rss_2.0Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences. Section B. Natural, Exact, and Applied Sciences. FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences. Section B. Natural, Exact, and Applied Sciences. of the Latvian Academy of Sciences. Section B. Natural, Exact, and Applied Sciences. Feed Dynamics of the Exotic Cherry Plum Aphid (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) on in Latvia, with Notes on Local Predators<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Brachycaudus divaricatae</italic> Shaposhnikov has spread in many European countries over the last decades, where it causes intensive damage to <italic>Prunus cerasifera</italic>. Forty <italic>P. cerasifera</italic> trees were monitored in 2013 at Dārziņi, on the outskirts of Riga city (Latvia), to obtain data on seasonal dynamics of an exotic aphid species, <italic>B. divaricatae. Brachycaudus divaricatae</italic> was predominant on its only known host plant species, <italic>P. cerasifera</italic>. Other aphid species were found on monitored trees: <italic>Brachycaudus</italic> sp., <italic>Hyalopterus pruni</italic> (Geoffroy) and <italic>Rhopalosiphum nymphaeae</italic> (L.). The target species, <italic>B. divaricatae</italic> was the most abundant, followed by <italic>H. pruni</italic>, but only B. divaricatae reached the highest infestation level. The latest date of registered <italic>B. divaricatae</italic> colonies was 31 October 2013. Many predatory arthropods belonging to Acari, Araneae, Coleoptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera, and Neuroptera were registered in <italic>B. divaricatae</italic> colonies. The most abundant predators were dipteran larvae from the families Cecidomyiidae and Syrphidae. Predatory dipterans most abundant were only at the beginning of the season (June). Later in the season, the number of spiders increased in aphid colonies, and of 365 spiders, 43.8% were members of the Linyphiidae family. Five ant species were caught in <italic>B. divaricatae</italic> colonies, and <italic>Formica cinerea</italic> Mayr was the most abundant.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Tonsillectomy Patients and Factors Related to Immediate Tonsillectomy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A retrospective cohort study was conducted with the aim to characterise tonsillectomy patients and identify factors related to the development of complicated cases of tonsillitis and consecutive immediate tonsillectomies in the Latvian population. The data of 493 patients were analysed. Patients were hospitalised from 1 January 2019 to 30 November 2020, for elective or immediate tonsillectomy due to recurrent tonsillitis, with or without exacerbation and complications. The patients who underwent elective tonsillectomy were younger than those who underwent immediate tonsil-lectomy. Peritonsillar abscess was more common in smokers than in non-smokers (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001). Smokers had immediate tonsillectomy more often than non-smokers (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001). Patients who underwent elective tonsillectomy had the shortest period of antibiotic therapy (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001). Patients who had immediate tonsillectomy had a longer hospitalisation time. Immediate tonsillectomies were associated with patients of older age, smokers, longer hospitalisation, and antibacterial treatment periods. Unilateral peritonsillar abscess was the most common complication of tonsillitis, which resulted in immediate tonsillectomy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Anatomical Juvenility Markers in Silver Birch ( Roth) Shoots<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>During plant development, woody plants progress from a juvenile phase to the reproductive mature phase. This process is marked by morphological, physiological, and biochemical changes, including loss of competence to vegetative reproduction. During <italic>in vitro</italic> stabilisation, mature tissues undergo rejuvenation, however, the exact degree of juvenility attained is not known and differing regeneration capabilities are observed between genotypes. Markers indicating juvenility state would assist the <italic>in vitro</italic> rejuvenation process and increase the efficiency of successful micropropagation. Several leaf and stem morphological and anatomical traits were analysed as possible juvenility markers in mature and rejuvenated silver birch <italic>in vitro</italic> shoots. The results showed that juvenility state of birch <italic>in vitro</italic> shoots varies between different genotypes and between plants from the same genotype. Mature birch <italic>in vitro</italic> shoots had approximately two times larger and thicker leaves compared to rejuvenated and juvenile shoots. Stem radius, including cortex, phloem, xylem and pith width as well as phloem width : stem radius and phloem width : xylem width ratio was significantly larger in mature shoots. Periderm development and loss of rooting ability were observed in mature shoots. These anatomical and morphological traits could be used as possible juvenility/maturation markers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue on Species of the Complex in the Flora of Latvia: Group<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Traditionally, all authors in Latvia summarise all agamic species of the <italic>Ranunculus auricomus</italic> complex under three species, <italic>auricomus</italic> L., <italic>R. fallax</italic> (Wimm. et Grab) Sloboda, and <italic>R. cassubicus</italic> L. However, there are many compelling studies showing that the <italic>R. auricomus</italic> complex is a large assembly of apomictic microspecies. In this article, 17 species of the <italic>R. cassubicus</italic> group in Latvia are presented: <italic>R. angustior</italic> (Markl.) Ericss. <italic>R. cajanderi</italic> (Fagerstr.) Ericss., <italic>R. cassubicus</italic> L. s.str., <italic>R. circinatifrons</italic> (Markl.) Ericss., <italic>R. elatior</italic> (Fries.) Ericss., <italic>R. hannae</italic> Jasiew., <italic>R. imitans</italic> (Markl.) Ericss., <italic>R. inopinus</italic> (Markl.) Ericss., <italic>R. karelicus</italic> (Markl.) Ericss., <italic>R. macrantherus</italic> (Markl.) Ericss., <italic>R. niepolomicensis</italic> Jasiew., <italic>R. pawlowskii</italic> Jasiew., <italic>R. prorsidens</italic> (Markl.) Ericss., <italic>R. scalaridens</italic> (Markl.) Ericss., <italic>R. serratifrons</italic> (Markl.) Ericss., <italic>R. svirensis</italic> (Markl.) Ericss., and <italic>R. tranzschelii</italic> (Fagerstr.) Ericss.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Diversity and Mycelial Compatibility of and Isolated in Latvia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Botrytis is one the most economically important fungal taxa, comprising pathogens that infect a wide range of crops and causing gray mould. Two morphologically indistinguishable species, <italic>Botrytis cinerea</italic> and <italic>B. pseudocinerea</italic>, are significant pathogens found in close association in the same niches all over the world. Both species cause the same diseases in many plants; however, their mycelial compatibility in Latvia has not been reported. The aim of this study was to compare the morphological characteristics of <italic>B. cinerea</italic> and <italic>B. pseudocinerea</italic> isolates and determine their compatibility based on culturing on potato dextrose agar (PDA) media. A total of 113 isolates with the characteristic colony morphology of <italic>Botrytis</italic> spp. were obtained from four different host plants: tomato (<italic>Solanum lycopersicum</italic>), faba bean (<italic>Vicia faba</italic>), strawberry (<italic>Fragaria</italic> × <italic>ananassa</italic>), and cranberry (<italic>Vaccinium macrocarpon</italic>). The obtained isolates were divided into ten groups based on their morphological traits and hosts, and representatives from each group were chosen for further analyses. <italic>Botrytis</italic> spp. were identified at the species level using the DNA sequences of three protein-coding genes (RPB2, DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II; HSP60, heat shock protein 60; and G3PDH, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase). All ten isolates (five <italic>B. cinerea</italic> and five <italic>B. pseudocinerea</italic>) were pathogenic on wounded leaves and stems of ten-week-old tomato plants, and the pathogen was re-isolated and identified to fulfill Koch’s postulates. A high degree of phenotypic diversity was observed between and within <italic>B. cinerea</italic> and <italic>B. pseudocinerea</italic>. Mycelial compatibility was found to vary depending on the species, particular isolate, and host plant. This is the first report of <italic>B. pseudocinerea</italic> as a causal agent of gray mould on tomatoes in the Baltic region.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Colour Analysis of Nasal Mucosa: Methodology and Clinical Data<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Diseases of the nasal mucosa are common in clinical practice; on average, every third ENT (ear, nose, throat) patient complains of nasal mucosa problems. Mucosa pathologies change the structure and composition of tissue; the presence of different cells, variation in biochemical composition and dilation or constriction of blood vessels lead to mucosa colour changes that help setting the diagnosis. However, experience and colour vision vary between doctors, so a more objective mucosa colour examination could be helpful. The aim of this study was to investigate whether colour analysis of camera-captured endoscopic images can distinguish healthy from pathological nasal mucosa and how specific such analysis could be for various diseases. A total of 66 participants (four groups, including healthy volunteers) underwent anterior nasal endoscopy, and the taken photos and videos were further analysed using self-developed Matlab software. The procedure involved selection of the region of interest (inferior nasal turbinate), segmentation and averaging the colour parameters over selected areas, exploiting the RGB and <italic>L</italic>*<italic>a</italic>*<italic>b</italic> colour scales. Allergic, chronic hyperplastic and inflamed (chronic and acute) nasal mucosa conditions in comparison with healthy mucosa were studied in this work. A relatively wide spread of colour parameter values was observed in the healthy volunteer group as well as in all patient groups. The most sensitive colour parameters for each of the pathology groups were identified.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Changes in Plant Taxonomy Are Reflected in Practice, the Case of and × Complex: An Example of Latvia’s Official Normative Documents<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In 2009, the nomenclature of the former ‘Salix fragilis’ complex was revised; as a result, the pure species Salix euxina Belayeva was described. Over the past ten years, these changes have been ignored by a number of authors (both in Latvia and abroad), and only some authors have used all the names within this complex according to nomenclatural changes introduced by Belayeva. In the context of these taxonomic changes, the official Latvian normative documents (regulations) were analysed in regard to the species <italic>Salix alba, S. euxina and S.</italic> ×<italic>fragilis</italic> (=<italic>Salix</italic> ×<italic>rubens</italic>).Unfortunately, the taxon <italic>S. euxina</italic> is not recognised at the official level in Latvia, but the name <italic>‘S. fragilis’</italic> is widely used, referring more to the <italic>S. euxina</italic>; and <italic>S.</italic> ×<italic>rubens</italic> for the <italic>S. alba/euxina</italic> hybrid complex. Given that plant taxonomy is studied by experienced scientists rather than political organisations, in theory, politicians who lay down national laws and regulations as well as scientists should follow reasoned and justified changes in plant taxonomy. In case of the former <italic>S. fragilis</italic> complex, these taxonomic changes are also confirmed by genetic studies, which gives an even greater justification for their validity. Therefore, there is no reason to ignore these taxonomic changes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Irradiated SiO Nanoparticles as Insulin and Immunoglobulin Molecule Carriers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Insulin and immunoglobulin therapy is commonly administered through injections that are invasive and painful. They cannot be taken orally because digestive enzymes break them down. To protect against enzymes, drug molecules may be “packed”, which decreases interaction of the active surface of the molecule with the environment. Silica nanoparticles (SiO<sub>2</sub>) may be used to attach proteins like insulin or immunoglobulin for use in drug delivery. They are stable and biocompatible. Exposing SiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles to UV radiation may control molecule–nanoparticle attachment because of their electrostatic interactions. This study demonstrates the influence of UV radiation of SiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles on insulin and immunoglobulin molecule attachment. Alteration of the surface electric potential of SiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles by UV radiation was determined using electron work function measurements. Influence of radiation on formation of molecule-nanoparticle complexes was assessed by spectrophotometry of their sedimentation rate in solution. Increasing UV exposure time negatively charges the surfaces of SiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles. Insulin exhibits better adsorption with SiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles compared to immunoglobulin, likely due to favourable conditions promoting attractive electrostatic interactions. Longer UV exposure weakens insulin adsorption but does not significantly affect immunoglobulin adsorption.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Cohort Study Comparing Efficacy and Safety of Pharmacological Intervention and Phototherapy in Moderate to Severe Psoriasis Patients in a Real-World Setting<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Methotrexate (MTX) is one of the first-line systemic treatment options in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis and can be combined with narrow band UVB phototherapy (Nb-UVB). However, such a combination is rarely used for optimal duration due to safety and efficacy concerns. The aim of this study was to assess efficacy and safety of methotrexate (MTX) combination with low doses of Nb-UVB versus MTX monotherapy in patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis in a real-world setting. Retrospective psoriasis patient medical chart review was performed for the period from 2013 till 2019. The combination therapy group (Group 1, n = 74) received MTX 10 mg s/c once a week for four to six weeks and 311 nm UVB phototherapy according to the skin type and protocol of administration — three times a week; undergoing 10–24 procedures in the treatment course. The monotherapy group (Group 2, n = 57) was treated, using MTX as monotherapy 2.5 mg two times a day orally for five days (4–6 treatment courses in total). The combination therapy group achieved decrease of mean PASI at the end of the 2<sup>nd</sup> week of treatment by 38% vs monotherapy group 21%. Combination of low dose subcutaneous MTX and Nb-UVB therapy provides better treatment outcomes and normalisation of immunochemical parameters than for MTX monotherapy. This combination also showed a favourable tolerability profile.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Life in Type 1 Diabetes Children with Other Autoimmune Diseases<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the quality of life and glycaemic control in children with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and associated autoimmune diseases with T1D only, using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Generic Core Scale. The study examined differences in health-related quality of life assessments and glycaemic control between children with T1D and associated autoimmune diseases and T1D only. In total, 94 children, aged 2 to 17 years, and their parents participated in the study. The results of the study showed a statistically significantly lower total score of general well-being for children with T1D and associated autoimmune disease (<italic>p</italic> = 0.016). Children with T1D and associated autoimmune disease reported a lower physical function score (<italic>p</italic> = 0.034) and lower emotional function score (<italic>p</italic> = 0.038). Social and school function scores did not differ in those with and without T1D associated autoimmune disease. There were no statistically significant differences in haemoglobin A1c between children with T1D and autoimmune disease and T1D only.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Serum Vitamin B12 Level in the Blood from Patients of Different Age Among the Latvian Population<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The reference intervals and median values of serum vitamin B12 level in blood from patients among the Latvian population were established for different age groups with a two-year step using data for a large number of patients, accumulated in E. Gulbis Laboratory in Latvia. The data represents the general population of Latvia. An indirect in silico method, developed in E. Gulbis laboratory for determination of serum vitamin B12 blood level reference intervals, was used. Strong elevation of serum vitamin B12 blood level was observed in children who were between 2 and 10 years old. The paper discusses the serum vitamin B12 values for children and a different serum vitamin B12 reference interval for young children is suggested.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Accuracy of Patient State Index for Measuring Anaesthetic Depth in Patients Undergoing Propofol-Sevoflurane Anaesthesia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Processed electroencephalographic indices such as the Patient State Index (PSi) have been proposed as a method of monitoring the depth of general anaesthesia. However, in order to establish the validity of PSi, it is necessary to compare its accuracy to other techniques, such as the isolated forearm technique (IFT). 30 ASA (American Society of Anaesthesiologists classification) I–III patients were administered standard propofol-sevoflurane anaesthesia with PSi monitoring. Before each dose of muscle relaxant, the forearm contralateral to the intravenous cannula was isolated for 30 minutes. PSi, hand movements, and exhaled sevoflurane concentrations were recorded during the induction of anaesthesia, intubation, throughout the surgical procedure, prior to extubation, and patients’ responses to commands were classified as positive or negative. The Brice questionnaire was used to assess intraoperative awareness after the patient regained consciousness. All patients completed the study without memory of the surgery or IFT commands, 53.3% of patients showed a response to IFT commands during intubation. PSi values ranged around 26 (23.5; 30) in IFT non-responders and 33.5 (26; 42) in responders (<italic>p</italic> = 0.15). The best cut-off value for PSi to predict IFT response was 55, with a sensitivity of 60% and specificity of 85.2%, which led to the conclusion that PSi is not a fully reliable tool for monitoring the depth of anaesthesia.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Plant Taxa Introduced by Raimonds Cinovskis (1930–1998)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Raimonds Cinovskis (1930–1998) devoted his entire life to plants, especially to the research of dendroflora in Latvia, as well as in the Baltic states in general, and he also participated in botanical expeditions in several places in Asia. He introduced many new names of plant taxa, described new taxa, and made new name combinations. Although the plant names he created are widely used by Latvian botanists and can also be found in the seed exchange catalogues issued by local botanic gardens, these names have never been (with some exceptions) evaluated before. This paper summarises all of the names of plant taxa introduced by R. Cinovskis. It was established that R. Cinovskis introduced more than 200 new names of plant taxa or new name combinations for plants belonging to 11 plant families — Betulaceae, Caprifoliaceae, Cupressaceae, Grossulariaceae, Juglandaceae, Pinaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rosaceae, Salicaceae, Sapindaceae, and Ulmaceae. The majority of the names of plant taxa were for plants of the rose family (Rosaceae). Critically evaluating the compliance of the names introduced by R. Cinovskis with the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants, it was concluded that the majority of the names were published illegitimately.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Characterisation of Carob Tree Pods Cultivated in Algeria and Evaluation of Physicochemical, Nutritional, and Sensory Properties of Their Powders<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Given its very important economic and environmental interests, the cultivation of carob tree in Algeria has experienced remarkable development, which is reflected in the methods of plant multiplication, the increase in the surface area of its cultivation, and in particular, the growing number of carob fruit processing industries (first and second transformation). In this context, the present study focused on the evaluation of the food quality of whole pod powders and carob pulps from three different regions of Algeria (Boumerdes, Relizane, and Tissemsilt). The experimental part presents a morphobiometric characterisation of carob pods carried out during the 2020–2021 production campaign — length, width, mass, volume, thickness, size index (length/width), the number and mass of seeds, analysis of the food quality of carob powders from whole pods and their pulps and determining their physicochemical properties (particle size, pH and dry matter), nutritional properties (ash, crude proteins, total sugars, crude fibres, fats) and sensory (colour, taste, texture, and smell). The results showed that the morphobiometric characteristics of the carob pods studied (physicochemical, nutritional, and sensory properties of the powders) strongly depend on the biogeographical site of the carob tree and the conditions of its production. Compared to the other carob fruit powders analysed, Relizane carob pulps powder showed a better sensory appreciation; this powder was characterised by a colour (100% light brown), taste (50% sweet, 50% very sweet), texture (100% fine), and odour (100% carob with strong intensity). Indeed, the study of the food quality of the two types of powders obtained separately from whole pods (seeds and pulps) and from the pulps is very valuable and opens possible ways of food valorisation of carob tree fruit.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Study on Family Health-Related Quality of Life Due to Pediatric COVID-19 Infection In Latvia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and ensuing public health policies have immensely affected the lives of billions of people worldwide and been challenging for families. There have been studies exploring mental health of different age groups during a pandemic, but few have focused on family health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This qualitative study investigates the emotional well-being of families while caring for an acutely sick child with COVD-19, using semi-structured in-depth interviews. The results demonstrate that it is one of the most affected components of the family HRQoL.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Facial Mask Use in COVID-19 Transmission Using a Bacterial Model<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The prevention of COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, involves reducing transmission of infectious respiratory droplets and aerosols with different methods, including the use of face masks. There have been a variety of studies published about the effectiveness of face masks — they have been recognised as an inexpensive yet expedient prevention method. In this research we aimed to investigate the microbial contamination of used face masks and to compare the results based on mask usage time to determine the efficiency of facial mask use against COVID-19. Microbiological contamination of 51 used face masks was analysed by the imprinting method on suitable cultivation agars and colony forming units were determined. The majority of microorganisms found in our study were those of normal human skin and respiratory tract microbiota. A greater number of bacterial species was found on the outsides of the facial masks, which furthermore increased with prolonged usage time. We conclude that face mask use is effective in both detaining excreted microorganisms as well as protecting the wearer from microbes in the air, and therefore, should be implemented in the prevention strategies of respiratory diseases. Furthermore, our results show the importance of correct facial mask usage by their contamination with a spectrum of microorganisms.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Outcomes of Patients Hospitalised with COVID-19 Pneumonia in Rīga East University Hospital<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The COVID-19 pandemic is still a burden to the global health care system, affecting its capacity to maintain essential health services. Even though specific treatment and prevention options are available, the SARS-CoV-2 virus keeps accumulating mutations over time and challenging the efficiency of vaccines, causing new outbreaks and increasing hospitalisation. Early studies suggest that mortality from COVID-19 is increased by age and certain comorbidities. Thus, the goal of this study was to analyse patients hospitalised with COVID-19 pneumonia in terms of age, sex, and comorbidities. Additionally, the influence of treatment with Remdesivir and vaccination on hospitalisation duration and disease outcome was also analysed. The results showed that lethal disease outcome is mainly increased by age and gender, where older and male patients are at a higher risk. There were less deaths in patients with primary arterial hypertension. Other comorbidities did not have a statistically significant influence on disease outcome. Among those who survived, a higher number of patients had been treated with Remdesivir. Vaccination did not have an impact on disease outcome. It could be concluded that older and male patients are the risk group with a worse disease outcome. Treatment with Remdesivir shows a positive effect on disease outcome, although further detailed analysis is necessary.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue for COVID-19 in Latvia: Analysis of Public–Private Partnerships<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Private–public partnership is a collaboration between two major sectors of a municipalities economy. It is a so called “win-win” partnership, where both parties can benefit in achieving their planned goals while working jointly. In December 2019, in China, the first reported cases of COVID-19 were detected. The virus spread quickly throughout China and reached Latvia in March 2020. In this study we analyse the role of private–public partnerships in organising effective COVID-19 testing of the population in Latvia. By 1 June 2020, Latvia had the 3<sup>rd</sup> lowest incidence of COVID-19-caused deaths per 100,000 inhabitants. This study included a systematic review, data acquisition, analysis of the findings, and conclusions were drawn and discussed. During the 1<sup>st</sup> wave of the pandemic, the private sector collected and conducted more than 95% of the COVID-19 testing in Latvia. The study showed that there could be many contributing factors to success of Latvia during the 1<sup>st</sup> wave of the pandemic, one of which was that Latvia seemed to rely more on the private sector to organise the testing, which seemed to pay off at first.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Disorders and Crime: An Introduction to Clinical Criminology<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The importance of criminological research is increasing nowadays. Crime is the most dangerous form of deviance and has the most severe social consequences. Combating crime would not be conceivable without the theories and knowledge of criminology. The application of theoretical knowledge in practice should be promoted in criminological research. The manifestations of crime as a socially negative and legal phenomenon are widespread, and social deviations can have completely different forms of manifestation. This is clearly supported by the findings of clinical criminology that evolved from the concept of classical criminology. Clinical criminology is a theoretical and practical study of the personality of a criminal who has committed a criminal offence in a state of mental incapacity or diminished mental capacity, and an approach to determining preventive measures and means..</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Reports on COVID-19 Outcomes During the Pandemic in Patients with Well-Managed HIV Infection in Latvia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to a global pandemic with serious implications and open questions for all areas of medicine, including immunocompromised patients. In Latvia, as of the end of 2022, 229 new cases of HIV were registered, reflecting an incidence rate of 12.2 per 100,000 people. Despite the fact that immunocompromised patients are at risk of poor outcomes of COVID-19, there is currently no evidence that clinical manifestations of COVID-19 in people living with HIV (PLWH) differ from those in the general population, provided these patients have well-controlled immune status (CD4+ count &gt; 200 and undetectable viral load). We report two cases of COVID-19, specifically the Delta variant, in male patients with well-controlled HIV infection who had received three vaccine doses against COVID 19. Both patients fully recovered within one week without complications, requiring no specific treatment. Considering the current published data and our observations, it can be assumed that the course of COVID-19 in vaccinated well-controlled HIV patients does not differ from the typical clinical manifestations of COVID-19 in the general population. It is necessary to decrease vaccine hesitancy among PLWH, as COVID-19 vaccination is a crucial measure to safeguard this segment of the population against poor outcomes of COVID-19 such as hospitalisation, the risk of long-term health problems, severe disease, and death).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue