rss_2.0Quaestiones Geographicae FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Quaestiones Geographicae Geographicae Feed of Remote-Sensing Data in Geochemical Studies of Soils of the Yertis River Basin Within East Kazakhstan<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>This article presents the results of field research, as well as the results of the use of remote-sensing data in the geochemical study of the soil cover of the Yertis River basin. In the work, the content of the gross form of heavy metals in the soil of the river basin was investigated. The atomic absorption method determined the content of the Poor configuration of elements of elements in soils. Statistical processing of the obtained data from N. A. Plokhinsky was carried out using the Statistica program. Also, using the performed indices in the remote sensing of clay minerals, iron oxides, and carbonates, the spatial distribution and comparison of pollutants in the soil cover of the river basin were revealed. The methods and means of image processing tested in this study can be used to create maps of the distribution of pollutants. Also, the data obtained reflect the patterns of distribution of heavy metals in the soils of the basin and can be used to optimize landscapes and improve the organization of ecological and geochemical monitoring.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Landscape Fragmentation: Analysis of Land Cover Transformation in High Mountains Environment on the Example of Tatra Region (Southern Poland)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>Changes in land cover (LC) are continuously growing due to natural and human factors, and they are even occurring within protected areas. In Europe, one such place is the Tatra region (southern Poland), which is the area of the presented research. Dynamic landscape transformation in a valuable natural area can negatively affect both environmental quality and sustainable land use planning. Appropriate recommendations and treatments can be introduced to prevent negative effects. To do this, it is necessary to understand the dynamics and character of these transformations. Therefore, the purpose of the article is to analyse changes in LC, its causes and their spatiotemporal dynamics, as well as the resulting landscape fragmentation. For this purpose, a set of landscape metrics and GIS (Geographic Information System) tools were used. The main data source in the study was the CORINE Land Cover (CLC) database. The results indicate a significant landscape transformation with a negative impact on the region’s environment, even in protected areas. Landscape fragmentation, which causes disturbances in ecosystems, increased across the entire study area. In turn, in the spatial development, it can introduce chaos and spatial disorder, and lead to the phenomenon of urban sprawl.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Comprehensive Review On Landslide Susceptibility Zonation Techniques<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>This review paper provides an overview of recent research on landslide susceptibility. Landslides are a natural phenomenon that can cause significant damage to infrastructure and endanger human lives. The paper presents an in-depth analysis of the factors that contribute to landslide susceptibility, including geological, hydrological and anthropogenic factors. It also discusses various methods and techniques used to assess landslide susceptibility, including statistical models, geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing. The paper examines the advantages and limitations of these methods and highlights the need for an integrated approach that combines multiple techniques to improve accuracy and reliability. Additionally, the paper discusses the challenges associated with developing landslide susceptibility maps and emphasises the importance of considering uncertainties and risk assessments. The review paper concludes by identifying the gaps in current research and suggesting potential directions for future studies. Overall, this review paper provides a comprehensive analysis of landslide susceptibility, which can serve as a valuable resource for researchers, practitioners and policymakers working in this field.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Range of Ice Thrusts and Ice Piles as Reflected by Ice Scars on Trees Growing on the Shores of Coastal Lagoons: The Case of the Szczecin Lagoon<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>We studied the phenomena associated with the thrusting of ice onto the shore of the Szczecin Lagoon based on the occurrence of tree ice scars. The measurements concerned mostly the maximum height, length and width of ice scars on trees, and the distance of these trees from the shore in the period 2017–2022. It was observed that sheets of ice advanced up to 64 m inland, and piled to form hummocks reaching up to 4.3 m above the water level. These maximum values occurred mostly on eastern shores, which is where the highest numbers of damaged and broken trees were observed. This should be associated with the strongest and most frequently occurring wind blowing from the western direction in the winter-spring period. To the contrary, the lowest number of damaged trees were observed on the western shore. This is due not only to the lower frequency of wind blowing from the east, and the associated cooling (Ta &lt; 0°C) and ice cover stabilization, but also due to the presence of extensive reed belts. Our results enable an indirect insight into the ice phenomena dynamics, especially in areas lacking systematic ice observations. Similar conclusions may be extended for all the sheltered basins as lakes or lagoons.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Useful Life of the Sempor Reservoir Using Erosion Modelling<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>Sedimentation determines how optimal a reservoir functions throughout its design life. The Sempor Reservoir in Central Java, Indonesia, will be 45 years old in 2023. At least 15 million m<sup>3</sup> of particles have been sedimented in the reservoir for &gt;30 years, reducing its function as an irrigation water source to only 60%. Therefore, assessing its performance in providing irrigation water and generating hydropower electricity is essential, given that its design life ends in 2028. This study was conducted to analyse the sedimentation and estimate the useful life of the Sempor Reservoir based on the erosion potential in its catchment area. The potential sedimentation rate was formulated from erosion potential assessed using the universal soil loss equation (USLE) model, sediment delivery ratio (SDR) and trap efficiency (TE). By contrast, the actual sedimentation rate was determined from changes in the dead storage capacity from 2013 to 2023. The interpolation performance evaluation of the bathymetric survey results was tested using the coefficient of determination (R<sup>2</sup>), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) which resulted in values of 0.917; 0.87; and 13.03%, respectively. The results show that the catchment area had an erosion potential of 3,405,353.86 t·a<sup>-1</sup>, resulting in a potential sedimentation rate of 309,106.63 m<sup>3</sup>·a<sup>-1</sup>. The calculated actual sedimentation rate was 33,903.28 m<sup>3</sup>·a<sup>-1</sup>. Therefore, the useful life of the Sempor Reservoir was estimated to end in 0.5 years and 4.59 years based on the potential and actual sedimentation rates, respectively.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue at Higher Education Institutions in Poland as Seen by Students with Disabilities in the Context of the Geographical Model of Disability<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>The subject addressed in the present paper is important for the current social and educational policy regarding persons with disabilities. The development of the accessible education concept should be based on the geographical model of disability, whose main principle is to focus on the varied social needs and adjust the conditions of the geographical environment accordingly rather than to concentrate on the disability itself. The main aim of the study was to recognise the opinions of students with disabilities about studying at Polish higher education institutions (HEI). The study was based on the results of online interviews including standardised questions (open- and close-ended). The time scope of the study covers the years 2019 and 2021. The research has shown that some students hide their disability until it is visible. As a result, they do not receive adequate support and limit the achievement of goals that were the main motivation for studying. Measures taken to support students with different needs at HEIs must have a systemic nature and be addressed to the entire academic community, as well as to the society.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Skills are the Most Prized? Analysing Monetary Value of Geographers’ Skills on the Labour Market in Six European Countries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>The objective of the study is to identify those skills that are actually needed by the labour market and allow university graduates to achieve the highest remuneration. To achieve this objective, the authors monitored, for 18 months, online job postings from six countries addressed to geography graduates. Online job postings are the most up-to-date and reliable source of data about the salaries that employers are willing to offer for specific skills or skillsets. A total of 17,397 advertisements were collected, out of which 7,407 included information about the offered salary. Applying text mining and regression tree (classification and regression tree [CART]) analyses, the authors identified skills that significantly differentiate annual salaries. The group of competences associated with higher earnings includes highly specialised geographic information system (GIS), statistical and geological skills. Lower salaries were linked to some general skills such as communicating in a native language as well as some specialised skills, but only to those related to teaching and conducting scientific research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue for the Development of a Borderland Rural Territory: A Case Study of the Hlučín Region<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>The study evaluates the regional development potential of a specific rural micro-region with regard to its qualitative aspect. It aims to set a general strategy for further development. The method is a geographical analysis using the migration balance as an indicator of the region’s attractiveness for housing. Main strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats were identified. Generally accessible statistical data was used. The proposed strategy is to support the development of the human capital. In addition to the generally valid recommendations for the development of rural areas, it is always necessary to take into account the peculiarities of the geographical location, path dependency, natural, economic and social potential, the state of the environment, cultural factors or other specifics. The regional and local decision-making levels play an important role in this process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Regional Digital Divide in Türkiye<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>Technological advancement has not been equally distributed. It has differed from country to country, region to region, and even among individuals. As a result, the digital divide has emerged as an umbrella term to represent these disparities. Recently, the research focus has shifted to the outcomes of information and communication technology usage or tangible benefits (the third-level digital divide). As an emerging economy, Türkiye must overcome the digital divide to maximise tangible benefits. Thus, this research starts by determining the digital divide indicators for Türkiye and goes further to examine the digital divide between regions in Türkiye. The main aim is to present a comprehensive index for the regional scale that is currently missing in the literature. To do so, this research starts with exploring the digital divide indicators. Then, with the help of principal component analysis (PCA), a new index is formulated for Türkiye. The result maps indicate digital inequalities both at regional and city scales, yet inequalities are more remarkable at the city scale. Increasing the diversity of technology usage, focusing on gender equality, expanding R&amp;D expenditures, and supporting initiatives, especially ICT initiatives, will assist Türkiye in reducing digital inequalities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Role of a Green Economy in Revitalising Shrinking Cities: Comparative Case Studies in France and Mexico<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>This paper aims to research different strategies for developing the green economy in shrinking cities. Considering urban shrinkage and the green economy as two extended concepts, a French town in post-Fordist transition and a Mexican post-mining town are selected as the most diverse/similar systems to indicate different strategies for sustainable development in shrinking cities. Embedded into different national backgrounds, including urban dynamics and support schemes for the green economy, the selected cases share the objectives of greening and regrowing strategies relying on other sectors of the green economy. The methodology applied is qualitative, including fieldwork, semi-structured interview techniques, carried out in person or remotely, and questionnaires. Findings show some positive results regarding sustainability and ecological transition in the French case, while regrowth trends were reached in the Mexican case. However, the analysis leads to uncertain scenarios for positive long-term impacts, especially due to uncertainty around future supporting policies for territorial cohesion and sustainability at national and regional levels.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Preferences Regarding Urban Green Areas<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>Development of urban green areas and awareness of their value among citizens and local authorities is rapidly growing. This trend is not only the result of the coronavirus pandemic, but also reflects a belief in the role of green areas in reducing the negative effects of climate change and supporting overall well-being. As a consequence, more and more local governments are promoting local policies focused on the development of urban green areas with the participation of citizens. Using data collected in Zielona Góra, Poland, this study explores the gender patterns and differences in use and preferences according to the development of urban green areas. The main goals of the study were (1) to evaluate the possible relationship between gender and preferred types of visited green areas and transport modes used to reach them and (2) to explore the differences in expectations regarding the spatial development of green areas among men and women. The result of the study shows that women more often than men visit green areas closer to their place of residence and more often indicate playgrounds and other forms of greenery of an aesthetic function as proposed green areas. Furthermore, there are also differences regarding the means of transport used and preferable distance to green areas. Women visibly prefer green areas within the city centre, mostly use individual means of transport, and are more likely to travel on foot than men. Men prefer more distant green areas and mostly travel longer distances.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Impact of the Maritime Border on the Development of Poland’s Border Areas in Terms of Expenses of Foreigners and the COVID-19 Pandemic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>The aim of this paper is to present the issue of border traffic of foreigners and their expenses on the Polish maritime border. The study is based on quantitative data on border traffic and expenses of foreigners in Poland. The time of the study was 2014–2021. Thus, the impact of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic on foreigners’ mobility and spending in Poland was additionally taken into account. For the purpose of this paper, the following study methods were adopted: reference literature analysis, secondary data analysis and comparative analysis. The paper mainly uses data from official statistics and the Border Guard. The study has shown that the Polish maritime border generates the smallest volume of border traffic, however, its share increased during the analysed period from 0.7% in 2014 to 0.8% in 2021. Nevertheless, it is foreigners crossing the maritime border who on average spend in Poland more than twice as much as foreigners crossing the Polish land border. In 2020, they spent the most on non-food goods (40%) and services (34.7%). As the study results reveal, their spending patterns and travel purposes are different from those of foreigners crossing the land border. The potential that foreign visitors bring is significant for the development of border areas in such sectors as tourism, services and trade. The analysis of the motivation of foreigners crossing the sea border makes it possible to shape the regional development policy of this particular area.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Landscape: Environmental and Social Consequences of (Illegal) Motor Tourism in Forests on the Example of Worek Okrzeszyna (The Central Sudetes on The Polish-Czech Borderland)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>Off-road vehicles (ORVs) have recently become a serious problem not only for natural peripheral areas, but also for those rare green enclaves in heavily urbanised regions. The consequences of motor traffic in naturally valuable areas, including forests, affect the environment together with all its users to different extent. The scale and ubiquity of this type of motor tourism in Poland convinced the authors to research the subject and assess its influence on the forest environment, on the example of the mountains surrounding the region called Worek Okrzeszyna on the Polish-Czech borderland. The authors aimed to determine the scale and character of the phenomenon in forests and environmentally valuable areas in Poland, as well as to assess its scope in the examined research area together with the environmental and social effects. A field inventory of all the trails used by motor tourists was carried out, with particular emphasis on the extent of the network and their environmental consequences. In the ranges surrounding Worek Okrzeszyna from the south, a significant negative impact of illegal motor tourism on the vegetation, soil and relief have been revealed. It occurs wherever the phenomenon takes place: on forest roads, tourist trails and beyond them. Although the main research subject is the pressure of motor tourism on the environment, the authors also raise questions regarding social consequences of the phenomenon (noise, worse aesthetic experience), followed by the limits of tourism as such.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Poland’s Enotourism Product Model<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>The development of winemaking has never been as dynamic as today in the whole history of Poland, with more and more vineyards being created each year. Such a state of Polish winemaking constitutes the development potential of the Polish enotourism product. The main purpose of this article is to develop the concept of the Polish tourism offer model, the target group of which are enotourists, including the identification of the elements of the enotourism offer in Poland along with a discussion of their current quantitative and/or qualitative status and recommendations for its improvement. In order to achieve the purpose of the article, a desk research method, known as a desk data analysis, was used, which involved the use of secondary data. The results of the conducted research allow concluding that Poland as a destination has a multi-element enotourism product. In the course of achieving the goal of this article, the concept of Poland’s enotourism product model was developed, within which four main elements were distinguished, i.e. natural values enabling the cultivation of grapevines, local and regional enotourism products, entities supporting and promoting enotourism in Poland, and content inspiring enotourists.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue to Effectively Build the Image of an Emerging Destination<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>Only a few studies have focused on building the image of emerging destinations. The region’s image is influenced by its tourist attractiveness (image-related perception) and the knowledge about its tourist attributes (recognition). To build the image of emerging destinations, the attributes of attractiveness should be identified. In this study, such an attempt was made for Lublin Province. A diagnostic survey and statistical methods were used to assess the perception of its attractiveness and the recognition of the attractiveness attributes by visitors. Lublin Province has no tourism image, and its attractiveness attributes are identified only vaguely. The landscape is the only attribute on which the image of this destination can be built.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in Change – Place in Uncertainty. A Case Study of Detachment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>This paper discusses place-oriented values via actions against unwanted landscape changes reported by the community affected. The case study was based on a post-mining area in the city of Poznan (Poland), now functioning as a naturally valuable ecosystem. The relationships between landscape changes and the local community’s perception of these changes were studied. The results showed that a landscape transformation which is not accepted by the local community can stimulate a sense of loss, specifically, a feeling of detachment from the emotionally valued landscape. Based on this, a conceptual framework of detachment from a place was constructed. In this regard, the findings fill the gap in the case of experiences of solastalgia and topophobia. Different qualitative methods supported the analytical proceedings, such as content analysis, in-depth interviews, case study visits, community observation, field study and exploratory analysis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Recherchefjorden Accumulative Coasts Since the End of the Little Ice Age<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>The shores of Recherchefjorden in western Spitsbergen have undergone significant changes during the 20th and early 21st centuries, resulting from the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA) and climate warming. In areas exposed by retreating glaciers, paraglacial processes have had an impact, leading to the development of forms such as spits, lagoons and beaches. The main factors that determine the direction of landform development include wave patterns, the role of longshore currents in material transport, and the state of the fjord’s sea/coast ice. Archival materials such as aerial and satellite photos and geomorphological mapping were used to analyse changes in the length of accumulation forms in Recherchefjorden. Nine accumulation areas were identified along the fjord’s shores. Longshore currents’ primary directions were determined by the arrangement of accumulation forms, flowing southward along the western coast from the Chamberlinelva estuary to Rubypynten, and westward on the eastern outwash plain of Recherchebreen. Material transport along the fjord’s eastern coast is mainly towards the south. Following the LIA, the accumulation rate increased, with the highest values recorded in the second and early third decades of the 21st century. Longshore currents shape accumulation forms such as spits and beaches, but they appear intermittently depending on favourable wave and tidal conditions, transforming coasts and accumulating material through longshore drift. These conditions occur periodically and independently of water circulation or tidal currents, allowing accumulation forms to develop in leaps under intensive material supply, ensuring their stability.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Analysis of Ecological Risk in a Coastal Dune Landscape Using High Resolution Aerial Photography<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>This study aims to investigate the dynamic pattern of landscape ecological units (LEUs) and analyse spatial variations of the ecological risk in Parangtritis coastal dune, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. A quantitative method was used in this research as part of landscape ecological analysis using a geographic information system. LEUs were interpreted by small format aerial photographs (SFAPs) and verified through field survey, then were calculated using the formula within grids to produce the ecological risk index (ERI) in the total area. According to the sub-class and class scenario, many LEUs showed changes in their landscape pattern. The ERI in the study area consisted of five levels (very low to very high), each of which was spatially varied. The ecological risk formed clusters coinciding with certain LEUs where fragility chiefly contributed to the sub-class scenario, while disturbance contributed to the class scenario.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Study of Water Pollution in Podwiśniówka Acid Mine Pit Lake (Holy Cross Mts., Poland)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>On the Holy Cross Mountains (southern Poland), located within the tectonic zone of the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ), numerous former quarries exist, including those of Cambrian quarzitic sandstones and sandstones with pyrite veins. This article presents the results of geochemical studies on the waters of the acidic mine pit lake Podwiśniówka (with an area of 1.5 ha and a maximum depth of 7.0 m) conducted in 2018. The tests were carried out in a vertical water column (every 1 m) in the central part of pit lake. The mean concentration of metals/metalloids, determined using inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS), was found to form the following sequence in decreasing order: As&gt; Cu&gt; Ni&gt; Co&gt; Cr&gt; Zn&gt; U&gt; Pb&gt; Cd&gt; Tl. With increasing depth, there was a general upwards trend in the concentrations of all the determined elements. In all cases, the average value of the single pollution index in the water column greatly exceeds the very strong level in relation to the geochemical background of surface waters globally (As – above 1250 times). The integrated pollution index for the ten trace elements in the water column increases with depth, and its average value exceeding 250 times the highest reference level. At the same time, the cluster analysis carried out showed the existence of two distinct depth zones in the pit lake: upper (0–4 m) and lower (5–7 m), differing in the scale of the water pollution.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Change and Variability of Snow Cover in Kraków in a 100-Year Observation Series<abstract> <title style='display:none'>A<sc>bstract</sc></title> <p>This article presents the results of research on the changes and variability of snow cover in Kraków in the 100-year period 1921/22–2020/21 and in its two sub-periods covering the years of the slow and rapid territorial, urban and industrial development of Kraków (respectively, 1921/22–1960/61 and 1961/62–2020/21). The long-term variability of the number of days with snow cover, the maximum depth of the snow layer, the dates of the beginning and end of snow cover duration in the winter season, the potential snow cover duration and the index of snow cover stability were analysed. The directions of changes in the snow cover in the last 100 winter seasons in Kraków correspond to the global changes in air temperature presented in the latest IPCC reports: until the end of the 1950s there were no significant trends, or only small trends were observed, whereas from the beginning of the 1960s faster changes in the snow cover duration and maximum seasonal snow depth have been visible. In the last 60 years (1961/62–2020/21), the impact of global changes in Kraków has been joined by the impact of territorial, demographic and industrial development of the city, causing significant negative trends in snow cover with relative values of less than −9% · 10 years<sup>−1</sup>, both in the case of snow cover duration and its maximum depth in the winter season; these changes are statistically significant. Throughout the whole 100-year period (1921/22–2020/21) and in its second part (1961/62–2020/21), a decrease in snow cover stability has also been observed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue