rss_2.0Research Papers Faculty of Materials Science and Technology Slovak University of Technology FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Research Papers Faculty of Materials Science and Technology Slovak University of Technology Papers Faculty of Materials Science and Technology Slovak University of Technology Feed Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic on Human Resource Management Priorities<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The pandemic situation associated with the Covid-19 disease has changed people's lives and significantly affected the functioning of companies and organizations. Managers of industrial companies faced a new situation and had to look for new solutions to the problems that arose. Employees were forced to get used to new conditions and adapt not only to new private along with new work situations caused by the pandemic. The success of any organization depends on its employees, which is why a high-quality human resource management was important also in the pandemic situation. The aim of the article is to interpret the results of research aimed at identifying priorities in the field of human resource management in terms of the situation before and during the pandemic as well as the priorities that will dominate after the return to the standard work regime. The collection tool was a questionnaire distributed online. As many as 70 managers and specialists from industrial companies in Slovakia took part in the questionnaire survey. The obtained data were evaluated through descriptive statistics, in the form of graphs and tables. The results can be useful for practice of industrial companies in the field of setting priorities, or evaluating and comparing the situation in the field of human resource management before and during the pandemic as well as after the return to the standard work regime.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Equality Perception in Industrial Enterprises Under the Conditions of Industry 4.0<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Provided that the industrial sector is digitized, it presents an opportunity to enhance the safety and quality of work for the workforce, and it should also lead to a positive social impact by reducing the gender gap and promoting equal opportunities for men and women. Gender equality does not mean sameness, but rather equal social status, rights, and obligations, as well as fair and equitable approach. Fundamentals for both prosperity and a sustainable world is established by the above-mentioned. The primary objective of the research described in this article was to examine the impact of Industry 4.0 on gender equality within industrial organizations and how gender equality is perceived by employees of industrial enterprises. The conducted questionnaire survey was focused on the application of the current state of gender equality under the conditions of Industry 4.0 in seven large industrial enterprises in Slovakia. The survey was focused on industrial enterprises. The most important findings of the conducted survey is the facts that women and men generally perceive the issue of gender equality differently, and that the majority of female respondents do not perceive the arrival of Industry 4.0 and the digitization and automation associated with it as a trend with positive impact.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Impact of the Covid-19 Pandemic on Labour Market Diversity<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Diversity of labour market is currently one of its most striking features. The processes of globalisation and interdependence are creating pressure for ever more international cooperation, which naturally causes more frequent clashes between the diverse elements of the environment, and increases the interdependence of economies. In this context, the COVID-19 pandemic has generally weakened existing global relationships and chains. Economies have been distorted by various types of restrictive and later stimulus measures in a relatively short period of time - a situation that leads naturally to the idea of the interconnectedness of existing processes and the labour market. The main objective of the present study was to make a comparison of the authors' views on the development of these indicators on the basis of the results of analyses of selected macroeconomic indicators, and to establish the dependence between the development of the COVID-19 pandemic, macroeconomic developments and state interventions in the functioning of economies. We begin the empirical part by analysing the evolution of quarterly GDP values in selected economies of the world, and then turn to the employment rate. We conclude the study with the evolution of unemployment in comparison with the evolution of the pandemic situation in the Slovak Republic. The comparison of selected indicators and its results confirm the existence of links between pandemic, macroeconomic and legislative developments in the Slovak Republic. Although the COVID-19 pandemic is the ultimate cause of changes in the labour market, the immediate cause of the dynamics of GDP, employment and unemployment is the state intervention in the economy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Humanization in the Context of Industry 4.0 and Industry 5.0<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Germany is considered in literature to be a cradle of the 4th Industrial Revolution. Industry 4.0 has been topical and awidely accepted term worldwide. Countries at the forefront of industrial development have invested significant resources in research, development and strategic initiatives to introduce Industry 4.0 technologies. On the tenth anniversary of the launch of Industry 4.0, the European Commission developed and published the Principles for the Industry 5.0 Strategy, which will lay the foundations for further economic and industrial development. The article presents the results of research based on a critical analysis of the literature and surveys, conducted among representatives of German society.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Reporting and Earnings Management of Listed Non-Financial Firms in Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The effects of sustainability reporting on earnings management was examined in the study extensively. Causal research design was employed in this study. The study population comprises of all the 112 quoted non-financial firms in Nigeria, sample size is 22 listed manufacturing firms purposively selected for the purpose of this study. The study covered 7 years’ period ranging from 2015-2021. The data used for this study were gotten from the annual reports and sustainability reports of the selected firms. Data used for this study were analyzed with the use of descriptive statistics and panel regression analysis. Sustainability reporting was measured in this study by using the social, economic and environmental disclosures index, whereas earnings management was measured using discretionary accrual and real earning. The outcome of the analysis of the study revealed that sustainability reporting has a significant negative effect on discretionary accruals and real earnings evidenced by t-statistics = (-2.31, -2.54, -2.95) and p-values of (0.037, 0.018 and 0.023) respectively for social, environmental and economic report disclosures on discretionary accruals and t-statistics of = (-2.53, -2.23, -2.86) and p-values of (0.012, 0.029 and 0.005) respectively for social, environmental and economic report disclosures on real earnings. The study concludes that the firms with low sustainability disclosure will probably be more involved in earnings management practices than the firms who actively disclosed their sustainability matters in details. The study recommends that firms should ensure they disclose in details the true state of their sustainability activities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Development of Postal Services in European Countries, with a Special Focus on Serbia and Slovakia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the work is to indicate the direction of development of postal services by means of various analyses. According to the trend of recent years, the number of letters in domestic and international traffic keeps decreasing, while the number of parcels keeps increasing. The Universal Postal Union and the postal organizations of individual countries must respond to this trend. Of course, the Covid-19 pandemic, the complex geopolitical situation in Eastern Europe and the current energy crisis have had a significant impact on postal services. The analysis includes the EU member states, Schengen countries and Balkan countries. Indicators like average area covered by a permanent office and average number of inhabitants served by a permanent are analyzed. The comparative analysis of postal services in Serbia and Slovakia includes the number of letter, parcel and express services, revenues from these services and data on the coverage of the postal network in these countries. With the help of the analysis performed in this paper, a good example can be found and a way for further development in the functioning of the postal market and the provision of postal services. For example: new parcel services must be introduced, delivery times must be shortened, and the sending and receiving of parcels must be facilitated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Manufacturing vs. Lean Manufacturing<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this paper is to describe characteristics of agile manufacturing and analyse the needs and benefits of agile manufacturing under the conditions of uncertainty and market turbulence. It also describes four main changes in the production environment which were implemented thanks to agile methods, and compares the lean and agile manufacturing, while describing their intersections and differences in achieving the set goals. The conclusion summarises the advantages and identified benefits suitable for organizations after implementation of agile manufacturing, as those are the important facts that can play a significant role in the survival and re-establishment of balance in the periods of uncertainty.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Training for Effective Education of Employees<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article deal with the problem of choosing an effective software tool for developing virtual trainings. The Ella platform as an innovative solution for creating of virtual training is presented. In the introductory part of the article, the Ella platform is presented as the result of our development. Ella is an integrated software ecosystem as a basis of multiple software applications focusing on the design and analysis of internal e.g. logistics, monitoring, and simulation of automotive logistics assets, and safety systems, etc. This article is focused on virtual training using the Ella platform. Furthermore, the article provides an example of virtual training that has already been carried out, with the Ella platform used in the preparation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Shift to Online Teaching of Technical Subjects during the Pandemic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the article is to compare the results of the study before and during the pandemic. It is also a reflection on what we experienced and how we undertook pedagogical work with students in critical teaching conditions. The coronavirus pandemic brought about an unexpected and rapid change in all aspects of education. It seems like neither the teachers nor the students were ready. The article describes how the transition to online teaching took place overnight. It describes how technical subjects were taught and examined in a new online environment. This is about how the students evaluated that form of education in the subjects of ‘Heat Treatment and Metal Surface Treatment’ and ‘Material Science I’. The results of the study confirmed that even in the conditions of complete separation in the social and work contact, it is possible to study by conscientious preparation and self-access.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Examination Methods in Bachelor’s and Master’s Degrees of Study during the Online form of Education<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The process of education is an integral part of the development of each student’s personality. For this reason, it is also necessary to verify the knowledge acquired during the studies. The article deals with the examination in two material-oriented courses. One is taught at the Bachelor’s degree and the other at the Master´s degree at the STU Faculty of Materials Science and Technology located in Trnava. The different approach to the examination results is evaluated, as both methods of testing produced comparable results.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Two Laboratory-Oriented Subjects in Terms of Face-to-Face and on-Line Form of Education<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article is focused on presenting the method of online teaching of two subjects: CAQ and Metrology and Quality of Technological Processes, which are implemented in the summer semester on Bachelor’s study degree. The teaching was to be implemented in such a way that there was interaction with the students, and, at the same time, we also had to prepare the protocols later elaborated by students. The article will compare the face-to-face method of teaching, its methods as well as the evaluation of the two subjects, with the online method of teaching. Two subjects focused on the control and measurement of dimensions will be compared, but with different ways of implementing the exercises during the online process. Both subjects used laboratories to process them. The result is a relatively comparable success in both subjects.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Students Performance during Distance form of Education<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>During the COVID-19 pandemic, it was necessary to convert teaching to a distance method. The distance form of education had the advantage of student´s choice of place and time for study. However, students had to study using self-access. This could have a negative impact on study results. On the other hand, they could retain their academic results due to the extension of the time needed to grasp the subject matter. This article deals with the analysis of the performance of students regarding the study grades and the time required to complete a single assignment in the course of Mechanical Testing and Defectoscopy of Materials.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Seminars on Thermal Analysis at the Institute of Materials<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This contribution describes the online teaching process of selected thermal analysis techniques, which are performed within the subject of “Methods in Research of Material Structure and Properties”. It deals with some aspects of both, attendance, face-to-face method of study, and distant online study during the pandemic situation in Slovakia. Although online learning has undoubtedly some advantages, it should be employed only when not impeding the development of practical, experimental skills in a particular branch.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Computational Thermodynamics in Materials Science Courses<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Computational thermodynamics is an important tool used to predict the phase equilibria, phase compositions, transformation temperatures, solubility limits and many thermodynamic properties of multi-component materials. In this contribution, the possibilities of how to introduce computational thermodynamics into the university Materials Science courses using Thermo-Calc software are described. Also, the application of computational thermodynamics in materials research and development of new materials is shortly outlined.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Brief Survey of Creating a Digital Twin Architecture for Virtual Commissioning on the Machine Level<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Digitalization is a hot topic today in every business, affecting the whole life cycle of a process or a product. This paper focuses on the design phase of automation systems, especially creating a digital twin of a machine to support the software development of the control system and its virtual commissioning. Different simulation model architectures are introduced, as well as specific use-case. The main objective of this paper is to present three basic types of digital twin architectures for virtual commissioning of production devices and systems. These architectures were investigated and built based on predefined requirements. Collaborative project work for the development of the digital twin and efficiency was defined as one of the requirements. Efficiency is required due to the software and hardware used for the digital twin. Architectures such as centralized, basic distributed and completely distributed were introduced in the paper. Based on the results from observation and testing, the authors recommend using the concept of completely distributed architecture of the digital twin based on the defined requirements. This digital twin architecture separates mechanical engineering and automation engineering with respect to PC stations. Nevertheless, it interconnects them using the standard machine-to-machine software and communication interfaces.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of form Error and Roughness of Hardened Steel Workpieces Internally Turned with Different Tools in Long Overhangs<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Internal turning process is a very important and widely used process for enlarging and finishing holes. Especially for the components that work with external members, this operation needs to assure surface and geometric quality. In that case, the correct definition of working parameters will directly contribute to the quality of component. Aim of the current research was to analyse the form error and the roughness of workpieces submitted to internal turning process using boring bars in long overhangs with three different internal tools (steel, carbide and antivibrating tool). For the experiments, heat-treated DIN EN 1.2842 (ISO 90MnCrV8) steel with 58 HRC of hardness was submitted to boring process using CBN (cubic boron nitride) inserts, and a boring bar with the most possible rigid clamping system (Easy Fix). The workpiece roughness and circularity were measured using a profilometer and a form error measuring machine. The measurements provided the data to identify the boring bar levels of stability, and the workpiece micro and macro geometric errors. The experiments allowed to conclude that, for all toolbars, the evaluated errors kept constant with increasing L/D ratio during stable clamping conditions, without any vibration. On the other hand, higher values of overhangs, limited to L/D&gt;4.25 for steel tool, can cause serious damages in the cutting system if the antivibration tools or the carbide will be not used.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Aspects of Parts Additive Manufacturing from Metal Powder<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In recent times, demand for sustainable products and systems keeps increasing. It is guided by need for reduction of energy and material consumption. Powder metallurgy (PM) has generally lower energy consumption and higher material yield than other conventional processes, such as casting, forming and machining. Also some additive manufacturing (AM) techniques use metal powder as feedstock. In this paper, the energy consumption and material yield of AM techniques using metal powders are compared with conventional manufacturing.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Internal Structure Density in the Process of Fabrication of Orthodontic Master Models by Fused Deposition Modeling<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article focuses on the influence of infill (internal structure of components) in the dimensional accuracy of dental master models during the processes of their fabrication by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) technology, and their vacuuming process for production of clear orthodontic aligners. The components, in this case, were the upper jaws (maxillary teeth) of two individual patients (Tzina, Dimitris), which were obtained by intraoral 3D scanning. Patient Tzina at the time of intra-oral scanning was 27 years old and Dimitris was 23 years old. The method of 3D printing was the FDM, and the material used in this research was thermoplastic high impact polystyrene (HIPS). Three different percentages of infill density were set, 60%, 80%, and 100%. For each setting, there were five specimens (thirty 3D printed dental models in total, 15 for Tzina and 15 for Dimitris). After the 3D printing, the models were digitized and measured by GOM ATOS II Triple Scan MV 170 optical 3D scanner and compared with the values of the initial digital models. Then the dental master models underwent the process of Essix-aligners formation (single press) and were rescanned and measured again. The outcome of this research was to examine if the dental master models remain dimensionally accurate after these processes, and which infill provides the optimal and medically approved accuracy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue 19552 Steel Forging Die Surface Layers Strenghtening<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper briefly describes factors influencing the effectivity of forgings production. It focuses on lifetime of forging dies and possibilities of surface layers mechanical strengthening application. Included are also the results of experiments in the area of surface layer strengthening of forging die tool steels by shot peening. The article presents the results obtained on the basis of monitoring the influence of the initial hardness on the surface roughness after shot peening and on the course of hardness in the surface layer after shot peening. The results of the experiments confirmed the beneficial effect of mechanical reinforcement (strengthening) on the final properties of surface layer.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Iron-Based Powder Additive on a Shape Accuracy of Injection Moulded Parts<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper reviews the effects of iron-based powder on shape accuracy of injection moulded parts. Analysed specimens were produced on a micro injection moulding machine. At first, specimens of pure polypropylene (PP) were manufactured. Then specimens containing 1, 2 and 3 vol. % of iron powder additive were produced using the same process parameters. Subsequently, the samples were scanned using scanned using Zeiss METROTOM CT scanner. Results were analysed via CAE inspection tools. The main aim was to compare the shape and flatness of the scanned specimens to the nominal models. Results showed that iron-based additives of this vol.% had no significant effect on shape accuracy of produced parts. This paper is a partial result of the ongoing research focused on effect of iron and steel-based additives on material, magnetic and mechanical properties of polymers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue