rss_2.0Research in Subject-matter Teaching and Learning (RISTAL) FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Research in Subject-matter Teaching and Learning (RISTAL) in Subject-matter Teaching and Learning (RISTAL) Feed and beliefs of student teachers towards artificial intelligence in writing<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Generative AI applications are believed to have disruptive potential, not only for academic writing. However, little is known about which AI tools are used to what extent for writing. This is especially true for student teachers who are expected both to learn writing and teach it in the future. Therefore, 505 student teachers were surveyed about their usage of and beliefs regarding writing with AI. The results show that ChatGPT is the most frequently used application, although knowledge of AI does not automatically translate into regular use. Nevertheless, most participants believe that AI applications play a crucial role for writing in school. Considering the extent of AI usage and beliefs about AI in a regression model, AI literacy, the subject studied, self-assessed digital skills, and writing-related self-concept can explain a medium amount of the variance. Based on these findings, the article draws conclusions for further research and teacher training.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Bilingual Education (EIB) in Peru<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents characteristics of the curriculum for the Regular Basic Education in Peru which addresses initial, primary, and secondary education. The curriculum takes into account that the country is home to diverse indigenous communities with different languages who are a prominent part of the society. As a consequence, intercultural bilingual education was implemented in many areas, and it is practiced mostly in a rural context. Short interviews with teachers show specific challenges of the bilingual class and underpin the importance of integrating the daily environment of the students in mathematics and science classes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue knowledge and classroom instruction: an introduction to examples from Latin-American countries Regarding the concept from the Huellas de Calloto Indigenous Reserve Perspective<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the context of the indigenous communities of Cauca, Colombia, the importance of promoting pedagogical approaches that value and respect culture and traditional practices has been recognized by policymakers. In this respect, the integration of various key concepts is considered to be essential, namely sustainability, science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics in indigenous cultures (ETHNOSTEAM). Through observation and interviews with elders of the community of the Huellas de Caloto reserve, the terms science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics from the ethno perspective are analyzed in the elaboration of some artifacts. The ETHNOSTEAM approach arises from the motivation to promote the learning of STEAM subjects through the integration of the culture of differentiated minority. This implies integrating traditional knowledge related to cosmovision, nature, architecture, and other areas, as a potentially useful starting point to teach in the classroom in a contextualized manner. The article presents, develops, and characterizes the notion of ETHNOSTEAM as a nascent pedagogical proposal. The goal is to explore how the integration of culture and STEAM approaches in indigenous communities can enhance mathematical thinking, teaching, and learning of mathematics and other sciences in problem solving, especially in diverse cultural contexts, such as the indigenous communities of Cauca, Colombia. The article addresses the way in which science, technology, art, and mathematics are made visible in indigenous practices.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue“Transfer of Research and Research on Transfer in Subject-Matter Didactics” argumentation and language-aware civic education – a theoretical proposal<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Oral argumentative competence is highly relevant for responsible [<italic>mündige</italic>] participation in social negotiation processes. Thus, promoting argumentative competence is central to civic education. However, there is a lack of theoretical concepts and empirical findings which can guide action in the civic education classroom. Since argumentative competence is a linguistic skill, the concept of language-aware civic education offers itself as a plausible framework. In this article, the two terms <italic>oral argumentative competence</italic> and <italic>language-aware subject teaching</italic> are clarified within the context of civic education. It is shown how subject-specific oral argumentative competence can be fostered through language-aware civic education.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue science outreach events based on stakeholders’ objectives and expectations – A case study of a lecture day for schools<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Science communication is gaining importance in universities, as scientific findings are increasingly communicated in the context of educational outreach events. However, expectations and characteristics of the participants of university-led STEM (science, technology, engineering, mathematics) outreach events remain insufficiently understood from a research perspective. This study examines the expectations of 180 students and ten teachers using questionnaires, and communication objectives with four lecturing scientists using interviews at a university-led STEM outreach event for students, the ‘Darwin Day’ at Kiel University. The results indicate a potential mismatch: While scientists’ primary aim is to inform about their research, students’ main point of interest lies in the everyday working life of scientists and in scientific reasoning. The results suggest that scientists might benefit from support from science communication facilitators to tailor communication objectives to the target group. The results also suggest incorporating Nature of Science approaches more explicitly into science outreach events.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and validating an assessment rubric for writing emails in English as a foreign language<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Rubrics are defined as coherent sets of criteria for students’ work that include detailed descriptions of quality for a specific learning task. They are used in different subjects to guide student learning and assess its results. This study demonstrates the design and development of an assessment rubric for writing emails in English as a foreign language (EFL). As English emails are a key form of communication in the globalised world, it is essential to have a rubric which is both fit for classroom use and empirically validated. In our study, six raters were trained to assess a sample of N = 1017 emails from learners at lower secondary level in Switzerland. We evaluate the reliability of the ratings by assessing inter-rater agreement after a period of training and by comparing their scores to those of an expert rater. Further, we analyse the linguistic quality of learner texts by focusing on four key markers of emails and compare this analysis to our rubric based scores to analyse its face validity. Our results show high reliability and validity of the rubric. We discuss the potential of such rubrics to improve teaching quality in various subjects and learning domains.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Expert Teachers’ Content-Related Pedagogical Reasoning<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this exploratory study, we seek to contrast the content-related pedagogical reasoning shown by prospective and experienced teachers – i.e., their reasoning for or against the use of subject-matter representations that draw on content knowledge or pedagogical content knowledge. We conducted think-aloud interviews with seven prospective teachers and seven experienced teachers based on a situation of planning to teach with a specific task. The teachers’ pedagogical reasoning was analysed by means of content analysis. The data showed that expert teachers engage substantially more in content-related pedagogical reasoning than novices. In particular, expert teachers’ reasoning is predominantly based on their knowledge of content and students and on curricular knowledge.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue research as a task for subject-matter education disciplines: Co-constructive, content-related, and research-based<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Content-related didactical innovations are often developed in research-based and co-constructive ways by subject-matter education specialists, design researchers, and teachers. For scaling-up the flexible and co-constructive implementation of these innovations in many classrooms, the German Center for Mathematics Teacher Education follows material, personnel, and systemic implementation strategies on three levels: the classroom level, the teacher professional development level (PD) and the facilitator professional development level. The paper exemplifies these strategies using a case involving the implementation of the Mastering Math program, which was designed to develop students’ understanding of basic mathematical concepts. The case is used to illustrate three basic principles for implementations into subject-matter classrooms: (1) Co-constructive implementation requires research-practice partnerships on several levels, (2) targeted implementation requires content-related innovations, and (3) a research base is required for enhancing both the pedagogical quality and the content quality of the teacher and facilitator PD.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue as a Travelling Concept in Subject-Matter Teaching and Learning<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Research on students´ concepts based on conceptual change theory is being conducted in relation to more and more different subject content. CONCEPT, the concept of a concept, however, has very different meanings and functions in different contexts of subject-matter teaching and learning. In this study tools of analytic philosophy of science and philosophy of cognition are applied to examine the recent process of a research transfer from science education to philosophy education. Transmutations of CONCEPT are evident in empirical studies in philosophy education. However, such a transfer process can reveal problems of CONCEPT that affect any subject- matter research on student´s concepts. Three main problems are shown: a problem that is new to philosophy education, one that is a legacy of science education, and another, future problem that is emerging with conceptual engineering. The solution to these problems could lie in an integrated interdisciplinary project, the theoretical determination of subject-matter CONCEPT.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue RISTAL 2022 Special Issue „Transfer of Research and Research on Transfer in Subject-Matter Didactics“ Transfer in Geography - Reconstructing implicit orientations of Teacher Trainers in exchange processes with researchers using the example of the subject Geography<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The transfer of research findings into teaching practice is often defined as a mutual exchange process between research and teaching practice. In the exchange and handling of new findings, the implicitaction-guiding orientations of teachers in particular are highly important. The present study is dedicated to reconstructing these orientations of teacher trainers of geography, who, as educators of trainee teachers in the second practical phase of the German teacher training system, occupy a unique position between research and teaching practice. Using the documentary method, different orientations of the teacher trainers were reconstructed through multiple group discussions. These were conducted in the context of a one-year training series on new insights into China’s innovation-based economic development. These orientations move along a continuum between instruction and co-construction. From these findings, important insights for future transfer research and practice can be derived.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Can didactic research find its way into the classroom? Results from a questionnaire survey on the lesson preparation and continuing professional development of German teachers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The gap between research about education and teaching practice is well-known in most subjects/disciplines. A nationwide online questionnaire survey regarding which sources German-language teachers use for lesson preparation and what in-service training opportunities they perceive may shed light on how research findings can be incorporated into classroom practice.</p> <p>These are some of the results from the 403 responses: In-service training courses are popular, but judged to be of little use. Social media offers are frequently used and assessed as helpful – despite the often poor quality, which teachers do not necessarily recognise. Therefore subject didactics should rethink certain traditions and explore new ways of reaching teachers. Because teachersʼ pracƟces of lesson preparaƟon tend to be idiosyncratic rather than determined by the subject matter, the findings from the survey are equally relevant and useful for all subjects and can contribute to a better alignment of subject science, subject didactics and teaching practice.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Research in Subject Matter Didactics. Results and Open Questions of a Delphi Study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Up to now, the discussion about research designs in subject-matter didactics has mainly taken place within the disciplines of this academic field. A generic model is useful in order to stimulate a discussion across different disciplines as it provides a common reference point. Such a model was the goal of a Delphi study, which consisted of two rounds. This paper describes the basic results of this Delphi study. On the one hand it brought about the basic contours of such a model: it is characterized by three basic dimensions (subject areas, methodologies, reference theories) and categories by which these three dimensions were operationalized. On the other hand, the Delphi brought about those topics that need to be discussed in future. This is especially true for categories on the dimensions of methodologies and reference theories. In summary, this study offers arguments and impulses for further discussion about the understanding of research in subject-matter didactics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Transfer of Knowledge: Translating Didaktik, Fachdidaktik, Allgemeine Fachdidaktik<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The following contribution is divided into two parts, for reasons of space. The current article will deal with issues of translation and translatability from German into English in the field of <italic>Didaktik</italic> (didactics, subject didactics and general subject didactics). The starting point will be to gather information about the spread and acceptance of the concept of didactics as a cover term for a comprehensive theory of teaching and learning within school as an institution, in Europe and beyond. The multi-facetted reality of this concept in so many countries or educational settings and the different approaches to go with it, will have an effect on the demands of an appropriate rendering of <italic>Didaktik</italic> in English as a <italic>lingua franca</italic> and thus transferring it into another, essentially foreign socio- cultural context. The same is even more true for the notion of <italic>Fachdidaktik</italic> (= subject-matter didactics).</p> <p>In particular, it will be shown that there are challenges and even limits in sharing didactic and subject-didactic knowledge, concepts and research findings internationally, when transmitting them from German into English and thus from a continental European into an Anglo-Saxon way of thinking and of organizing school education. The difficulty to establish a one-to-one equivalence is reflected on the linguistic level, where certain anglicized forms which do not originally exist in English, have been developed (e.g. <italic>subject-matter) didactics, general subject didactics</italic>), for lack of appropriate translations. Also in many other cases of translation more than one version is possible, depending on context, focus or intention. This insight will be applied to individual notions or whole semantic clusters in the field (e.g. around key words like <italic>Fach or Fachliche Bildung</italic>).</p> <p>In combination with the second part the overall goal is to bring <italic>Didaktik</italic>/didactics and curriculum theory into conversation again and widen the scope towards subject-matter didactics at the same time.<sup>2</sup></p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue language instruction into science education: Evaluating a novel approach to language- and subject-integrated science teaching and learning<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Language competences are still a powerful gatekeeper for many students in science learning. Popular approaches to integrating language and subject learning have attempted to make science learning more accessible to all students; however, empirical evidence for the effects of novel teaching approaches is still scarce. The Disaggregate-Instruction-Approach (DIA), which ‘disaggregates’ concept from scientific language learning, offers great potential to address an increasingly diverse population of students in science subjects and beyond. In this paper, we will present a comparative study with 228 public school students who either participated in a teaching intervention aligned with the DIA or designed in accordance with principles of language- and subject-integrated Scaffolding. The findings indicate that learners in both conditions reach substantial learning gains. However, students who received the DIA exhibit very similar learning growth scores regardless of their language proficiency whereas control group students reach a higher learning growth depending on their language competences.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue RISTAL 2022 Special Issue „Transfer of Research and Research on Transfer in Subject-Matter Didactics“