rss_2.0Quaestiones Geographicae FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Quaestiones Geographicae Geographicae 's Cover and Course of Climate Change and Its Hydrological Consequences in the Greater Poland Region in 1951–2020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents effects of changes in climatic elements in the Greater Poland region (Poland), their causes and consequences for shaping the water balance of this area, copying with the most severe water deficit in Poland. The study period covers 70 years (1951–2020). The research identified an abrupt and significant change in the climate of Greater Poland, which started between 1987 and 1989, concerning not only air temperature but also a wider spectrum of climatic elements. The change in the state of the climate, which covers the entire Atlantic-Eurasian circulation sector, results from a sudden change in the macro-circulation conditions in the middle troposphere (500 hPa). The reason for the change in the mid-tropospheric circulation is an equally abrupt and simultaneous change in the intensity of the ocean heat transport by the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation (NA THC). Climate change observed in Greater Poland is manifested in an increase in sunshine duration (SD) and air temperature, a decrease in relative humidity, a change in the cloud structure, and an increase in the degree of sky coverage. The main, physical reason for an increase in air temperature is a rapid and strong increase in SD in the warm half-years, which began after 1988, and a significant increase in the frequency of positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phases in winters. The ongoing climate change entails various effects, among which the most important is considered to be hydrological consequences. The water balance of Greater Poland is becoming increasingly unfavourable, mainly as a result of a rapid increase in field evaporation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Geotourism Potential of Show Caves in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the modern world, tourism is a very dynamically growing industry with significant impact on the economic prosperity of many regions or even countries. The paper presents the geotourism potential of the 12 show (commercial) caves in Poland before and during the current pandemic time. Survey results demonstrate that caves are major geotourist attractions. In 2019, they were visited by a total of almost 950,000 people. The attendance might have exceeded even a million if the popular Mroźna Cave in the Tatras had not been temporarily closed to visitors due to a rockfall in winter period 2018/2019. In 2020, all the show caves combined were visited by a more than 390,000 people, which amounted to about 41% of the total attendance recorded for 2019. The most visited cave proved to be Smocza Jama (Dragon's Den) in the centre of Kraków, which recorded almost 422,000 visitors in 2019. A preliminary assessment of the attractiveness of the caves as geosites is given. The most attractive caves as geosites were identified as: Bear Cave, Upper Wierzchowska Cave, and Bat Cave. It is possible to confidently assert that the celebration of the International Year of Caves and Karst (IYCK) in 2021–2022 will increase interest in caves and translate into a revival of cave tourism.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Reflectance Spectroscopy in Geology and Soil Sciences: Literature Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article presents a literature review of studies utilising reflectance spectroscopy in geological research. We describe a variety of available spectral libraries together with providing examples of spectral reflectance diagrams, and explain the basic spectral ranges. Geologists can use different methods of data collection, for example, sensors mounted on satellites, airborne [including unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms] or portable spectroradiometers, and different ways of data processing. Most geological mapping based on reflectance spectroscopy is performed in the Arctic region, where vegetation does not obscure images. However, mineral mapping, studies of hot spring deposits, and rock/soil weathering alterations are also performed in lower latitudes. The development, combination and unification of all spectral data acquisition methods open up new possibilities for applications in a variety of geological and soil studies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of Atmospheric Circulation on the Occurrence of Very Strong and Extreme Cold Stress in Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The primary objective of the study was the determination of the spatial and multiannual variability of occurrence of days with very strong and extreme cold stress in Poland according to the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), as well as determination of baric conditions favouring their occurrence. The study was based on data from the years 1966/67 to 2018/19 from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management – National Research Institute and National Centre for Environmental Prediction/National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR). The research showed a statistically significant decrease in the number of days with very strong and extreme cold stress on half of the analysed stations, and a slight tendency or no changes on the remaining stations. The occurrence of days with extreme cold stress in Poland, as revealed by the analysis was primarily related to the presence of high-pressure systems blocking zonal circulation. The study resulted in the designation of three circulation types, i.e. two types related to anticyclonic systems and one cyclonic type.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Variability of Water Exchange in the Hyporheic Zone of a Lowland River in Poland Based on Gradientometric Studies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Moszczenica is a lowland river, which is a third-order river with a length of 55 km; it flows into the Bzura River in central Poland. The objective of this study was to evaluate two important factors in the exchange between surface water and groundwater in the hyporheic zone: a considerable change in water flow conditions and various origins of riverbed sections, natural and artificial. To identify the spatial variation of the hydraulic gradient in the hyporheic zone of the river, a gradientmeter was applied. The measurements show that at low water stages, upwelling was dominant, with an evidently inactive zone, whereas downwelling was inconsiderable. However, the morphology of the riverbed changed during the flood flow, and downwelling clearly dominated. Upwelling zones retained their activity despite a major change in hydrological conditions. Present studies on the artificially dug Moszczenica Canal have documented outflow of water from an artificial medieval canal to a naturally formed drainage base. This means that despite the passage of hundreds of years, the natural drainage base of the Moszczenica River is still active. Studies have demonstrated the applicability of the gradientmeter for evaluating the interaction between surface and groundwaters in the hyporheic zone.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-27T00:00:00.000+00:00The Karst Landscapes of Beni Mellal Atlas (Central Morocco): Identification for Promoting Geoconservation and Tourism<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Atlas of Beni Mellal is located in the Moroccan central High Atlas, characterized by an important geo-diversity that attracts tourists every year. However, the number of visitors remains limited due to the lack of the promotion means, enhancement and mediation of this heritage. The obtained data indicate that the studied area preserves a great number of karst geosites, such as ruiniform landscapes, caves, poljes, sinkholes, Karren, shaft cave and many remarkable reliefs such as canyons and cliffs. This work concerns the inventory, the quantitative evaluation and the enhancement of the remarkable geomorphosites. The results reveal the presence of 21 sites, including six karst forms; five ruiniform landscapes and one karren form, one enviable panoramic viewpoint and five karst springs, four caves, two travertines, two waterfalls, and one structural relief geosite; canyon, and one tepee structures. However, these sites are not protected against all types of degradation, because the general public does not recognize them. These karst forms are very vulnerable, they cannot reproduce quickly, and their deterioration leads to their permanent disappearance. That is why this heritage must be the object of a particular attention of the whole community. The valorisation of these geomorphologic assets is the proposal of a number of circuits and geo-tourist routes from the perspective of local and integrated development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of Soil Characteristics Using a Three-Band Agricultural Digital Camera<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Remote sensing techniques based on soil spectral characteristics are the key to future land management; however, they still require field measurement and an agrochemical laboratory for the calibration of the soil property model. Visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has proven to be a rapid and effective method. This study aimed to assess the suitability of multispectral data acquired with the agricultural digital camera in determining soil properties. This 3.2-Mpx camera captures images in three spectral bands – green, red and near-infrared. First, the reference data were collected, which consist of 151 samples that were later examined in the laboratory to specify the granulometric composition and to quantify some chemical elements. Second, additional soil properties such as cation exchange capacity, organic carbon and soil pH were measured. Finally, the agricultural digital camera photograph was taken for every soil sample. Reflectance values in three available spectra bands were used to calculate the spectra indices. The relationships between the collected data were calculated using the independent validation regression model such as Cubist and cross-validation model like partial least square in R Studio. Additionally, different types of data normalisation multiplicative scatter correction, standard normal variate, min–max normalisation, conversion into absorbance] were used. The results proved that the agricultural digital camera is suitable for soil property assessment of sand and silt, pH, K, Cu, Pb, Mn, F, cation exchange capacity and organic carbon content. Coefficient of determination varied from 0.563 (for K) to 0.986 (for soil organic carbon). Higher values were obtained with the Cubist regression model than with partial least squares.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Formation and role of neogene sediments from Tatra mountains in the shaping of Czarna Orawa river alluvial plain<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>. The paper presents researches that were conducted in Czarna Orawa River catchment, situated within the Tatra and Beskidy Mountains. Czarna Orawa River channel is segmental meandering system with the index of tortuosity up to 1.6. The aim of the article is to characterize gravels which were transported from the Tatra Mountains and their role in valley bottom formation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2012-10-21T00:00:00.000+00:00A Spatial Model of Forest Area in the Middle Ages Based on Historical, Archaeological and Geographic Data: A Case Study of 13th-Century Chełmno Land (North-Central Poland)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The settlement established under German law in Chełmno Land in the 13th century, the resultant changes in the structure of agriculture and land cultivation techniques, and the growing demand on wood as timber, fuel and raw materials for crafts, all combined to contribute to the significant deforestation of the territory. The extent of this deforestation remains conjectural. The purpose in creating a model of forest area in 13th-century Chełmno Land was to attempt to reconstruct it and determine its size and, consequently, to verify hypotheses concerning the scale and the ultimate end of deforestation in the research area. The spatial model is based on published historical and archaeological data relating to selected components of the geographical environment that pertain to the forest area. A retrogressive method combined with Multi-Criterion Evaluation (MCE) was used to build a forest area model. The basic platform for collecting, analysing and visualising spatial data was the geographic information system (GIS). The presented estimates indicate that the forest area of Chełmno Land in the 13th century was larger than had previously been assumed, at about 20–25% of the entire territory.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-16T00:00:00.000+00:00GIS-Based Land Cover Analysis and Prediction Based on Open-Source Software and Data<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study aims at land cover prediction based on cellular automata and artificial neural network (CA-ANN) method implemented in the Methods Of Land Use Change Evaluation (MOLUSCE) tool. The Tricity region and the neighbouring counties of Gdański and Kartuzy were taken as the research areas, and coordination of information on the environment (CORINE Land Cover, CLC, CLMS 2022) data for 2006, 2012 and 2018 were used to analyse, simulate and predict land cover for 2024, the next reference year of the CORINE inventory. The results revealed an increase in artificial surfaces, with the highest value during the period 2006–2012 (86.56 km<sup>2</sup>). In total, during the period 2006–2018, the growth in urbanised area amounted to 95.37 km<sup>2</sup>. The 2024 prediction showed that artificial surfaces increased by 9.19 km<sup>2</sup>, resulting in a decline in agricultural land.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Storm Surges Versus Shore Erosion: 21 Years (2000–2020) of Observations on the Świna Gate Sandbar (Southern Baltic Coast)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Based on observations spanning 21 years (2000–2020), the article studies the effects of storm surges on the shore of the Świna Gate Sandbar in the southern part of the Pomeranian Bay (southern Baltic Sea). Impacts of selected maximum storm surges in each year were assessed with respect to morphological data collected on the beach and the foredune. The data included parameters of beach-dune erosion as measured along a beach transect before and after each surge. Differences and trends in the shore erosion were related to the sea level (SL), duration of a storm surge [highest storm sea level (H<sub>SL</sub>) &gt; 1 m], wind-wave sector and wave run-up. The relationships were explored using a simple correlation analysis. The most serious erosion was observed during the heaviest surges [H<sub>SL</sub> &gt; 1.3 m above the mean sea level (AMSL)], with a wave run-up higher than 3.2 m AMSL. Such surges occurred at about 2-year intervals. The average SL during a surge was 1.2 m AMSL, with a run-up of 2.6 m AMSL. The beach and the lower part of the shore, below that level, were eroded each year. The heaviest surges resulted in an average 5.2 m and 7.0 m dune retreat on the high-beach-accumulative shore and on the low-beach-erosive shore, respectively. The dune was not eroded when the beach height exceeded the wave run-up. The heaviest surges eroded away 12–14 m<sup>3</sup> of the beach sand volume. The shore erosion was found to be related to the storm surge duration, the maximum SL, the run-up and the beach height prior to the surge.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Precipitation Amounts Triggering Landslide Processes in the Western Part of the Nałęczów Plateau (Lublin Upland, Poland)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study covers the western part of Poland’s loess Nałęczów Plateau (Kazimierz Dolny, Zbędowice). Mass movements in the Lublin Upland occur during periods of increased precipitation or after a snowy and cold winter. To date, there are no comprehensive studies on active (precipitation, hydrology, vegetation, land use, anthropogenic factors) or passive factors (lithology, slope angle) causing such geohazards in this region. This area’s formations are characterised by high sensitivity to even small changes in moisture content; thus, their geotechnical parameters deteriorate as a result of precipitation or rising groundwater levels. The calculations in this study were chosen to determine the time necessary for ground response to external factors, in addition to determining the impact of these factors on decreases in the factor of safety (FS). Based on calculations in GeoStudio software, the impacts of rainfall totals and duration on slope failure, interpreted as an event where the FS falls below 1.0, were analysed. Accordingly, the threshold rainfall value was determined as the total rainfall at the time of slope failure. The study’s results indicate that loess covers are characterised by average water permeability, relatively high internal friction angles and low cohesion, which, combined with high slope inclination, favour landslide formation even when the slope is only partially saturated. The most unfavourable stability conditions occur at the beginning of spring, indicating that loess stability is significantly affected by snowmelt and precipitation at the beginning of the vegetation season, as well as the occurrence of episodic intense precipitation during the summer.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Demographic Analysis of the Makkah Province for the Purpose of Evaluating the Balance of the Urban System<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Reaching a well-adjusted population distribution is a major challenge for urban settlements. Various research works have been focusing on evaluating the demographic balance of urban systems worldwide. Regularities in population distribution among urban settlements have been noticed and confirmed by empirical studies in the contemporary era. These studies assert that both rank of a city in the demographic hierarchy and its population size are proportionally correlated in a balanced urban system. It has been proved that this correlation is established according to mathematical theories that have been scientifically identified and proved through in-depth research. This article aims to check the conformity of the population distribution of the Makkah Province to two main demographic, organisational theories. In this article, there will be an attempt to measure the variations, evaluate and assess the deviations, interpret the result thereof, and then compare the outcomes of the two methods applied on the Makkah Province.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Modelling the Obstacles to using Bicycle Sharing Systems in the Tehran Metropolis: A Structural Analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main objective of the current research is to identify and prioritise the obstacles to using bicycle sharing systems (BSSs) in the Tehran metropolis. The methodology of this research is analytical-descriptive and it aims to achieve applied goals. To do so, firstly the obstacles are identified through studying the theoretical and practical foundations of the issue and then by delving into factors associated with BSSs in the Tehran metropolis, extracting them through the content validity method. Then, the interrelations among the specified obstacles and their impact and effectiveness are determined through structural and MICMAC modelling. The data collection tool employed in the research assumes the forms of a survey and a face-to-face interview. According to the results, the following variables are among the ones associated with obstacles having the maximum impact on other obstacles: the financial problems and the disparity within the municipal management, culturalisation, educational shortage and negligence in using the participatory capacities of civilians. Before executing and taking any other strategy to overcome the obstacles, the forthcoming model supports Tehran metropolis municipal managers to identify the existent obstacles of the field in order to enable them to utilise a suitable approach as to lodging BSSs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Regional Economic Integration and Its Impact on Income Distribution and the Poverty Level: The Case of the WAEMU Zone<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigated the influence of regional economic integration (REI) on poverty reduction and the revenue distribution in the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) over the period 1994–2018. The second generation panel unit root tests and the Westerlund panel cointegration test were employed for preliminary analysis. The elasticities of the variables were investigated using the Pooled Mean Group (PMG) approach. The results showed that REI reduced income inequality and increased the poverty rate. Moreover, the causal relationship revealed the presence of a bidirectional relationship between REI and poverty. The feedback causal effect operated between REI and remittances, while unidirectional causality runs from REI to income inequality, from economic growth per capita to income inequality, from remittances to poverty, from the control of corruption to income inequality, and from remittances to economic growth. Consequently, the study recommends an easing of governmental regional integration restrictions and provision of subsidies that help to increase the volume of trade and financial development while reducing poverty in the union.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Do Motorisation Statistics Reflect the Real Geography of Car Ownership in Poland?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article aims to identify the shortcomings of the statistics describing the size and structure of passenger car parc in Poland, and to formulate the consequences of these limitations for geographical research. Analysed in detail, the shortcomings are divided into three groups: (1) ‘dead souls’, i.e. an overestimation of the number of vehicles which have not been on the road for a long time but remain on the register; (2) ‘cars with a grid’ (cars registered as trucks in which the cargo part is separated from passenger seats by a metal grid), i.e. an underestimation of the number of passenger cars and overestimation of the number of trucks related to the mass phenomenon of registering passenger cars as large goods vehicles (LGV-approved cars); and (3) company cars, i.e. an overestimation of the number of vehicles in cities where leasing companies and large enterprises owning those cars have their headquarters. The article determines the scale of car ownership overestimation in Poland and the areas where this overestimation is the highest, using districts (PL: <italic>powiaty</italic>) as basic spatial units. We conclude that the present motorisation statistics do not fully reflect the real geography of car ownership in Poland.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Research on Rural Entrepreneurship in Terms of the Literature: Definition Problems and Selected Research Issues<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Rural entrepreneurship has become an important research issue with great development potential in the face of intense socio-economic changes in rural areas. However, few significant studies cover this topic in Polish and foreign literature. In this article, the authors attempt to review and evaluate the current research on rural entrepreneurship emphasising the Polish literature and including geographical studies. The article describes and organises theoretical research achievements to date and offers a definition of rural entrepreneurship and the directions and prospects for further research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Editorial in Students’ Life at Selected Universities in Central and Eastern Europe during the First Stage of the Pandemic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The COVID-19 pandemic affected not only global economy and society, but also particular institutions, including those of higher education. The aim of the paper is to determine changes in students’ life at selected universities in Poland, Ukraine, and Belarus. An online survey was applied, addressed to students of four universities in Poland, Ukraine, and Belarus (n=380). As a result of the pandemic, more than 46% of students declared worsening of their material situation. In comparison to the period before the pandemic, the respondents observed appearance or intensification of various psychosomatic symptoms, and a 12 percent point decrease in the assessment of their own health. The comparative analysis showed similarities between students’ life preferences, plans on university education, and differences in their material situation, health, and employment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Uneven Peripheral Developments in Central and Eastern Europe: A Case Study of the Tirana City Region, Albania<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper traces residential and spatial urban transformations in Albania, one of the last post-socialist countries embracing neoliberalism. To do this, we employed a discourse analysis based on analogies of uneven urban peripheral developments in the regions of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE), evaluating the impact of uneven (sub) urban development of settlements, with a particular emphasis on socio-economic aspects that need to be addressed in the process of extensive urban growth of the Tirana city region. Our empirical analysis reveals the inherent diversity of urban experiences across post-socialist countries in CEE with a particular reference to how the new post-socialist urban landscape in the Tirana city region produces geographically uneven socio-spatial development. Additionally, we highlight the dichotomy between the urban conditions of a ‘fortress landscape’ in the southern part of the capital of Tirana and its northern part of a new emerging small municipality lagging behind (in)formally with a new fringes identity. Our findings theoretically contribute to a post-socialist critique of urban studies due to urban theory’s neglect of post-socialist cities like Tirana.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-24T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1