rss_2.0Research in Subject-matter Teaching and Learning (RISTAL) FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Research in Subject-matter Teaching and Learning (RISTAL) in Subject-matter Teaching and Learning (RISTAL) 's Cover Teachers’ Diagnostic Judgments by Bayesian Reasoning and Approximative Heuristics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The diagnostic judgments teachers make can be regarded as inferences from manifest observable evidence on students’ behavior (e.g., responses to a task) to their latent traits (e.g., misconceptions). The judgment process can be modeled by Bayesian reasoning. We use this framework to analyze the situation of teachers’ diagnostic judgments on students’ potential misconceptions based on students’ responses. Humans typically deviate from normative Bayesian reasoning and apply heuristic strategies, often by only partially processing the available information (e.g., neglecting base rates). From the perspective of ecological rationality, such heuristics possibly constitute viable cognitive strategies for assessing student errors. We investigate the adequacy of a cognitively plausible heuristic strategy, which amounts to approximating the average probability information on prior hypotheses (base rates of student misconceptions) and evidence (student errors). With a computational simulation, we compare this strategy to optimal Bayesian reasoning and to information-neglecting strategies. We interpret the resulting accuracy within the ecology of informal student assessment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Teachers’ diagnostic judgment regarding the difficulty of fraction tasks: A reconstruction of perceived and processed task characteristics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The selection and modification of mathematical tasks requires teachers to adequately judge task difficulty. Despite such importance, little is known about teachers’ cognitive processes that underlie these judgments. Considering possible interrelations with teaching experience and specific aspects of PCK/PK, this study reconstructs teachers’ perception and processing of task characteristics while judging task difficulty for students. In the field of fraction calculation, the tasks’ difficulty is varied systematically by modifications in the tasks’ instructional design (according to cognitive load theory; e.g., split-attention vs. integrated format) and by adjusting the fractions’ complexity (e.g., like vs. unlike fractions). The study was conducted with 55 pre- and 35 in-service mathematics teachers. The results suggest that both groups predominantly perceive and process mathematical, but only rarely instructional task characteristics. Contrary to expectations, the findings indicate that participants’ specific PCK/PK concerning difficulty-generating task characteristics is high in both areas – fraction and instructional design.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Research Designs of Subject-Matter Teaching and Learning<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Research on domain-specific teaching and learning has experienced an enormous upswing in the last twenty years. For a further development of this research it would be beneficial if certain clusters or research designs would be elaborated, which are typical for research on domain-specific teaching and learning and which stimulate and orient new research projects. This article addresses this question on the basis of a study in Religious Didactics. First, it discusses the use of the concept of research design to establish a cluster of relevant research procedures (1.). Then the results of the study will be described, namely that such designs are characterized by a) the theories, they refer to, b) the subject area they address, and c) the methodologies they conduct (2.) It will be generalized beyond the field of Religious Didactics and seven potential designs of research on domain-specific teaching and learning will be sketched (3.) An invitation to reflect this question further on ends this article (4.)</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Diagnostic competencies of prospective teachers of French as a foreign language: judgement of oral language samples<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The diagnostic competence of foreign language teachers includes the ability to judge oral language productions. However, these are difficult to judge because of their complexity. Video-based data can be used to explore the diagnostic processes when judging oral productions. In the present study, prospective teachers evaluate nine video samples twice – directly after first viewing the video and after using a rating scale regarding the linguistic features. This study examines the extent to which prospective primary and secondary level teachers use different information to make a judgement compared with experts. The results show that linguistic features are incorporated to varying degrees into the formation of judgements and vary according to pre-service teacher training. Besides the focus on linguistic features, a high proportion of unexplained variance remains in the judgements of the prospective teachers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Beyond subject specificity – student and teacher thinking as sources of specificity in teacher diagnostic judgments<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Teachers’ diagnostic judgments are considered highly relevant for good teaching and successful learning. A question regularly asked is: Which aspects of diagnostic judgments are generic and which aspects are specific for a subject or even a topic within that subject? Several sources of specificity have to be considered in diagnostic judgment processes. In order to analyze systematically the aspect of specificity in research on diagnostic judgments, we propose a framework of diagnostic judgments, which explicates relevant components of thinking and behavior on the level of the student and the teacher. We use this framework to discuss systematically the question of content specificity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Introducing bystander resuscitation as part of subject-matter teaching in secondary schools: Do we overestimate interest and skill acquisition?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cardiac health is a major health issue in modern societies. To improve bystander response to cardiac arrests, it has been recommended to introduce instruction in basic life support (BLS) into health-related subject-matter education (e.g., biology). This study aims to explore perceived specific interest, knowledge and recorded BLS performance before and after a BLS intervention, as well as possible effects of gender. Data of N = 365 secondary school students in Germany was analysed. They answered a questionnaire dealing with subject-related interest and a knowledge-test, before and after at least two lessons about BLS. A subgroup of students (n = 186) attended a simulation-based assessment. We found that students performed better chest compressions, but that initial interest was not sustained during intervention, particularly in the case of male students. The quality of chest compressions and knowledge growth can be improved for some aspects and future classroom interventions should aim towards a better understanding of students’ interest motives for learning these skills. The role of more problem- and health-oriented, reflective, and modular learning opportunities in BLS education should be investigated to better address these issues compared to common instruction-centred trainings.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00How prospective teachers detect potential difficulties in mathematical tasks – an eye tracking study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An important aspect of mathematics teachers’ diagnostic competences is the ability to judge the difficulty of a mathematical task. The process of judging task difficulty includes the perception and interpretation of task characteristics that are potentially challenging for students. Such judgement processes are often quick and difficult to assess. Most previous studies described these processes on the basis of teachers’ verbal reports. A more recent approach to tap into cognitive processes is eye tracking. However, there is no firm knowledge yet whether eye tracking allows for a reliable assessment of teachers’ judgements of mathematical task difficulty. The present study aims at filling this gap. We asked <italic>N</italic> = 55 prospective mathematics teachers to judge the difficulty of 20 tasks on linear functions, some of which included characteristics that are well known to be challenging for students. Participants viewed the tasks on a computer screen while their eye movements were recorded with an eye tracker. Our analyses of various eye-tracking parameters suggest that “fixation duration”, “fixation duration average” and “number of fixations” were the most reliable measures of participants’ perception and interpretation processes across a set of tasks. These measures were also correlated with participants’ judgement accuracy. Using qualitative analyses of two participants’ eye-tracking data, we illustrate when and how they processed the relevant task characteristics. In conclusion, eye tracking may be considered a suitable method for assessing how teachers detect task difficulty. We discuss implications for the use of eye tracking in further research on teachers’ diagnostic competences.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Editorial content knowledge of biology, chemistry, and physics – developing a measure and identifying challenges for interdisciplinary science teaching<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Interdisciplinary science teaching is a challenge for German teachers due to primarily subject-specific teacher education in biology, chemistry, and physics. Content knowledge is an important aspect of professional competence in teacher education. We address the self-rating of content knowledge in a study on developing a suitable measure. Previous measures of self-rated content knowledge in science are general, focus on primary education, or do not integrate the core ideas of curricula for lower secondary German education. Therefore, we developed and validated a new discipline-specific measure.</p> <p>Confirmatory factor analysis (<italic>n</italic> = 552) established that biology, chemistry, and physics are factors of self-rated content knowledge and indicated that self-rated content knowledge in science is subject-specific. The correlation between self-rated content knowledge and academic self-concept in science, and the impact of science education subjects studied and the final science grades in secondary school on self-rated content knowledge in science support the validity of the new measure and its disciplinarity. Concluding from the findings of this valid and reliable measure, the different factors of self-rated content knowledge in science make interdisciplinary science teaching difficult. This conclusion underlines the need for qualification in interdisciplinary science teaching.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Teacher education in the fields of German and mathematics: Facets of pedagogical content knowledge from an interdisciplinary perspective<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents the results of a qualitative study in which two newly developed pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) assessment tools in the fields of German and mathematics were used. In these instruments, preservice teachers (27 in German, 40 in mathematics) were presented with exemplary tasks for school students and with authentic student responses. Preservice teachers were asked to name the requirements of the tasks, to assess the quality of students’ answers and to formulate feedback to the students (i.e. preservice teachers dealt with authentic problems that are pivotal in the field of teaching). The data collected in the study were analysed from an interdisciplinary perspective. Findings showed that preservice teachers of both subjects followed comparable strategies for complexity reduction and encountered transfer problems. Interdisciplinary conclusions can be drawn for the design of learning environments in teacher education.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Logical pictures in secondary economic education: textbook analysis and teacher perception<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Logical pictures, such as graphs and charts are an important part of instruction, not only in economic education. Learning with these logical pictures might be beneficial under appropriate conditions, however, domain-specific and visualization-specific challenges might impede learning. In this paper, we study the use of logical pictures in secondary economic education learning material and in economics teaching. In a mixed-method approach, we first analyze 450 logical pictures and propose a category system which distinguishes between the form of a logical picture as well as its domain-specificity. In a second step, we conducted teacher interviews with economic teachers. Results show that logical pictures are used frequently in textbooks, with graphs occurring more often than charts. The interview findings support the relevance of graphs and charts for instruction and provide information about the necessary student abilities and their challenges when working with different logical pictures in economic education from the teacher’s perspective.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Towards a Theory of Subject-Matter Didactics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article outlines a new scientific approach developed under the title of “General Subject Didactics”. This concept is based on the existence of several scientific disciplines that can be called “subject-matter didactics” (or short: subject didactics). These are linked to certain domains like biology or mathematics and to respective school subjects.</p> <p>General subject didactics can be defined as the theory of subject didactics. It observes and reflects how the individual subject didactics explore subject-specific teaching and learning. This is done both by top-down reflections and by bottom-up comparisons. 17 subject didactics in Germany are compared on the basis of six impulses, leading to new insights, e.g. on the reference sciences of subject didactics or the sources and selection of subject content.</p> <p>The article develops further perspectives on the usefulness of this innovative theory as part of the philosophy of education, nationally and internationally.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Editorial of a Knowledge-in-Pieces perspective to students’ explanations of water springs: A complex phenomenon pertaining to the field of physical geography<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This in-depth explorative qualitative study provides an empirical analysis of students’ understanding of the concept of water springs based on the theoretical framework of Knowledge-in-Pieces (KiP) by diSessa (1993). KiP is an epistemological perspective that views knowledge as a complex system of many types of knowledge elements. These include the so-called explanatory primitives (e-prims), that is, intuitive knowledge elements that people use when interpreting the world. The aim of this study was to gauge the potential of KiP in the field of research on pre-instructional conceptual knowledge in the geosciences by analysing conceptions of the complex hydrological issue of the formation of water springs. When probing student explanations of springs for e-prims in two case studies involving 12-year-old boys, we identified two explanatory primitives not previously documented. We named these “stuff in motion has force” and “hard stuff blocks, loose stuff lets something through.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Thinking Inclusive Science Education from two Perspectives: Inclusive Pedagogy and Science Education<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the last decades, subject-matter education (Fachdidaktik) has been addressing the idea of inclusion rather incidentally. Although inclusive teaching and learning became more and more prominent in research and practice, a theoretical scheme combining inclusive pedagogy with respective subject-specific characteristics is still missing. This article by members of NinU („Netzwerk inklusiver naturwissenschaftlicher Unterricht“/”Network Inclusive Science Education“) focuses on this challenge with science as an exemplary subject. To systematically combine the two perspectives, the article presents selected and significant characteristics of inclusive pedagogy and science education, before a scheme is suggested adjoining the two perspectives. NinU itself, as well as the presented scheme, can serve as a successful example of cooperation beyond disciplinary boundaries. Educators of other subjects are invited to identify significant aspects of their own subject that could be brought together with inclusive pedagogy in the same manner.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Student texts produced in the context of material-based argumentative writing: Interdisciplinary research-related conception of an evaluation tool<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper focuses on student texts produced in the context of material based writing and presents a text analysis grid which is developed in an interdisciplinary research project between the didactics of geography and of German language. Based on a critical discussion of the typical methodological procedures that are currently used in research to evaluate the quality of written argumentations, we argue that only a <italic>combination</italic> of structural, linguistic and content-related analysis steps can determine the quality of argumentative texts as a whole. Hence, there is a particular need for development in text product analysis with regard to linking the various aspects. We therefore propose a catalogue of criteria, which is interdisciplinarily theory-guided and enables a quantitative and qualitative in-depth-analysis of text products on multiple levels: content-related, structural, linguistic and material-related with special consideration of the multiple document input.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00A Delphi study on the school-related content knowledge in organic chemistry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A Delphi study on the topic “school-related content knowledge in organic chemistry” was conducted in two rounds. National and international experts from the academic and school fields participated. The aim of the study was to investigate what kind of knowledge is practically needed for the future teachers in order to effectively teach in school. The category of the school-related knowledge was recognized as a category providing a sufficient amount of knowledge covering the basics and considering the enhanced conceptual aspects of each topic.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-11T00:00:00.000+00:00How to give effective explanations: Guidelines for business education, discussion of their scope and their application to teaching operations research<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Giving effective instructional explanations is one of the most important teacher competences. Recent didactic literature provides, however, little insight on teacher explanations. In our previous work we developed guidelines for designing comprehensible explanations in the field of business (teacher) education, which are along general lines transferable to other subject areas and target audiences. In this article, we first compare our guidelines to the state of research in general and mathematics didactics. We then investigate their applicability to teaching operations research at university level, based on interviews with professors of the international operations research community.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparing the Affective Outcomes of CLIL Modules and Streams on Secondary School Students<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Although CLIL streams have shown to have desirable learning outcomes, the less known option of implementing CLIL modules is under-represented in empirical research. This is unsurprising as the guidelines regarding this concept are vague compared to programmes that are already firmly and internationally established making it particularly difficult to investigate. However, studying CLIL modules may offer unknown insights into overlooked effects of bilingual teaching when the selection process of eligible students is ignored. This is particularly true for the attitudinal and emotional level of engagement of the students learning in such a setting. Therefore, the present study looks at affective differences caused by a CLIL stream and module intervention, and more particularly at variations within the CLIL module. Although there are some accounts for expected variation, we find conflicting evidence regarding the benefits of CLIL modules.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Realizing theory-practice transfer in German teacher education: Tracing preliminary effects of a complexity reduced teacher training format on trainees from four subject domains on students’ perception of ‘self-efficacy’ and ‘relevance of theoretical contents for practice’<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper introduces a novel teacher training format, the “Teaching and Learning Laboratory-Seminar” (<italic>TLL-S</italic>) which was first implemented at <italic>Freie Universität</italic> Berlin in 2016. The <italic>TLL-S</italic> serves as a response to the demand for both more and better field experiences during early teacher training. There is strong evidence to assume that field experience is most effective when linked to such theory inputs perceived by trainees as relevant and embedded into reflective field experiences. Thus, the <italic>TLL-S</italic>-intiatives delineated here were designed according to a common framework defining a fixed set of consecutive steps allowing teacher trainees to first familiarize themselves with didactic theories, exploring them in a sphere of reduced complexity, and eventually reflecting their experiences. Consequently, the main objective of this paper is to trace and report the effects of the <italic>TLL-S</italic> on teacher trainees’ <italic>self-efficacy</italic> development and perception of <italic>‘relevance of theoretical contents for practice’</italic> in four subject domains (i.e. didactics of English, History, Physics, and Primary Education). Preliminary results indicate that complexity reduction of the practice environment provided by the <italic>TLL-S</italic> allegedly stabilizes teacher trainees’ <italic>self-efficacy</italic> even after repeated field experiences across all subject domains. Furthermore, ‘relevance of theoretical contents for practice’ was rated higher for the <italic>TLL-S</italic> than for previous university training formats.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-14T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1