rss_2.0Quaestiones Geographicae FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Quaestiones Geographicae Geographicae Feed of Land Cover Change in the Anambra River Basin of Nigeria and Implications for Sustainable Land Management<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>Land cover change and its consequences such as environmental degradation and biodiversity loss pose significant global challenges, including in Nigeria’s Anambra River Basin. This study focuses on monitoring, predicting and understanding land cover changes in the basin from 1987 to 2018, with projections up to 2030. It explores the intricate relationship between population growth and land cover dynamics, aiming to contribute to sustainable land management practices and align with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for 2030. Using a combination of neural network classification and the CA-Markov model, the study analyses historical land cover data to identify significant transformations. Between 1987 and 2018, bare lands increased by 29%, vegetation increased by 14%, built-up areas increased by 128% and waterbodies increased by 10%, whereas there was a 58% decline in the extent of wetlands. The most significant transformation occurred in the wetlands, with a total of 1819.46 km<sup>2</sup> being converted to various land cover types. The results demonstrate remarkable shifts characterised by rapid urbanisation, substantial wetland loss and a decline in vegetation cover. Expectedly, population growth is found to be closely linked to the expansion of built-up areas while negatively impacting other land cover types. These findings underscore the urgent need for sustainable land management strategies that balance the demands of growing populations with the preservation of natural ecosystems and biodiversity. Furthermore, the study provides future projections that offer crucial insights for decision-makers involved in land use planning, biodiversity conservation and sustainable development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Geographical Distribution of Mobility-Related Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Poznań and Tri-City Functional Urban Areas<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>Mobility is an important source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and a major contributor to human-induced climate change. Much of these emissions result from urban residents’ travel within urban areas (i.e. short-distance travel [SDT]) and away from them (i.e. long-distance travel [LDT]). In this study, we focus on the distribution of mobility-related GHG emissions in two functional urban areas in Poland: Poznań and the Tri-city. Using data from a representative survey (N ~2000 in each area), we investigate the emission distribution and associations between emission levels and the socio-economic characteristics and residential locations of study participants. Emission levels are unequally distributed: the top 10% of emitters contribute &gt;50% of SDT and LDT emissions. People with high education and income levels tend to travel and emit more within and away from the cities. People of retirement age travel and emit much less than the younger people. SDT emission levels are clustered spatially and increase with the increasing distance from the main city centres and decreasing density. LDT emissions have only very weak or no association with residential location.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Data Sources and Normalised Indices of Use in Small Arctic Catchment Research<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>The development of remote sensing instruments and methods has revolutionised work practices worldwide, resulting in a new field of research. Remote sensing has significantly expanded the possibilities for detailed research, spanning from biological to urban studies, by constantly imaging the Earth. Numerous photogrammetric campaigns and satellite missions have been increasing the possibilities for conducting research that includes larger areas and time scales while minimising the need for fieldwork. This is particularly useful in polar regions, where fieldwork is complicated by harsh weather conditions, hard-to-reach research areas, polar nights, and the need for high funding and logistical support. Here available algorithms that help to track environmental shifts in the small Arctic catchments, such as changes in ice, snow, vegetation, and water are presented.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue (The Focus) from Denial to Dialogue: The Recommended Directions for Communicating Climate Change to Non-Expert Audiences Based on the Analysis of Climate Scientists’ Communicative Experiences<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>The article’s topic reflects climate scientists’ presence and communication in the public sphere, while the main focus is on the two ways a society may respond to the climate scientists’ communicative efforts: by denying the scientific messaging (climate change denial) and by engaging in relation-building communication (climate change dialogue). Those aspects were explored from the point of view of American and Polish climate scientists through the method of in-depth interviewing. According to the scientists, as the study results show, the most effective way to enhance science-society dialogue on climate change is to detangle from unproductive denial narratives and truly embrace the dialogic model of science communication by opening it to feedback, including honest societal scepticism.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Review and Discussion of Modern Concepts and its Relation to the Research in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>This paper describes the foundations of the periglacial concept beginning from the introduction of this term by Łoziński in 1909 and 1912. Its etymology along with the meaning and definitions that change over time are analysed in the present paper. Originally derived from geology, periglacial now functions as a geomorphological term. It has been compared with other terms used in the characterisation of cold geographical environments; the role of freezing and ice has been especially emphasised for periglaciology, and the most important types of ice have been highlighted. The present paper aims to show that with the increasing specialisation of research and the evolution of the meaning of the term periglacial, it is still seen as playing an important integrating role. The relation of the periglacial environment and ice to the glacial environment is also presented, showing the places of mutual overlapping of both environments. Old and newly introduced terms related to this concept such as periglacial facies, periglacial landscape, paraglacial, and cryo-conditioning are critically assessed. Finally, a short description of the permafrost in Poland, occurring in two remote and specific places, is presented: the active mountain permafrost covering the alpine belt of the Tatra Mountains about 1900 m a.s.l. and the relict permafrost in the Suwałki area, located in the northern lowland of Poland at a depth of 357 m and below.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Past, Winter was Winter, and Summer was Summer: Climate Change in the Eyes of Older Adults from Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>Older adults have a long-time perspective when it comes to the perception of changes in local climate and are uniquely vulnerable to these developments in terms of health. The discussed in-depth, qualitative study is based on interviews with people from the age group over 65 years (N = 10; five females), who live in different regions of Poland, concerning their views on climate change and its mitigation. Reflexive thematic analysis was used to create a map of their observations and attitudes. Results indicate the importance of perceiving climate change in specific and local categories as well as show frequent identification of this issue with traditional environmentalism focussed on pollution and littering. This foregrounds difficulties in understanding invisible greenhouse gases and how they work. In terms of mitigation, the study has revealed little faith in climate action undertaken by fellow citizens and the government, as well as a sense of limited agency, which is also disproportionally projected onto children and young adults. However, through everyday observations, older adults appear to be profoundly aware of how climate change impacts the environment. Contrary to stereotypes, they also declare high emotional engagement in this issue. Consequently, despite being overlooked with respect to this subject, older adults can play an important role in promoting climate awareness and climate-friendly policies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in Arctic Coastal Geomorphological Research in Times of Rapid Climate Warming<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>Recognising the degree of climate transformations in the Arctic becomes vital, especially in times of rapid global climate change. The 21st century has seen a renaissance in Arctic coastal research. Here, we aim to present this recent progress. Moving from the European Arctic through the Siberian part and ending with the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA), we describe how the region’s coasts have transformed. This work is mostly focussed on progress in coastal geomorphology, geohazards, and reconstructions of the paleoarchives, although we also address the future research challenges of cold region coastal environments.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Remote-Sensing Data in Geochemical Studies of Soils of the Yertis River Basin Within East Kazakhstan<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>This article presents the results of field research, as well as the results of the use of remote-sensing data in the geochemical study of the soil cover of the Yertis River basin. In the work, the content of the gross form of heavy metals in the soil of the river basin was investigated. The atomic absorption method determined the content of the Poor configuration of elements of elements in soils. Statistical processing of the obtained data from N. A. Plokhinsky was carried out using the Statistica program. Also, using the performed indices in the remote sensing of clay minerals, iron oxides, and carbonates, the spatial distribution and comparison of pollutants in the soil cover of the river basin were revealed. The methods and means of image processing tested in this study can be used to create maps of the distribution of pollutants. Also, the data obtained reflect the patterns of distribution of heavy metals in the soils of the basin and can be used to optimize landscapes and improve the organization of ecological and geochemical monitoring.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Landscape Fragmentation: Analysis of Land Cover Transformation in High Mountains Environment on the Example of Tatra Region (Southern Poland)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>Changes in land cover (LC) are continuously growing due to natural and human factors, and they are even occurring within protected areas. In Europe, one such place is the Tatra region (southern Poland), which is the area of the presented research. Dynamic landscape transformation in a valuable natural area can negatively affect both environmental quality and sustainable land use planning. Appropriate recommendations and treatments can be introduced to prevent negative effects. To do this, it is necessary to understand the dynamics and character of these transformations. Therefore, the purpose of the article is to analyse changes in LC, its causes and their spatiotemporal dynamics, as well as the resulting landscape fragmentation. For this purpose, a set of landscape metrics and GIS (Geographic Information System) tools were used. The main data source in the study was the CORINE Land Cover (CLC) database. The results indicate a significant landscape transformation with a negative impact on the region’s environment, even in protected areas. Landscape fragmentation, which causes disturbances in ecosystems, increased across the entire study area. In turn, in the spatial development, it can introduce chaos and spatial disorder, and lead to the phenomenon of urban sprawl.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Comprehensive Review On Landslide Susceptibility Zonation Techniques<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>This review paper provides an overview of recent research on landslide susceptibility. Landslides are a natural phenomenon that can cause significant damage to infrastructure and endanger human lives. The paper presents an in-depth analysis of the factors that contribute to landslide susceptibility, including geological, hydrological and anthropogenic factors. It also discusses various methods and techniques used to assess landslide susceptibility, including statistical models, geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing. The paper examines the advantages and limitations of these methods and highlights the need for an integrated approach that combines multiple techniques to improve accuracy and reliability. Additionally, the paper discusses the challenges associated with developing landslide susceptibility maps and emphasises the importance of considering uncertainties and risk assessments. The review paper concludes by identifying the gaps in current research and suggesting potential directions for future studies. Overall, this review paper provides a comprehensive analysis of landslide susceptibility, which can serve as a valuable resource for researchers, practitioners and policymakers working in this field.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Range of Ice Thrusts and Ice Piles as Reflected by Ice Scars on Trees Growing on the Shores of Coastal Lagoons: The Case of the Szczecin Lagoon<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>We studied the phenomena associated with the thrusting of ice onto the shore of the Szczecin Lagoon based on the occurrence of tree ice scars. The measurements concerned mostly the maximum height, length and width of ice scars on trees, and the distance of these trees from the shore in the period 2017–2022. It was observed that sheets of ice advanced up to 64 m inland, and piled to form hummocks reaching up to 4.3 m above the water level. These maximum values occurred mostly on eastern shores, which is where the highest numbers of damaged and broken trees were observed. This should be associated with the strongest and most frequently occurring wind blowing from the western direction in the winter-spring period. To the contrary, the lowest number of damaged trees were observed on the western shore. This is due not only to the lower frequency of wind blowing from the east, and the associated cooling (Ta &lt; 0°C) and ice cover stabilization, but also due to the presence of extensive reed belts. Our results enable an indirect insight into the ice phenomena dynamics, especially in areas lacking systematic ice observations. Similar conclusions may be extended for all the sheltered basins as lakes or lagoons.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Useful Life of the Sempor Reservoir Using Erosion Modelling<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>Sedimentation determines how optimal a reservoir functions throughout its design life. The Sempor Reservoir in Central Java, Indonesia, will be 45 years old in 2023. At least 15 million m<sup>3</sup> of particles have been sedimented in the reservoir for &gt;30 years, reducing its function as an irrigation water source to only 60%. Therefore, assessing its performance in providing irrigation water and generating hydropower electricity is essential, given that its design life ends in 2028. This study was conducted to analyse the sedimentation and estimate the useful life of the Sempor Reservoir based on the erosion potential in its catchment area. The potential sedimentation rate was formulated from erosion potential assessed using the universal soil loss equation (USLE) model, sediment delivery ratio (SDR) and trap efficiency (TE). By contrast, the actual sedimentation rate was determined from changes in the dead storage capacity from 2013 to 2023. The interpolation performance evaluation of the bathymetric survey results was tested using the coefficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup>), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) which resulted in values of 0.917; 0.87; and 13.03%, respectively. The results show that the catchment area had an erosion potential of 3,405,353.86 t·a<sup>-1</sup>, resulting in a potential sedimentation rate of 309,106.63 m<sup>3</sup>·a<sup>-1</sup>. The calculated actual sedimentation rate was 33,903.28 m<sup>3</sup>·a<sup>-1</sup>. Therefore, the useful life of the Sempor Reservoir was estimated to end in 0.5 years and 4.59 years based on the potential and actual sedimentation rates, respectively.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue at Higher Education Institutions in Poland as Seen by Students with Disabilities in the Context of the Geographical Model of Disability<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>The subject addressed in the present paper is important for the current social and educational policy regarding persons with disabilities. The development of the accessible education concept should be based on the geographical model of disability, whose main principle is to focus on the varied social needs and adjust the conditions of the geographical environment accordingly rather than to concentrate on the disability itself. The main aim of the study was to recognise the opinions of students with disabilities about studying at Polish higher education institutions (HEI). The study was based on the results of online interviews including standardised questions (open- and close-ended). The time scope of the study covers the years 2019 and 2021. The research has shown that some students hide their disability until it is visible. As a result, they do not receive adequate support and limit the achievement of goals that were the main motivation for studying. Measures taken to support students with different needs at HEIs must have a systemic nature and be addressed to the entire academic community, as well as to the society.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Skills are the Most Prized? Analysing Monetary Value of Geographers’ Skills on the Labour Market in Six European Countries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>The objective of the study is to identify those skills that are actually needed by the labour market and allow university graduates to achieve the highest remuneration. To achieve this objective, the authors monitored, for 18 months, online job postings from six countries addressed to geography graduates. Online job postings are the most up-to-date and reliable source of data about the salaries that employers are willing to offer for specific skills or skillsets. A total of 17,397 advertisements were collected, out of which 7,407 included information about the offered salary. Applying text mining and regression tree (classification and regression tree [CART]) analyses, the authors identified skills that significantly differentiate annual salaries. The group of competences associated with higher earnings includes highly specialised geographic information system (GIS), statistical and geological skills. Lower salaries were linked to some general skills such as communicating in a native language as well as some specialised skills, but only to those related to teaching and conducting scientific research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue for the Development of a Borderland Rural Territory: A Case Study of the Hlučín Region<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>The study evaluates the regional development potential of a specific rural micro-region with regard to its qualitative aspect. It aims to set a general strategy for further development. The method is a geographical analysis using the migration balance as an indicator of the region’s attractiveness for housing. Main strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats were identified. Generally accessible statistical data was used. The proposed strategy is to support the development of the human capital. In addition to the generally valid recommendations for the development of rural areas, it is always necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the geographical location, path dependency, natural, economic and social potential, the state of the environment, cultural factors or other specifics. The regional and local decision-making levels play an important role in this process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Regional Digital Divide in Türkiye<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>Technological advancement has not been equally distributed. It has differed from country to country, region to region, and even among individuals. As a result, the digital divide has emerged as an umbrella term to represent these disparities. Recently, the research focus has shifted to the outcomes of information and communication technology usage or tangible benefits (the third-level digital divide). As an emerging economy, Türkiye must overcome the digital divide to maximise tangible benefits. Thus, this research starts by determining the digital divide indicators for Türkiye and goes further to examine the digital divide between regions in Türkiye. The main aim is to present a comprehensive index for the regional scale that is currently missing in the literature. To do so, this research starts with exploring the digital divide indicators. Then, with the help of principal component analysis (PCA), a new index is formulated for Türkiye. The result maps indicate digital inequalities both at regional and city scales, yet inequalities are more remarkable at the city scale. Increasing the diversity of technology usage, focusing on gender equality, expanding R&amp;D expenditures, and supporting initiatives, especially ICT initiatives, will assist Türkiye in reducing digital inequalities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Role of a Green Economy in Revitalising Shrinking Cities: Comparative Case Studies in France and Mexico<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>This paper aims to research different strategies for developing the green economy in shrinking cities. Considering urban shrinkage and the green economy as two extended concepts, a French town in post-Fordist transition and a Mexican post-mining town are selected as the most diverse/similar systems to indicate different strategies for sustainable development in shrinking cities. Embedded into different national backgrounds, including urban dynamics and support schemes for the green economy, the selected cases share the objectives of greening and regrowing strategies relying on other sectors of the green economy. The methodology applied is qualitative, including fieldwork, semi-structured interview techniques, carried out in person or remotely, and questionnaires. Findings show some positive results regarding sustainability and ecological transition in the French case, while regrowth trends were reached in the Mexican case. However, the analysis leads to uncertain scenarios for positive long-term impacts, especially due to uncertainty around future supporting policies for territorial cohesion and sustainability at national and regional levels.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Preferences Regarding Urban Green Areas<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>Development of urban green areas and awareness of their value among citizens and local authorities is rapidly growing. This trend is not only the result of the coronavirus pandemic, but also reflects a belief in the role of green areas in reducing the negative effects of climate change and supporting overall well-being. As a consequence, more and more local governments are promoting local policies focused on the development of urban green areas with the participation of citizens. Using data collected in Zielona Góra, Poland, this study explores the gender patterns and differences in use and preferences according to the development of urban green areas. The main goals of the study were (1) to evaluate the possible relationship between gender and preferred types of visited green areas and transport modes used to reach them and (2) to explore the differences in expectations regarding the spatial development of green areas among men and women. The result of the study shows that women more often than men visit green areas closer to their place of residence and more often indicate playgrounds and other forms of greenery of an aesthetic function as proposed green areas. Furthermore, there are also differences regarding the means of transport used and preferable distance to green areas. Women visibly prefer green areas within the city centre, mostly use individual means of transport, and are more likely to travel on foot than men. Men prefer more distant green areas and mostly travel longer distances.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Impact of the Maritime Border on the Development of Poland’s Border Areas in Terms of Expenses of Foreigners and the COVID-19 Pandemic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>The aim of this paper is to present the issue of border traffic of foreigners and their expenses on the Polish maritime border. The study is based on quantitative data on border traffic and expenses of foreigners in Poland. The time of the study was 2014–2021. Thus, the impact of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on foreigners’ mobility and spending in Poland was additionally taken into account. For the purpose of this paper, the following study methods were adopted: reference literature analysis, secondary data analysis and comparative analysis. The paper mainly uses data from official statistics and the Border Guard. The study has shown that the Polish maritime border generates the smallest volume of border traffic, however, its share increased during the analysed period from 0.7% in 2014 to 0.8% in 2021. Nevertheless, it is foreigners crossing the maritime border who on average spend in Poland more than twice as much as foreigners crossing the Polish land border. In 2020, they spent the most on non-food goods (40%) and services (34.7%). As the study results reveal, their spending patterns and travel purposes are different from those of foreigners crossing the land border. The potential that foreign visitors bring is significant for the development of border areas in such sectors as tourism, services and trade. The analysis of the motivation of foreigners crossing the sea border makes it possible to shape the regional development policy of this particular area.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Landscape: Environmental and Social Consequences of (Illegal) Motor Tourism in Forests on the Example of Worek Okrzeszyna (The Central Sudetes on The Polish-Czech Borderland)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>Off-road vehicles (ORVs) have recently become a serious problem not only for natural peripheral areas, but also for those rare green enclaves in heavily urbanised regions. The consequences of motor traffic in naturally valuable areas, including forests, affect the environment together with all its users to different extent. The scale and ubiquity of this type of motor tourism in Poland convinced the authors to research the subject and assess its influence on the forest environment, on the example of the mountains surrounding the region called Worek Okrzeszyna on the Polish-Czech borderland. The authors aimed to determine the scale and character of the phenomenon in forests and environmentally valuable areas in Poland, as well as to assess its scope in the examined research area together with the environmental and social effects. A field inventory of all the trails used by motor tourists was carried out, with particular emphasis on the extent of the network and their environmental consequences. In the ranges surrounding Worek Okrzeszyna from the south, a significant negative impact of illegal motor tourism on the vegetation, soil and relief have been revealed. It occurs wherever the phenomenon takes place: on forest roads, tourist trails and beyond them. Although the main research subject is the pressure of motor tourism on the environment, the authors also raise questions regarding social consequences of the phenomenon (noise, worse aesthetic experience), followed by the limits of tourism as such.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue