rss_2.0The Ring FeedSciendo RSS Feed for The Ring Ring Feed Captures and Biometrics of Goldcrests at a Western Hungarian Stopover Site<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Annual captures and biometric parameters of the Goldcrest (<italic>Regulus regulus</italic>) were studied at Tömörd, western Hungary. We used records of 4,284 individuals trapped and ringed between August and November within the study period (1998–2020). The Goldcrest was determined to be a regular partial migrant species with highly intensive migration in 2000, 2001, 2008, 2014 and 2019. The catching results showed very high number fluctuations at Tömörd, but the smoothed curves were distinctly wave-like in all age and sex classes. There were significant positive correlations between annual captures of age and sex classes. The average proportion of immature Goldcrests was 90%, the average proportion of male individuals was 63% and both proportions were stable between 1998 and 2020. There were similar decreasing trends in the average annual wing length and body mass of males and females from 1998 to 2020. This may indicate that the migration strategies of females may be modified by global climate change.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue European Autumn Migration Pattern of the Garden Warbler, – A Basic Analysis of Orientation Cage Field Data<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The introduction of an effective method for studying the local headings of migrants using ‘orientation cages’ has made it possible to study the migration patterns of small passerine nocturnal migrants. Numerous papers have been published on varied samples of local data collected using this method. A rough generalization was presented at the 2019 Meeting of the European Ornithologists Union and subsequently published in <italic>The Ring</italic>. Case studies on data collected for the Blackcap have already been published, and further studies on other species were suggested. The presented work is the next study of this kind, on the migration pattern of the Garden Warbler, using data from orientation tests collected in autumn as part of the work of the SEEN (SE European Bird Migration Network). The data comprises 2,593 tests performed at 31 ringing sites in Central/Eastern Europe and the Middle East. The paper continues the discussion of application of the method to present migration patterns in a geographically wide territory. The general data evaluation methods in this work are exactly as described in the earlier papers. The paper discusses azimuths of arrival and departure tracks at every ringing site, their linearity, number relations between departing and arriving headings, and the general pattern of migration streams followed by different groups of migrants.</p> <p>The hypothesis put forth earlier, stating that the arrival/departure heading axes shown in studies using orientation cages are situated linearly, is once again confirmed and can be used as a general assumption in this type of study. The average deviations are very small and are negligible for drawing general migration patterns. In some cases, however, there were deviations caused by the geographic location of the study site. This problem should be discussed in more detail when more species data become available. Nine migration streams are defined in the study area, which are presented, for simplicity, using different names and colours on maps. Southward and south-eastward streams are dominant and distributed similarly to the streams of the Blackcap. The most pronounced is a stream shown in yellow (<italic>YELLOW stream</italic>), which is directed from the wide area of central and eastern Europe to the Arabian Peninsula. The <italic>BLACK</italic> and <italic>NAVY</italic> streams are the most intriguing (running nearly longitudinally) and require a great deal of attention in further analyses of migration in the Mediterranean. Two styles of presentation of the species migration pattern are discussed, of which the location style of presentation seems to be more precise. The simpler presentation style that shows only general heading axes could be used to compare the general patterns of different species.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue European Autumn Migration Pattern of the Blackcap, – From Faunistic Observations to a Basic Analysis of Orientation Cage Field Data<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Presentation of a general pattern of migration is very difficult in the case of small passerines, especially nocturnal migrants, as the few accepted methods are inefficient here. It is difficult to follow migration visually (by visual field observations or moon watching). Classic ringing must be extremely intensive due to low or very low recovery rates, especially in Africa, Eastern Europe and Asia, which additionally rule out any reasonable estimation of the intensity of migration towards different destinations. Radar studies tell us nothing about the migration of individual species. Even the most modern methods, such as geolocation and radio tracking, are of very limited use for population studies. For these reasons, in most cases our knowledge in this area is fragmentary and insufficient for a satisfactory description of migration. In many cases only the breeding areas have been faunistically described in detail, while the winter-quarters and areas where the species is observed during migration are frequently described with less precision. The introduction of an effective method for studying local headings of migrants, using ‘orientation cages’, has made it possible to study the migration patterns of small passerine nocturnal migrants. The presented work is a case study on the migration pattern of the Blackcap, using data from orientation tests collected in autumn as part of the work of SEEN (SE European Bird Migration Network), consisting of 5,392 tests performed at 28 ringing sites in Central/Eastern Europe and the Middle East. The paper continues the discussion of the problem of applying the method to presentation of migration patterns in a geographically wide territory (Busse 2018, 2019, 2020).</p> <p>The hypothesis put forth by Busse (2019) that the arrival/departure heading axes are generally linear is accurate to within about one 10° sector was confirmed earlier. Here it was confirmed at the level of local patterns for the study sites. In general, the average deviation from the straight line is below 1°. However, there is some geographical variation, and this problem could be discussed when many more results of this kind become available for a few more species. Eight headings/streams of migrants are defined for the Blackcap within the area. Southward and south-eastern streams dominate in most of the study area. However, a very special, nearly longitudinal heading was found in southern Europe and the Middle East, which requires further study. Comparison of the patterns obtained from three different procedures strongly suggests that the general picture of Blackcap migration in Central/Eastern Europe and the Middle East is clear and coherent. Some variation in migration stream parameters (linearity and reversed heading share) suggests that further research in this direction should be conducted using data from other species.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Structure of Migratory Waterbirds at Two Important Wintering Sites in a Sub-Himalayan Forest Tract in West Bengal, India<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The waterbird community structures of two sub-Himalayan wetlands (Nararthali and Rasomati) situated in forested areas were compared during the wintering period. These wetlands had similar geophysical features but were subject to different conservation efforts. Sixty species of waterbirds, including four globally threatened species, were recorded during the study. Nararthali was found to be more densely inhabited (116.05±22.69 ind./ha) by birds than Rasomati (76.55±26.47 ind./ha). Density increased by 44.6% at Nararthali and by 59% at Rasomati over the years of the study, from 2008 to 2015. Winter visitors increased considerably at Nararthali (66.2%), while a 71.1% decrease at Rasomati clearly indicated degradation of habitat quality at that site during the later years. Luxuriant growth of <italic>Eichhornia crassipes, siltation, poor maintenance and unregulated tourist activities were the key factors leading to the rapid degradation of Rasomati. Nararthali, on the other hand, a well-managed wetland habitat, showed an increasing trend in bird densities. Therefore, poor</italic> habitat management and rapid habitat alterations were observed to be the main reasons for depletion of bird density in the wetlands of eastern sub-Himalayan forest regions.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Autumn Migration of the Citrine Wagtail, Motacilla Citreola, in the Lviv Region (W. Ukraine) During its Range Expansion<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The Citrine Wagtail has been gradually expanding its breeding range from Asia westward into Europe since the middle of the last century. New breeding records of this species further to the west of Europe have emerged during the last several decades. The distribution of the Citrine Wagtail in Western Ukraine began at the end of the last century. A total of 48 Citrine Wagtails were ringed in August 1995–2016 at the Cholgynskyy ornithological reserve (West-Ukrainian Ornithological Station). The birds were recorded mainly in the first half of August, peaking from the beginning of the second decade to the middle of the month. At the beginning of August there were wagtails in different stages of moult. Adult moulted birds were recorded from the beginning of the second decade of August, while juvenile birds underwent partial moult during the first part of the month. The mean weight of adult moulted birds was higher than that of juveniles. At the beginning of August many Citrine Wagtails were lean, without fat reserves, with the mean fat class increasing by the end of the month. The autumn passage of <italic>M. citreola</italic> took place in W. Ukraine. Birds stay in the shallow waters, pastures, and reed beds to feed, overnight, moult and gain fat reserves for migration.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Role of a Water Canal and Secondary Forest for Migrants<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Forests have an important role during migration. They act as ecological corridors and provide resting and feeding places for birds. In our study, we sought to determine whether migratory birds prefer secondary forest or canal vegetation during migration. The study was carried out in Southeast Hungary, in an oleaster forest and in a canal. We used 12 mist nets and the ringing method. The study period lasted from August to October 2016–2018, covering approximately the entire migration period. According to our results, the canal has a significant effect on the species assemblage, as it functions as a migration corridor during migration, most likely not only for diurnal migrants, but for nocturnal migrants as well. Our results showed that the presence of both woody and berry plants had some influence on the species composition. Interestingly, the presence of berries had a positive effect on the presence of insectivorous birds.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Analysis of Orientation Cage Field Data – A Case Study of Headings of the Blackcap, , at the Bukowo/Kopań Ringing Site in Poland<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>One of the most effective methods of studying the migratory patterns of nocturnal passerine migrants is the use of orientation cages as a supplementary procedure at ringing sites. The most comprehensive studies using orientation cages (Busse’s Flat Orientation Cage) were conducted within the SEEN network (SE European Bird Migration Network), with more than 43,000 tests performed at more than 40 ringing sites in autumn. A number of papers were published based on these data, presenting an overall pattern of passerine migration over SE Europe-Middle East-NE Africa. For more detailed analyses, it was first necessary to solve some methodical problems within case studies. The current work presents details for discussion based on data from 1338 tests of Blackcaps performed during the years 1995–2010 at a single ringing station, Bukowo/Kopań, located on the Polish Baltic coast. The birds were tested according to the standard methodology of the SEEN network (Busse 2000). The problems investigated were (1) the repeatability of heading patterns obtained in different years, (2) the linearity of the estimated arrival and departure headings, and (3) quantitative aspects of the results in the description of the heading pattern when migratory groups are found.</p><p>It was determined that (1) yearly heading patterns were generally coherent and could be analysed as uniform case data; (2-1) the hypothesis that the arrival/departure heading axes are generally linear is accurate to within about one 10° sector, at least in the case of the Blackcap. This is coherent with impressions from other known data sets, but does not mean that the rule always applies to all species at every location on the migration route. In the future, this problem should be studied on a more detailed scale. It was further established that (2-2) estimating arrival and departure headings makes it possible to define migratory groups (populations) passing the study site. The direct heading estimation procedure seems to be more sensitive in identifying migratory groups than the calculation procedure. Moreover, (3-1) the calculation procedure makes it possible to estimate some quantitative properties of headings of migratory groups and define some interesting, though preliminary, number patterns of local migratory patterns; (3-2) the number relations between birds demonstrating the arrival and departure headings of the migratory group seem to be an interesting parameter for study on the distance of migration of groups within a species and, possibly, between species. This is another interesting problem that cage tests could be used to solve in the future. Finally, (3-3) knowledge about trends of individual populations passing the defined site becomes accessible only using analysis of data from orientation cages. The estimated quantitative indices discussed above could be helpful in presenting the general migratory pattern of the species on a geographical scale.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Migration of the Wood Pigeon, , at Eastern Part of the Polish Baltic Coast<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The Wood Pigeon, <italic>Columba palumbus</italic>, is a common diurnal migrant across most of the Europe. The visual observations were carried out during autumn work of the Operation Baltic ringing stations, mainly at Mierzeja Wiślana (54°21’N, 19°19’E) parallely to the ringing of birds. Observations of passing birds were performed 15 minutes per every hour from sunrise to sunset. The autumn observation period was long enough to cover whole pigeons migration at the southern coast of Baltic (14 Aug. – 11 Nov.). Altogether 119,019 Wood Pigeons were observed within 20 seasons of observations. The goals of this work is (1) to describe the course of the Wood Pigeon autumn migration at the Polish Baltic coast as to numbers in long-term aspect and the seasonality of migration, (2) to propose further development in the study on wave structure of the bird passage. The main analysis of this work-description of the seasonal dynamics of migration - was carried out with modified and widened method used for that kind of analysis in earlier publications. In the present paper the wave structure is described by the estimated border days between supposed waves taking under consideration different properties of the passage dynamics. Here are used three groups of parameters: (1) total numbers of birds observed daily during several years, inter-year variability (as <italic>SD</italic> between year number values), and the coefficient of variation (<italic>V</italic>), (2) number of migration peaks that occurred in that date within years of the study (there were used two classes of peaks – <italic>High Peaks</italic> and <italic>Peaks</italic>), (3) numbers of birds passing during recognized peak days. All estimations were done independently of others and only finally summarized using common ranking scheme. Such step by step procedure make estimation more and more reliable. Very high agreement between estimations based on three groups of parameters suggests strongly that the proposed estimation procedure is effective enough.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Autumn Migration Pattern of Passerines within the SE European Flyway by Orientation Cage Tests<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The general migration pattern of passerines can be estimated using a variety of methods. A number of partial analyses based on ringing data, usually limited to a few species, have been published. A very few continent-scale presentations have been offered, as extremely long periods of ringing activity are necessary for passerines. This is especially true for areas where the recovery rate is very low, including vast areas of north-eastern and eastern Europe and the Middle East/Africa. Similarly, radar and moon-watching studies are of limited value for drawing migration patterns within wider areas. Radar studies require good coverage by the radar systems, while weather radar distribution density and the level of evaluation are very uneven. Modern logger and satellite tracking are more applicable to non-passerines, and as yet enable detailed study only of limited numbers of individuals, and not population studies. At the end of the 20th century, a very simple tool was introduced for field studies on the preferred headings of individual birds caught for ringing, i.e. the use of flat orientation cages. This method was introduced as a standard within the SEEN (SE European Bird Migration Network) in 1995. This study presents a preliminary large-scale evaluation of the data collected within this project. The database used contains more than 43,000 orientation tests performed at 45 ringing sites. The area covered stretches from the northern part of western Russia to southern Egypt and from Italy and Poland to Siberia and Armenia. Eight streams of migration are identified within this area, creating a fairly complicated pattern of avian movements.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue New Approach to Assessment of Bird Carcass Removal (Scavenging) Time on Wind Farm in Egypt<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Wind farms developing rapidly in order to meet the high demand for energy from green sources. However, the impact of wind farm operation on the environment still needs to be established. The risk to wild birds is drawing the attention of stakeholders and bird conservation organizations. Carcass search is the main method used to assess the impact of wind farm operation on wild birds of various systematic groups and sizes. Assessment of the overall risk that wind farms pose to birds depends primarily on accurate calculation of carcass removal times and the detection ability of the searcher.</p><p>Most studies have assessed the carcass removal time using pet bird species, pigeons, or various local birds. In Egypt, all studies conducted in operating wind farms up to 2016 had used chickens to assess the carcass removal time and in this way to the estimate the total number of bird fatalities within wind farms.</p><p>The use of birds killed by a wind farm in carcass removal trials provides the actual time of carcass disappearance, in contrast with the use of other bird species. The removal times of carcasses of parakeets, quails, partridges and chickens were shorter than those of carcasses of White Stork, White Pelican, Honey Buzzard, Black Kites and eagles used in the current study and in another study in Australia.</p><p>The results of the present study indicate that carcasses of birds killed within the studied wind farm remain for two to three months, while the carcasses of other in species other localities remain no more than 1 to 15 days, which unquestionably influences the calculation of total fatalities and leads to overestimation of the overall risk that wind farms for birds.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Trans-Saharan Passerine Migrants in Southwestern Spain – Revisited<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>At the end of the 1980s, a relatively large data set was collected from orientation cage tests of nocturnal migrants caught in one locality in south-western Spain. It was published in <italic>The Auk</italic> in 1989. At the time of publication, the use of orientation cages was a major advance in detailed studies on passerine migration patterns. The basic evaluation procedure was to calculate the average vector of all numbers representing bird activity in a number of sectors of the full wind-rose and to use the Rayleigh test to determine the statistical significance of the distribution. However, due to hidden assumptions in the procedure used at that time, the resulting heading patterns could be called into question in light of further methodological development. The paper revisits the original set of orientation data collected in the last century in the reported study. The new results from the multimodal distribution accepting procedure are compared with the older pictures and are found to be much better at explaining the migration pattern there. In particular, the Garden Warbler and Reed Warbler, which were claimed to be ‘disoriented’, now show acceptable directionality patterns which do not differ in shape from those of other species.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Local Heading Patterns of Nocturnal Migrants using Orientation Cages<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Busse P. 2018. <italic>Estimation of local heading patterns of nocturnal Migrants using orientation cages</italic>. Ring 40: 31-58</p><p>The main aim of this paper is to compare the results of two data evaluation procedures used for presenting the data from the orientation cage field tests. Both procedures accept multimodality of the data and multimodality of the headings of an individual bird as well as migrating population. The goal is to reach acceptable level of migration patterns presentation in biological sense, taking under consideration a flexibility of the real movements, depending on specific weather and landscape parameters. Such knowledge is absolutely necessary for estimating migration bottle-necks and the long-term studies on influence of the climate changes on migration patterns. The material used for the comparison of the procedures was collected in years 2001-2007 by the team of the Bulgarian Ringing Station Kalimok (44°00’N, 26°26’E) within the frame of the SEEN (SE European Bird Migration Network) activity and kindly shared for evaluation. The data were obtained using the standard SEEN methods, with the standard Busse’s cage working procedure of the field tests. The material contains data on four species of nocturnal migrants living in different habitats: the Great Reed Warbler, <italic>Acrocephalus arundinaceus</italic> (ACR.ARU), the Sedge Warbler, <italic>A. schoenobaenus</italic> (ACR.ENO), the Willow Warbler, <italic>Phylloscopus trochilus</italic> (PHY.LUS) and the Whitethroat, <italic>Sylvia communis</italic> (SYL.COM). There are confirmed earlier conclusions that so called „classic” unimodal procedure is not applicable to the orientation cage data resulted from any field procedure. There are available two evaluation procedures that base on the same general assumptions: multimodality of distributions that reflects combination of several unimodal partial distributions, that can be described both using sophisticated Bayesian „<italic>Calculation</italic>” method and much simpler „<italic>Estimation</italic>” procedure. Results of both procedures are enough close to each other that they can be used for describing local and general heading patterns of migration of the nocturnal migratory movements studied using orientation cages.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue General Pattern of Seasonal Dynamics of The Autumn Migration of The Wood Pigeon in Italy<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Cavina E., Bucchi R. and Busse P. 2018. <italic>The general pattern of seasonal dynamics of the autumn migration of the Wood Pigeon Columba palumbus in Italy</italic>. Ring 40: 3-18.</p><p>Given the scarcity of studies on the migration of the Wood Pigeon through Italy, the first systematic observations by a network of hunters, as citizen researchers, can be presented as a starting point for more in-depth analyses. Observations from the years 1998-2006 are analysed and presented in a generalized form. During this period more than 100 observation sites, covering most of Italy, were active for about 40 days every autumn. Migration over Italy was described in terms of the timing and intensity of migration. Special attention was directed to the long-term number dynamics and seasonal dynamics of the passage. The most intensive migration was observed within northern Italy, while lower intensity is visible more to the south of the peninsula. Following tendencies in numbers of observed migrants within the ten years of the study, we can find positive tendencies in most of the northern provinces, while three negative trends are visible in central Italy. The study of the seasonal pattern, in terms of the number dynamics of the passage and the frequency of pronounced peak days, strongly suggests that there are five or six waves of pigeons passing through Italy in different parts of the autumn that are quite stable between years. Every year the time of the passage includes a few peak days of migration.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Multiple Adjoining Habitats on Avifaunal Diversity in an Agriculture-Based Wetland Adjacent to the Hooghly River, West Bengal, India<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Sau M., Chakraborty M., Das R. and Mukherjee S. 2018. <italic>Effect of multiple adjoining habitats on avifaunal diversity in an agriculture based-wetland adjacent to the Hooghly River, West Bengal, India</italic>. Ring 40: 59-92.</p><p>This study was conducted on four plots having a cluster of different combinations of forest, wetland, and agricultural land, as well as a single marshland habitat near the river Hooghly. We obtained 17,817 counts for 150 species in 32 days of year-round sampling. The wetland-agricultural land associated with forest had the highest species diversity (132 species, Shannon <italic>̄H</italic><italic>–</italic> 1.63), heterogeneity (Shannon <italic>J’ –</italic> 0.773), and number of unique species (33 species), and the lowest dominance (Simpson Index 1/<italic>D –</italic> 39.35), in contrast with the marsh, which had the lowest diversity (41 species, Shannon <italic>̄H –</italic> 1.39), highest homogeneity (Shannon <italic>J’</italic> – 0.863), and a lack of uniqueness. The plot with secondary forest patches between an agricultural field and human settlements showed the highest species dominance (Simpsons Diversity 1/<italic>D</italic> – 17.465). Species rarity ranged from 68.2% to 77.6% within the area under study. There were 25 species common to all plots, which formed six distinct groups based on their abundance. Carnivores were found to be the dominant foraging guild throughout the habitats. Thirty-two per cent of the species are migratory, with the families <italic>Scolopacidae</italic> and <italic>Motacillidae</italic> predominating. The Jaccard and Sorensen indices reveal the greatest species similarity between the wetlandpisciculture plot and the marshland. These indices together with the hierarchical cluster analysis indicate the uniqueness of the plot of open forest habitat adjoining the wetland, which offers the best living conditions for migratory species. Our study concludes that when a wetland is surrounded by agriculture rather than fisheries, avifaunal diversity increases, whereas forest-associated wetland-farmland maximizes species richness with minimum dominance and hence imparts greater stability to the overall community structure.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Pre-Nuptial Migration of the Song Thrush in Calabria (Southern Italy)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Muscianese E., Martino G., Sgro P., Scebba S. and Sorrenti M. 2018. <italic>Timing of pre-nuptial migration of the Song Thrush Turdus philomelos in Calabria (southern Italy)</italic>. Ring 40: 19-30.</p><p>The European Commission has established that pre-nuptial migration of the Song Thrush <italic>Turdus philomelos</italic> in Italy begins in the second decade (10-day period) of January. This three-year study was carried out at two localities in the Calabria region of southern Italy from 2012 to 2014, with 3-4 ringing sessions every decade from mid-January to the end of March. In total, 447 birds were captured. Based on catching dynamics and changes in fat load and body mass, we documented that the species’ northward migration took place in mainly March, with early movements in February. As no migratory activity was detected before the second decade of February, the dates of the hunting season in this area can be re-considered.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue, diversity and foraging guilds of avifauna in a suburban area of southern West Bengal, India<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Avian communities are very good indicators of any ecosystem. Despite the alarming consequences of rapid urbanization, studies of avian diversity in the human-dominated landscapes of India are very few. Therefore, we studied the avian assemblage of Bongaon in southern West Bengal, India, a suburban area whose avifauna has thus far remained undocumented. Bird surveys were carried out from June 2015 to May 2016, following the fixed-radius (25 m) point count method together with opportunistic observations. We recorded 119 avian species belonging to 53 families. <italic>Ardeidae</italic> was the most diverse avian family in the study area (RDi value = 5.882). Among the recorded avifauna, 89 species were resident, 26 species were winter visitors, three species were summer visitors, and one species was a passage migrant. Species richness of the resident and passage migrant species did not vary seasonally, while the winter and summer visitors displayed significant seasonal variation. In this suburban area, the species richness of feeding guilds varied significantly. Most birds were insectivorous (41.2%), followed by carnivorous (24.4%), omnivorous (18.5%), granivorous (7.6%), frugivorous (3.4%), nectarivorous (3.4%) and herbivorous species (1.7%). Maximum species richness was recorded in November and minimum species richness in July. Black-headed Ibis <italic>Threskiornis melanocephalus</italic> and Alexandrine Parakeet <italic>Psittacula eupatria</italic> are two near-threatened species found in this region. Interestingly, six species having a globally declining trend are still very common in the study area. Long-term studies are required to monitor any change in the avian communities of this suburban landscape resulting from urbanization.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue bird ringing in Palestine<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper reports the results of mist-netting of birds, mainly passerines, at the Talitha Kumi ringing site by the Environmental Education Center (EEC), supported by the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Jordan and the Holy Land. Bird catching/ringing has been conducted there since 2000, but the data presented here are limited to ten years of work (2004-2013), mainly for compatibility reasons. During this time 6,810 individuals of 70 species were caught, of which 16 migrants and 8 local species caught most frequently are discussed. Data on seasonal (all year) and long-term (10-year) dynamics are given. The following general conclusions were drawn: (1) Even infrequent sampling of the local population by netting provides important information on seasonal and long-term patterns and trends; (2) the same is true of migrating species, provided that the work is carried out using the same methods over a long time span; (3) in migrants, very differentiated relations are observed between numbers of individuals caught during the spring and autumn migration seasons; (4) during the ten years of the study negative trends in the number of captured birds were observed for 14 species, including significantly negative trends for 4 species, while positive trends were observed for 10, none of which was significant.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue number dynamics during the post-breeding period at the Tömörd Bird Ringing Station, western Hungary<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The fieldwork, i.e. catching and ringing birds using mist-nets, was conducted at Tömörd Bird Ringing Station in western Hungary during the post-breeding migration seasons in 1998-2016. Altogether, 106,480 individuals of 133 species were ringed at the station. The aim of this paper was to publish basic information on passerine migration at this site. Migration phenology was described through annual and daily capture frequencies. Furthermore, we provide the median date of the passage, the date of the earliest or latest capture, the peak migration season within the study period, and the countries where the birds monitored at the site were ringed or recovered abroad. To compare the catching dynamics for the fifty species with total captures greater than 200, a reference period was defined: from 5 Aug. to 5 Nov. 2001-2016. Some non-passerines that are more easily caught with mist-nets or that are caught occasionally were listed as well. The two superdominant species, the European Robin and the Eurasian Blackcap, with 14,377 and 13,926 total captures, made up 27% of all ringed individuals. Among the fifty species analysed, there were ten species with a decreasing trend, five species with an increasing trend and thirty-five species with a stable (or uncertain) trend in their numbers from 2001 to 2016. The temporal pattern of migration of long-distance migrants was different from that of the medium- and short-distance migratory species.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue data on the behaviour of kites () nesting close to two active wind farms in Saxony, Germany<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The main aim of this study was to evaluate how local pairs of kites behave in the vicinity of two wind farms located in the same region (Saxony, Germany) and at farms which are to be re-powered. We observed three pairs that had located their nests close to active wind farms (a few hundred to 1500 m from the wind farm). Special attention was focused on variation in the intensity of flights and its dependence on the local landscape and to active avoidance of existing wind turbines. Observations were made at the end of the breeding time, when the young were still in the nest and shortly after fledging. Despite the short observation periods, the results seem to show clearly how differentiated the flight patterns of these birds are in relation to the landscape features around the farm. The distance from the nest to the wind farm cannot be the only measure of the level of potential wind-farm-related danger to the birds nesting close to the farm site.</p><p>Distribution of flights is not random, but clearly concentrated on defined target hunting areas, while other directions are visited infrequently. In the case of both farms, the farm was rarely crossed by the Black Kites (9.9% of all flights) and very rarely (2.8%) by the Red Kites, and such crossing was observed only while the turbine rotors were not in motion or when the rotors were turning slowly (below 5 turns/min.). It may be advisable to conduct special monitoring of movement patterns at breeding time if kite nests are found close to the planned location of the wind farm.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue’s flat orientation cage vs. Emlen’s funnel – compatibility, differences and conclusions<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper focuses on field practice using different types of orientation cages. The two orientation cage designs most commonly used in field work, i.e. Emlen’s funnel and Busse’s flat orientation cage, are described in detail and compared for compatibility of results, simplicity of use and time effectiveness. Apart from cage designs and field procedures (60-min nocturnal tests in Emlen’s funnel vs. 10-min diurnal tests according to Busse’s procedure), the standard data evaluation procedures are compared and discussed. The data used in the discussion were collected for four species of nocturnal migrants (the Reed Warbler, the Sedge Warbler, the Willow Warbler and the Whitethroat) at the Kalimok Bird Station (Bulgaria): altogether 141 individuals were tested in Emlen’s funnel in 2001 and 788 in Busse’s cage in 2001-2007.</p><p>The following conclusions were drawn: (1) Busse’s flat cage design and its standard procedures yield results fully compatible with those obtained using Emlen’s funnel and the associated procedures; this means full compatibility in terms of the directionality of tested birds in the diurnal and nocturnal tests; (2) the procedures compared have distinct differences in terms of constraints on the methods: <list list-type="simple"><list-item><p>– Emlen’s cage is extremely stressful for the bird and should be avoided as much as possible in practice due to animal welfare concerns;</p></list-item><list-item><p>– Emlen’s standard procedure of testing the bird for 60 minutes is completely useless, as this is inefficient in terms of quality of results and causes more stress to the bird than is necessary;</p></list-item><list-item><p>– Busse’s 10-minute standard makes it possible to collect a vast amount of data (12 birds per hour and person) in real field work, even performed in wilderness areas;</p></list-item></list></p><p>(3) At the stage of evaluation of raw data it is essential to use evaluation tools which take into account the fact that raw data items show a high percentage of multimodal distributions, and therefore tools assuming unimodal distribution are unsuitable.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue