rss_2.0Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences. Section B. Natural, Exact, and Applied Sciences. FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences. Section B. Natural, Exact, and Applied Sciences. of the Latvian Academy of Sciences. Section B. Natural, Exact, and Applied Sciences. Feed Study on Family Health-Related Quality of Life Due to Pediatric COVID-19 Infection In Latvia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and ensuing public health policies have immensely affected the lives of billions of people worldwide and been challenging for families. There have been studies exploring mental health of different age groups during a pandemic, but few have focused on family health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This qualitative study investigates the emotional well-being of families while caring for an acutely sick child with COVD-19, using semi-structured in-depth interviews. The results demonstrate that it is one of the most affected components of the family HRQoL.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Facial Mask Use in COVID-19 Transmission Using a Bacterial Model<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The prevention of COVID-19, caused by SARS-CoV-2, involves reducing transmission of infectious respiratory droplets and aerosols with different methods, including the use of face masks. There have been a variety of studies published about the effectiveness of face masks — they have been recognised as an inexpensive yet expedient prevention method. In this research we aimed to investigate the microbial contamination of used face masks and to compare the results based on mask usage time to determine the efficiency of facial mask use against COVID-19. Microbiological contamination of 51 used face masks was analysed by the imprinting method on suitable cultivation agars and colony forming units were determined. The majority of microorganisms found in our study were those of normal human skin and respiratory tract microbiota. A greater number of bacterial species was found on the outsides of the facial masks, which furthermore increased with prolonged usage time. We conclude that face mask use is effective in both detaining excreted microorganisms as well as protecting the wearer from microbes in the air, and therefore, should be implemented in the prevention strategies of respiratory diseases. Furthermore, our results show the importance of correct facial mask usage by their contamination with a spectrum of microorganisms.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Outcomes of Patients Hospitalised with COVID-19 Pneumonia in Rīga East University Hospital<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The COVID-19 pandemic is still a burden to the global health care system, affecting its capacity to maintain essential health services. Even though specific treatment and prevention options are available, the SARS-CoV-2 virus keeps accumulating mutations over time and challenging the efficiency of vaccines, causing new outbreaks and increasing hospitalisation. Early studies suggest that mortality from COVID-19 is increased by age and certain comorbidities. Thus, the goal of this study was to analyse patients hospitalised with COVID-19 pneumonia in terms of age, sex, and comorbidities. Additionally, the influence of treatment with Remdesivir and vaccination on hospitalisation duration and disease outcome was also analysed. The results showed that lethal disease outcome is mainly increased by age and gender, where older and male patients are at a higher risk. There were less deaths in patients with primary arterial hypertension. Other comorbidities did not have a statistically significant influence on disease outcome. Among those who survived, a higher number of patients had been treated with Remdesivir. Vaccination did not have an impact on disease outcome. It could be concluded that older and male patients are the risk group with a worse disease outcome. Treatment with Remdesivir shows a positive effect on disease outcome, although further detailed analysis is necessary.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue for COVID-19 in Latvia: Analysis of Public–Private Partnerships<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Private–public partnership is a collaboration between two major sectors of a municipalities economy. It is a so called “win-win” partnership, where both parties can benefit in achieving their planned goals while working jointly. In December 2019, in China, the first reported cases of COVID-19 were detected. The virus spread quickly throughout China and reached Latvia in March 2020. In this study we analyse the role of private–public partnerships in organising effective COVID-19 testing of the population in Latvia. By 1 June 2020, Latvia had the 3<sup>rd</sup> lowest incidence of COVID-19-caused deaths per 100,000 inhabitants. This study included a systematic review, data acquisition, analysis of the findings, and conclusions were drawn and discussed. During the 1<sup>st</sup> wave of the pandemic, the private sector collected and conducted more than 95% of the COVID-19 testing in Latvia. The study showed that there could be many contributing factors to success of Latvia during the 1<sup>st</sup> wave of the pandemic, one of which was that Latvia seemed to rely more on the private sector to organise the testing, which seemed to pay off at first.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Disorders and Crime: An Introduction to Clinical Criminology<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The importance of criminological research is increasing nowadays. Crime is the most dangerous form of deviance and has the most severe social consequences. Combating crime would not be conceivable without the theories and knowledge of criminology. The application of theoretical knowledge in practice should be promoted in criminological research. The manifestations of crime as a socially negative and legal phenomenon are widespread, and social deviations can have completely different forms of manifestation. This is clearly supported by the findings of clinical criminology that evolved from the concept of classical criminology. Clinical criminology is a theoretical and practical study of the personality of a criminal who has committed a criminal offence in a state of mental incapacity or diminished mental capacity, and an approach to determining preventive measures and means..</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Reports on COVID-19 Outcomes During the Pandemic in Patients with Well-Managed HIV Infection in Latvia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has led to a global pandemic with serious implications and open questions for all areas of medicine, including immunocompromised patients. In Latvia, as of the end of 2022, 229 new cases of HIV were registered, reflecting an incidence rate of 12.2 per 100,000 people. Despite the fact that immunocompromised patients are at risk of poor outcomes of COVID-19, there is currently no evidence that clinical manifestations of COVID-19 in people living with HIV (PLWH) differ from those in the general population, provided these patients have well-controlled immune status (CD4+ count &gt; 200 and undetectable viral load). We report two cases of COVID-19, specifically the Delta variant, in male patients with well-controlled HIV infection who had received three vaccine doses against COVID 19. Both patients fully recovered within one week without complications, requiring no specific treatment. Considering the current published data and our observations, it can be assumed that the course of COVID-19 in vaccinated well-controlled HIV patients does not differ from the typical clinical manifestations of COVID-19 in the general population. It is necessary to decrease vaccine hesitancy among PLWH, as COVID-19 vaccination is a crucial measure to safeguard this segment of the population against poor outcomes of COVID-19 such as hospitalisation, the risk of long-term health problems, severe disease, and death).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the COVID-19 Emergency State in the Latvian General Population with Depression and Distress on Changes of Patterns of Smoking and Psychoactive Substance Use<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The World Health Organisation warned that the COVID-19 pandemic could have psychiatric consequences, such as elevated levels of depression and increased alcohol and psychoactive substance use. On 12 March 2020, Latvia declared a state of emergency, which was repealed on 10 June 2020. A nationwide representative online study in the general population of Latvia was conducted from 7 to 27 July 2020. The Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale was used to determine the presence of distress/depression. A structured questionnaire was used to determine psychoactive substance use. The study sample included 2608 respondents. In the study population, prevalence of depression and distress was estimated to be 5.7% (95% CI 4.92–6.71) and 7.82% (95% CI 6.85–8.91), respectively. Patients with depression and distress smoked more tobacco than respondents without distress/depression. During the state of emergency, there were changes in smoking habits in patients with depression, in contrast with respondents without reported depressive symptoms, with a tendency to smoke either more (28% vs. 7.4%) or less (22% vs. 9.7%). Patients with distress smoked more than healthy patients (30.9% vs. 7.4%). Patients with depression and distress were significantly more likely to consume more alcohol during an emergency (14.0% and 17.7%). Patients with depression were more likely to use less alcohol during an emergency than healthy respondents (18.0% vs. 10.6%). There was no statistically significant difference in the use of other psychoactive substances among those who were depressed or in distress. Participants with depression were more likely to change their smoking habits during the state of emergency and to consume smaller alcohol amounts compared to participants without symptoms. Participants with distress smoked more and consumed larger alcohol amounts compared to healthy participants.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue COVID-19 Symptom Profile in Children and Adolescents Tested for SARS-CoV-2<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Even though more than two years have passed since the global pandemic started, COVID-19 continues to impact children all over the world. The most common course of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children is short term with no or mild symptoms. However, there are two long-term consequences: long COVID and multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). A post-COVID19 programme for children has been created in Latvia; however, we know that the availability of this service is limited. We developed an online survey so that we could screen for those paediatric patients with long COVID who needed to see a specialist as soon as possible. The cross-sectional study from 1 November 2021 to 27 March 2022 included 220 patients. In our study, the most frequent symptoms in the age group &lt; 1.5 years were irritability (50%), mood swings (50%), persistent cough (33.3%) and loss of appetite (33.3%). In the group aged 1.5–5 years, a persistent cough (54.4%), mood swings (43.9%) and irritability (42.1%) were the most common symptoms, while in the group aged 6–10 years, fatigue (56.6%), abdominal pain (55.3%), headache (50%), and mood swings (50%) were seen most often. Meanwhile in the 11–18 age group, impaired physical activity (66.7%), fatigue (62.3%) and drowsiness (62.3%) were the most frequently seen symptoms.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Between Attitude Towards Vaccination Against COVID-19 and Socialdemographic, Health-Related and Psychological Parameters Among Unvaccinated Hospital Employees in Latvia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccination of healthcare workers has a critical role in protecting them, the patients, and society. The aim of this study was to explore attitude factors related to COVID-19 vaccination of unvaccinated hospital employees in Latvia. Data were collected from March to May 2021 among the employees of nine hospitals. Overall, 355 respondents took part in the online survey. The respondents in this group ranged from 19 to 71 years old. The results of the hierarchical multiple regression found that sex, previous influenza vaccination, and psychological parameters, are related to more of an attitude of denial regarding vaccination among unvaccinated hospital employees. In conclusion, our study suggests that respondents without previous influenza vaccination, and having concern about the speed of vaccine production, distrust in recommendations of specialists, belief about not being a risk group, belief that the vaccine does not protect oneself and others, belief that COVID-19 is made up, and vaccines are a threat, are related to a more negative attitude towards COVID-19 vaccination.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Quality of Maternal and Newborn Care in Childbirth: Findings Over Time of the Imagine Euro Study on 40 WHO Standard-Based Quality Measures During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Latvia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objectives of the study were to investigate the quality of maternal and newborn care (QMNC) from the view of mothers who gave birth in a healthcare facility during the COVID-19 pandemic in Latvia. An online questionnaire survey was conducted in Latvia from 1 March 2020 to 28 October 2021, which was based on 40 World Health Organisation (WHO) Standard-based Quality measures. In addition, descriptive and multivariate quantile regression analyses were performed to compare the years 2020 and 2021. A total of 2079 women participated in the study, of whom 833 gave birth in 2020 — of them, 648 had a vaginal delivery, and 185 had a cesarean section, and 1205 women gave birth in 2021, 979 with a vaginal delivery, and 226 with a cesarean section. A lower QMNC during the COVID-19 pandemic was reported by 29.8% and 24.5% of respondents in 2020 and 2021. The total QMNC Index was notably higher in 2021 compared to 2020. This study showed essential gaps in the QMNC in Latvia perceived by mothers, while observing a slight increase in quality in 2021. Therefore, strategies to improve mothers’ and newborns’ health care should be introduced as soon as possible.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Health Belief Model to Predict Vaccination Intention in Unvaccinated Adults in Latvia During the COVID-19 Pandemic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Vaccination is a global health development success story that saves millions of lives every year and reduces the risk of getting various infectious diseases, including COVID-19. At the end of 2021, a rapid increase in the size of the population infected with COVID-19 and a low vaccination coverage were observed in Latvia (Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, 2021). Also, despite the available vaccines, by the beginning of May 2022, only 60.6% of the population of Latvia had completed the full course of vaccination against COVID-19. According to the Ministry of Health, the vaccination process is characterised by variability and flexibility, and in general, vacci-nation rates have declined in recent years. Therefore, the aim of the study was to investigate the vaccination predicting factors of unvaccinated adults in Latvia using the Health Belief Model (HBM) during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study sample consisted of 539 respondents aged 18 to 75 years (M = 45.35, SD = 15.70), who were not vaccinated against COVID-19 and who had to make a decision to vaccinate or not, and who were part of a representative sample of Latvian residents (n = 1017). The data was collected in September and were analysed using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient and multivariate linear regression analysis. A statistically significant moderate strong positive correlation was shown between vaccination intention and all six vaccination motives as perceived benefits (r = 0.40–0.44, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01); statistically significant but weak positive correlation between vaccination intention and risk appraisal as perceived threat (r = 0.20, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01) and COVID-19 experience as cues to action (r = 0.20, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01); and statistically significant negative but weak correlation for vaccination intention and fear of vaccination as perceived barriers (r = –0.21, <italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01). The results revealed a statistically significant positive association of vaccination intention and the components of HBM: perceived threats, perceived benefits and cues to action, as well as a statistically significant negative association with perceived barriers. The results revealed several factors that predict vaccination intention, explaining 32% of the variation in vaccination intention: education level, perceived threats, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and cues to action. Higher levels of education, higher perceived threat of contracting COVID-19, many different social motives for vaccination (e.g., to be able travel), confidence that the vaccine will not cause significant side effects and long-term consequences, and experience with COVID-19 are factors that predicts an individual’s intention to vaccinate against COVID-19.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of COVID-19 on Coverage of Dental Services in Latvia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to describe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and related public health decisions on dental services. A retrospective study was conducted using secondary data on dental services (2019–2021). Data were obtained from the Latvian National Health Service and the Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and analysed using descriptive statistics and data visualisation methods. In the first wave of COVID-19, the frequency of routine dental services decreased by 81.6% at the patient level, which coincided with the restrictions imposed as public health measures. The amount of regular dental manipulations returned to its previous level immediately after lifting restrictions. Still, they decreased to a more moderate extent (not exceeding 25% decline) with the beginning of the second wave. We observed a decrease in all manipulations, regardless of their aerosol-generating risk, and no increase in preventive manipulations that could be performed without any physical contact. We conclude that the most significant decrease in the availability of services was directly linked to existing public health measures. It seems that these measures allowed time to adapt the clinics to the new sanitary requirements, further ensuring continuity of service provision.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Section 140 Paragraph 7 of the Criminal Procedure Law of the Republic of Latvia During the COVID-19 Pandemic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The goal of the legislator, by supplementing Article 140 of the Criminal Procedure Law of the Republic of Latvia with Part 7.1, was to make the regulation of criminal proceedings more efficient, to speed up the execution of investigative activities, as well as to facilitate the organisation of court work in connection with the planning of court sessions and the conduct of trials. During the spread of the COVID-19 infection, the mentioned article provided an opportunity for the achievement of epidemiological safety goals to conduct criminal procedural activities using a video conference. The article “Application of the procedure set out in Article 140, Part 7.1 of the Criminal Procedure Law during the COVID-19 pandemic” provides an insight into how the regulation of the criminal procedure, which has been streamlined in theory, is not used in practice, and during the spread of the COVID -19 infection, its use was not effective enough. According to the Author, the problem that has arisen in practice — insufficient use of the legal norm — is related to the insufficient knowledge of industry specialists, including the inability to apply a uniform interpretation of the legal norm.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Automated Management Use of Self-Sampling Kits<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the current times of ever-growing prevalence of infectious diseases, it is requisite to explore ways to provide the safest and most effective medical care for our patients. The aim of this study is to explain how the issues raised by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic were addressed by the E. Gulbis Laboratory in Latvia. The study looks back on the goal to introduce an automated and effective solution for the management of self-collected samples. The study is primarily aimed to formulate the conclusions about the data and use of automation in the self-sample kit collection. Results were collected from 18 automated (contactless) sample collection devices used by E. Gulbis Laboratory. Sixty-four thousand two hundred fifty-seven (64,257) saliva kits for SARSCoV-2 PCR testing were employed. It was found that 3.92% of them were positive (SARS-CoV-2 virus RNA found in saliva sample). The average processing time in automated devices located in the capital city was 11.13 hours, in the suburbs — 15.52 hours, rest of the country — 17.60 hours. The average age of patients that choose an automatic device to hand in their saliva sample kits was 33.94 years. These results suggest that by using the automated device, patient contacts are decreased, and direct communication with medical staff is excluded, which reduces the risk of infection during processing. Automated devices make sample kit distribution available 24 hours. They save workforce resources in the laboratory that are already very limited, especially during a pandemic period.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Vaccination Against SARS-CoV-2 in Patients with Rheumatic Diseases in Latvia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The retrospective study for rheumatic disease patients was conducted between 27 December 2020 and 31 August 2021 at Pauls Stradiņš Clinical University Hospital, in the largest centre of Rheumatology in Latvia with the aim of assessing the impact of vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 for rheumatic disease patients. From the hospital’s local medical electronic system, we collected demographic data, disease activity, comorbidities, data regarding vaccines and their side effects for 422 rheumatic disease patients. Most of them, 377 (89.3%), had inflammatory arthritis or a rare rheumatic disease and the most common disease was rheumatoid arthritis 30.1%; 26.5% of all patients were in remission. csDMARDs (conventional synthetic disease modified antirheumatic drugs) were used in 47.2%, biological DMARDs in 51%, and immunosuppressive medicines in 4.2% cases. The most commonly used vaccine was BNT162b2, for 49.05% patients. The main side effect after vaccination was pain in the injection site, for 16.1% patients. 36.7% of patients had no side effects after vaccination. 8.7% of patients had a flare of disease after the vaccination process. The most common comorbidity was cardiovascular diseases, for 38.7% of patients. Mild side effects, and a small percentage of flare-up of a rheumatic disease demonstrated the safety of vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 in the rheumatic disease patient group.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Factors Related to COVID-19 Preventive Health Behaviours Using a Health Belief Model<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Non-pharmaceutical interventions, including physical distancing, hand hygiene, mask wearing, are some of the most effective public health interventions against COVID-19 spread. Adoption of these measures can vary in different countries and even in different populations within a country. The goal of our study was to investigate factors that influence adoption of these preventive health behaviours in the Latvian population within the Health Belief Model framework, while also expanding on the models cues to action dimension by testing if evaluation of COVID-19-related government actions and belief in COVID-19 related conspiracy theories could be used as such. Our quantitative cross-sectional study that was carried out in Latvia before the second wave of COVID-19 pandemic included two samples of major population language groups (nLatvian = 452; nRussian = 190) and showed differences that could potentially improve adoption of preventive health behaviours in Latvia if regarded in informing and educating the public. It was also found that evaluation of COVID-19-related government actions has statistically significant impact on preventive health behaviour and could be used as cues to action within the HBM, while belief in COVID-19-related conspiracy theories had no association with preventive health behaviour.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Inflammatory Syndrome Impact on the Cardiovascular System: Single-Centre Study of Latvia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>MIS-C (Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children) is a hyperinflammatory syndrome caused by the Sars-CoV-2 virus, still an ongoing issue worldwide. MIS-C is associated with an impairment of various organ systems, including the cardiovascular system, and up to 100% of all MIS-C patients have a broad spectrum and severity of symptoms. Identifying MIS-C early and starting therapy is crucial to minimise possible complications and clinical worsening. A prospective cohort study in a single centre was conducted at the Children’s Clinical University Hospital in Latvia from January to December 2021. Patients between the ages of one and seventeen years who met the MIS-C criteria were included in the study. We evaluated the patient’s demographic data, blood pressure, echocardiographic data, ESG data, and cardiac biomarkers such as proBNP and troponin I. Thirty-one patients were included who met the MIS-C criteria. The median age was 8.0 years, and 52% were boys. Of all patients, 77% initially presented with hypotension, and 42% required inotropic support. Treatment in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) was required in 58% of patients. Reduced left ventricular ejection fraction was observed in 35% of patients. Mildly decreased ventricular ejection fraction (&lt; 55%) was observed in 19% of cases, and moderate dysfunction (ejection fraction &lt; 45%) in 16% of patients. Twelve per cent of patients received milrinone to improve left heart function. Left heart function significantly improved in all patients during the hospitalisation. In 6% of all patients, coronary artery dilations were observed. All patients had dilation resolution at the time of discharge. The median length of hospitalisation was twelve days, and the median length of PICU stay was three days. Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children is a significant and potentially life-threatening illness with cardiovascular involvement in 100% of cases. Patients who present primarily with higher ProBNP levels are more likely to have decreased left ventricle ejection fraction, which should be kept in mind when evaluating patients with MIS-C. Overall, patients with MIS-C have a good prognosis, and most cardiovascular changes have been resolved by discharge, but further follow-up and studies are needed to judge the long-term outcome.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Saprobic Basidiomycetes (, and ) Using Different Biological Waste Substrates<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Development of new biological preparations to control <italic>Heterobasidion</italic> root rot is a complex process, but when a potential antagonist is identified, cultivation of the fungus is required. In this study, five different substrates (deciduous sawdust, coniferous sawdust, rye bran, straw and corn kernels) were tested as substrates for the cultivation of three fungal species: <italic>Bjerkandera adusta, Phlebiopsis gigantea</italic>, and <italic>Sistotrema brinkmannii</italic>, which could be potentially used against <italic>Heterobasidion</italic> spp. Mycelial growth was evaluated visually, and oidia production was estimated microscopically. In the straw substrate, <italic>P. gigantea</italic> produced significantly more (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) oidia compared to the other substrates. In addition, oidia production at two different incubation temperatures were compared. As a result, the best substrate for cultivation of all three fungal species was coniferous sawdust.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Glutapyrone and its Impact on Expression of the Genes Involved in DNA Repair and Free Radical Production in Intact and Diabetic Rats<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Modification of expression of several genes encoding enzymes involved in radical production and DNA repair by a 1,4-DHP derivative glutapyrone was studied in intact rats and animals with streptozotocin diabetes mellitus. Glutapyrone stimulated <italic>iNos</italic> mRNA production in both kidneys and blood. The effect was stronger in kidneys of diabetic animals, however in blood the expression was down-regulated. The compound increased the <italic>Parp 1</italic> gene expression in kidneys of both intact and diabetic animals; in blood the effect was adverse. Expression of <italic>XDh</italic> gene was significantly increased by glutapyrone in kidneys of intact and diabetic animals. Administration of the compound to intact animals triggered significant increase of DNA damage in white blood cells assayed by comet assay; in diabetic animals no effect was produced. To explain discrepancies with the formerly described effects of glutapyrone on cultured cells, metabolism of the compound was studied. Glutapyrone is either oxidised or the residue of glutamic acid is removed, glutapyrone turns into AV-153, and the latter is metabolised to smaller compounds. Formation of AV-153, a DNA binder and genotoxic compound in high concentrations, can explain DNA damage in white blood cells and stimulation of DNA repair.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Mucosal Tissue Thickness on Peri-Implant Bone Stability: Retrospective Radiological Study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Gradual bone loss around the implants is an ongoing concern. Mucosal tissue thickness is considered as a contributing factor that influences bone remodelling after implantation. It has been suggested that tissue thickness thinner than 2.5 mm may contribute to more peri-implant bone loss, eventually affecting implant bone stability. Measuring mucosal thickness prior to surgery may be a predictor of the bone changes and could modify the surgical methods. In this study mucosal tissue thickness was measured retrospectively on radiographs before implant insertion, one year and at least three years after implantation. Within the limits of this study, no influence of initial mucosal tissue thickness on long term peri-implant bone stability was found.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue