Emergency Center in Prishtina, whereas the second questionnaire was designed for the Emergency Center staff in order to identify the relationship between employees, management staff and error reporting problems. A nurse and a resident doctor in the Emergency Center who worked in shifts were engaged for this purpose in order to survey patients in different parts of the day for 24 hours.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: The results of this study show that most of the patients who come to the Emergency Center are transported either by family members or by a bystander. These patients can suffer many unintentional injuries from inadequate and unprofessional transportation. Moreover, multiple visits coming directly from the accident site or from home indicate that there are problems with the referral system from Primary Health Care (PHC) levels. In addition, numerous injuries to the head region indicate a need for treatment by a dentist who is specialized in head and neck medicine.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions</bold>: There is a need to reorganize the working hours for the employees of the Emergency Center. Increasing the capacity of the primary health care level would reduce the burden of the Emergency Center from the interventions, which can be easily addressed at lower levels. Ongoing professional training as well as trainings focused on stress management, time pressure control, and the relationship between health care providers would significantly improve the level of patient safety in the Emergency Center.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Treatment of Traumatic Posterior Sternoclavicular Joint Dislocation: А Case Report<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Posterior sternoclavicular joint dislocation is a rare condition. In this paper, we present a 51-year-old male patient who was admitted to the emergency department in our hospital after he was hit by a mining railway wagon in the chest. A diagnosis of posterior sternoclavicular dislocation was confirmed after performing a CT scan. Following necessary preparations, the sternoclavicular joint was stabilized with two wire cerclage techniques during open reduction. During control at the postoperative 4th week, the range of motion at the shoulder was satisfactory, but the patient had mild pain at the joint level and was sent to physical therapy to improve the range of motion and to minimize the pain.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Associated with Recent Infection in a Patient with Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase II Deficiency<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency (CPT II) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder of long-chain fatty acid oxidation in the mitochondrial matrix, resulting in an inability to utilize fat for energy in cells. The most frequent myopathic form occurs in young adults and is associated with recurrent episodes of exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis. The myopathic form is caused by the Ser113Leu mutation of the CPT II gene. Rarely, massive rhabdomyolysis could be complicated by acute kidney injury (AKI), cardiomyopathy, and respiratory insufficiency.</p> <p>We present a case of an 18-year old male with myalgia, muscular weakness, and dark-colored urine after prolonged exercise and a recent mild<italic>SARS-CoV-2</italic>infection. Massive rhabdomyolysis was diagnosed with markedly increased serum concentrations of myoglobin and creatine kinase, with normal kidney function. The patient experienced two similar episodes in the years 2017 and 2018, with rhabdomyolysis and AKI treated with hemodialysis. After excluding autoimmune and infectious diseases as causes of recurrent rhabdomyolysis, the patient was genetically tested and Ser113Leu mutation of the CPT II gene was confirmed.</p> <p>When a patient presents with myalgia and dark-colored urine triggered by minor physical activities, genetic testing for possible CPT II deficiency should be initiated. The<italic>SARS-CoV-2</italic>infection could be a factor that triggers the occurrence of rhabdomyolysis and aggravates the severity of the attack in patients with CPT II deficiency.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Nausea and Vomiting in Opioid-Free Anesthesia Versus Opioid Based Anesthesia in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background</bold>: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a usual complication in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Minimized opioid use due to surgery has been shown to have a better effect on patient recovery after surgery. In this study we evaluate the effect of opioid free anesthesia for postoperative nausea and vomiting in laparoscopic cholecystectomy.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods</bold>: 80 patients aged 20-65 years old were included in this randomized, clinical and prospective trial. The patients belonged to the ASA classifications 1 and 2 and were scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients were classified into two groups: group 1 (fentanyl group- FG), which included 40 patients who received opioid anesthesia, and group 2 (opioid free anesthesia group-OFAG) which included 40 patients who received opioid free anesthesia. In patients from group 1 (fentanyl group -FG) introduction to general anesthesia consisted of giving midazolam at 0.04 mg/kg, fentanyl at 0.002 mg/kg, 2 mg/kg of propofol and 0.6 mg/kg of rocuronium bromide. These patients received fractionated bolus doses of fentanyl during surgery. Prior to general anesthesia these patients did not receive dexamethasone. The patients from group 2 (opioid free anesthesia group - OFAG) received dexamethasone at 0.1 mg/kg and 1 g of paracetamol before introduction to anesthesia as a pre-emptive analgesia. Introduction to anesthesia consisted of giving midazolam at 0.04 mg/kg, lidocaine at 1 mg/kg, propofol at 2 mg/kg, ketamine at 0.5 mg/kg, and 0.6 mg/kg of rocuronium bromide. Immediately after intubation, continuous intravenous infusion with lidocaine at 2 mg/kg/h and magnesium sulfate at 1.5 g/h was given. In this group, fentanyl was not given either during the introduction of anesthesia or during the intraoperative period. Immediately after extraction of the gallbladder patients from group 2 (OFAG) received 2.5 g of metamizole intravenously. PONV were recorded in the postoperative period of 24 hours after surgery.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: There was no significant difference with respect to age, weight, sex, duration of surgery, and anesthesia time. PONV at different time intervals were statistically not significant at all postoperative time points – 1 hr, 4 hr, 8 hr, 12 hr and 24 hr after surgery in fentanyl group compared to opioid free anesthesia group. Even not statistically significant, PONV have occurred more often in patients who received opioid anesthesia.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion</bold>: Postoperative nausea and vomiting occurs more often in patients who received opioids during laparoscopic cholecystectomy compared to patients who received opioid free anesthesia, but without statistical significance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Note Note Findings and Alteration of Oxidative Stress Markers in Hospitalized Patients with SARS-COV-2<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background/aim</bold>: Hematological parameters are the starting point in COVID-19 severity classification. The aim of this study was to analyze oxidative stress in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and to determine its association with D-dimer, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), and platelets to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) as markers for disease progression.</p> <p><bold>Materials and method</bold>s: 52 patients with moderate and severe forms of COVID-19 were enrolled. A hematological and coagulation profile was performed for each patient. PAT (total antioxidant power, iron-reducing) and d-ROMs (plasma peroxides) were determined in serum at admission and 7 days after hospitalization.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: The severe group presented parameters that indicated a poor prognosis. Patients that recovered had a significant reduction in d-ROM (t-test, p&lt;0.01) and improvement in oxidative stress index (t-test, p&lt;0.05). Patients that died had significantly decreased PAT (p&lt;0.01) resulting in an increase in oxidative stress. Except for d-ROM vs PLR in both groups and d-ROM vs D-dimer in the severe group, a good correlation between oxidative stress parameters and D-dimer, PLR, and NLR was demonstrated (p&lt;0.01).</p> <p><bold>Conclusion</bold>: Our results show that oxidative stress markers can be used as a tool for disease progression in COVID-19. This analysis is easily accessible and affordable in addition to conventional hematological parameters performed for severity classification.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Oxygenation Through Facial Mask and Nasal Cannula in a Limited Resource Setting<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction</bold>: In centers with limited resources, a high flow nasal cannula is not available, thus we assess if preoxygenation with 15L flow of O2 available from anesthesia machines can prolong the safety period of induction of anesthesia before intubation and provide more time for securing the airway. Moreover, we compared the preoxygenation with standard 6L vs. 15L O2 through a facemask or a nasal cannula.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods</bold>: Patients were allocated into four groups. Group I patients were preoxygenated with a nasal cannula on 6L of oxygen, patients in group II were preoxygenated with a nasal cannula on 15L of oxygen, patients in group III were preoxygenated with a facemask on 6L of oxygen, and patients in group IV were preoxygenated with a facemask on 15L of oxygen. The primary endpoint was time to desaturation and intubation. The secondary endpoints were PaO2, PaCO2, Sat% and ETCO2.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: The groups with 15L preoxygenation had a statistically significant prolonged time to desaturation and intubation. Patients allocated to group II have a statistically significant greater PaO2 and lesser ETCO2 compered with group I. However, between patients in group III and IV there is a difference only in PaCO2, and although this effect is significant, both groups have values within the normal range.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion</bold>: In centers with limited resources, preoxygenation with the maximum available oxygen flow from anesthesia machines (15L/min) are useful. This prolongs the safety period for securing the airway. We suggest the use of the maximum available amount of oxygen flow from anesthesia machines in clinical settings.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Multimodal Analgesia in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background</bold>: The administration of high doses of opioids during surgery can lead to higher postoperative pain scores at rest and when coughing. Multimodal analgesia may lower the need for opioids during surgery and the suffering of postoperative pain. Multimodal analgesia can be achieved by providing non-opioid drugs (lidocaine, ketamine, and magnesium sulfate), three different types of drugs. Each of these drugs as different analgesic effects and they belong to three different pharmacological groups. The aim of this study is to develop a better understanding of the effects of each drug (lidocaine, ketamine, and magnesium sulfate) on postoperative analgesia, the needs for rescue analgesics, and analyze the total amount of fentanyl during the intraoperative period in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.</p> <p><bold>Methods</bold>: 120 patients were enrolled in this randomized controlled study. They were classified as ASA 1 and 2 and were scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. They were further divided into 3 groups. Group 1, or the lidocaine group, had received lidocaine at 1 mg/kg and a continuous intravenous infusion with lidocaine at 2 mg/kg/h. Group 2, or the ketamine group, received ketamine at 0.5 mg/kg. Group 3, or the magnesium sulfate group, received a continuous intravenous infusion of magnesium sulfate at 1.5 gr/kg. The intensity of postoperative pain was assessed using a VAS score at rest and when coughing, with evaluation at 1, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours, postoperatively. Also, the needs for rescue analgesics and the total amount of fentanyl during the intraoperative period in all groups was also followed.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: The patients from the lidocaine group had the highest scores of pain in the postoperative period at rest and when coughing, and the ketamine group had the lowest pain scores. Rescue analgesia was given the most to lidocaine group, and less so in the magnesium group. The magnesium group received the highest dose of fentanyl during surgery and the lowest dose was received by patients from the lidocaine group.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion</bold>: Multimodal analgesia can lower the need for opioids in the intra- and postoperative period after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in Hematology and Oncology: From Fatal to Curable Disease<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background</bold>: The comprehensive management of patients with Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) is a success story in contemporary oncology. Over the past decades, the survival rate of patients with HL has significantly improved. The objective of this analysis is to evaluate and document the progress in the management of Hodgkin’s lymphoma in patients in our country, reflected in their vital statistics, over time periods defined by the respective standard of treatment.</p> <p><bold>Material and methods</bold>: The present study is designed as a retrospective-prospective study. We analyzed different modalities of treatment and compared 5 and 10-year overall survival rates in a total of 588 Hodgkin’s lymphoma patients treated at the University Clinic for Hematology in Skopje during two consecutive time periods, before 2000 and after 2000. The entire observation period is from 1980 to 2020. All patients are above the age of 14, with a documented histopathological diagnosis of Hodgkin’s lymphoma and with evaluable medical documentation, including clinical and laboratory data on their initial condition, the administered therapy, as well as the clinical follow-up of the patients.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: The basic clinical features of the analyzed population across the two periods correlate with those reported in the relevant medical literature, with only slight deviations. Ten-year overall survival rates improved by 31.7% through the two calendar periods. During the last two decades of the previous century (1980-2000) the initial treatment options were COPP and COPP-like regimens for the vast majority of patients (94.7%), leading to disease remission in 80% of them. After 2000, 95.8% of de novo diagnosed patients have been treated with ABVD chemotherapy as a frontline choice and the complete response rate is 88.4%. We confirmed the superiority of ABVD in terms of efficacy, improved tumor and disease control, as well as its long-term clinical outcome. While in the past we had very limited options for relapsed/refractory HL patients, the analysis of the results of HL patients treated with various therapeutic approaches in the latter period, defines BEACOPP as the preferred choice. High-dose chemotherapy, followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell graft, as a strategy for our R/R patients in the timeframe after 2000, ensures a 5-year overall survival for 51% of them, whereas 45% of the patients survive more than 10 years.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion</bold>: This analysis from our Hodgkin’s lymphoma database illustrates that there has been tremendous improvement in the long-term survival rates since the turn of this century. At our institution we strive to implement positive trends in practice, as suggested by relevant guidelines, regarding the evolution and progress in the diagnostic workup, treatment, and the overall management of patients with Hodgkin’s disease. The objective would be to secure favorable vital statistics for our patient population, now reaching 83.5% at 10 years, which closely correlates with the data of more developed countries and centers. In future clinical trials we will also evaluate the efficacy of brentuximab-vedotin and new PD-1 blocking antibodies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue People and Covid-19 Pandemic in Our Country<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current COVID-19 pandemic has raised significant mental health consequences across the world. Even though healthcare workers provide psychological services, the mental health of the overall population often is cause for concern. Psychosocial stressors of the population play a critical role in impacting both the spread of the disease and the occurrence of emotional distress and psychological disorder, during and after an infectious disease outbreak.</p> <p>The inability to plan, to anticipate future events, and to exert control, at least partially, over external variables inevitably generate stress and tension. Subsequently, this condition can generate more or less discomfort depending on the subjective evaluation of the individual, an evaluation which is influenced by the individual’s stable personality traits. In fact, subjective experiences are never unique: stimuli endowed with the same stressful power do not necessarily cause these reactions in different individuals, while stressful conditions of varying degrees can induce the same response in different people.</p> <p>The aim of this research was to evaluate some aspects of mental health using answers related to this pandemic of a group young people, selected by chance.</p> <p>Results showed important changes in quality of life, insecurity, changes in mood and behaviour as well as not optimistic view for the future life.</p> <p>Discussion confirmed similar finding about young people opinions from other counties.</p> <p>Additionally, some mediating measures are proposed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Contralateral Patent Processus Vaginalis Closure During Laparoscopic Surgery for Inguinal Hernia in Female Children<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>After more than a decade, an accurate description of the current state of pediatric inguinal hernia repair still an issue of contention. Improvement of techniques together with patient-entered intervention that account for the experiences related to individual disease characteristics have become an important factor of which the surgeon must be aware. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze a potential treatment for metachronous contralateral inguinal hernia (MCIH) in children during laparoscopic assisted percutaneous internal inguinal ring suturing (PIRS). In a prospective clinical study, carried out at the University Clinic for Pediatric Surgery in Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia, we analyzed the data from 49 female children, aged 1-14 years old, with clinically diagnosed congenital inguinal hernia treated via PIRS. The position of hernias on the right side was 29 (59.2%) on the left side was 19 (38.8%) and on both sides was 1 (2.0%). With intraoperative assessment, it was determined that in 33 (67.3%) participants there was no presence of a hidden hernia, while in 16 (32.7%), there was indeed the presence of a hidden hernia. Of the hidden hernias determined laparoscopically [16 (100%)], 8 (50%) were left and right hidden hernias, all treated laparoscopically. The PIRS technique is a procedure where the basic advanced treatment is exploration. This also included the adequate treatment of other pathologies, such as the prophylactic closure of a contralateral patent processus vaginalis with simultaneous treatment as there is the potential for hernia in future, therefore reducing the number of metachronous inguinal hernias.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Multimodal Anesthesia Effecting Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Background</bold>: Multimodal anesthesia represents a technique that can improve analgesia and lower the occurrence of opioid side effects in the postoperative period, such as postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV). It can be achieved by providing different types of medication during the intraoperative period which can decrease the need for opioids. PONV happens more often in patients who have received large amounts of opioids during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In this study, our aim was to observe the occurrence of PONV between three different groups of patients who received lidocaine, ketamine and magnesium sulfate in combination with fentanyl in the intraoperative period. We also observed any additional nausea and vomiting in the three groups as well as the amount of fentanyl given to these groups during operation.</p> <p><bold>Materials and methods</bold>: 120 patients aged 20-65 years old were included in this randomized and prospective study, ASA classification 1 and 2, scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Patients were classified into three groups randomly: Group 1 (lidocaine group-LG), these patients received lidocaine at 1 mg/kg during induction to general anesthesia and 2 mg/kg/h after intubation in continuous intravenous infusion; Group 2 (ketamine group-KG) these patients received ketamine at 0.5 mg/kg during induction to general anesthesia; and Group 3 (magnesium group-MG) these patients received magnesium sulfate at 1.5 gr/hr as a continuous intravenous infusion after intubation. In all three groups, patients additionally received bolus doses of fentanyl. Postoperative nausea and vomiting were monitored in all three groups at 1, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after surgery as a primary objective, and if patients had complainant of vomiting, they were treated with 10 mg of metoclopramid. Between the five control time points, additional nausea and vomiting was recorded as well, as a secondary objective. The third objective was to measure of the total amount of fentanyl given in the intraoperative period.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: Patients from the lidocaine group experienced less PONV and they received less fentanyl compared to patients of ketamine and magnesium groups. Patients from the ketamine group had more nausea than other groups. In the magnesium group, the rate of vomiting was higher, and they received higher amounts of fentanyl during surgery. Additional nausea and vomiting occurred in 3 patients in the LG, 2 in the KG, and 3 in the MG between the five control time points. The patients from the magnesium group received the highest dose of fentanyl during surgery (307.50 ± 130.4), followed by the patients from the ketamine group (292.50 ± 60.5), and then patients from the lidocaine group (258.75 ± 60.9). The doses of fentanyl that patients received during surgery in all three groups were not statistically significant.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion</bold>: Multimodal anesthesia has been shown to lower PONV 24 hours after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and can lower need for opioids during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue