rss_2.0The Scientific Bulletin of Electrical Engineering Faculty FeedSciendo RSS Feed for The Scientific Bulletin of Electrical Engineering Facultyhttps://sciendo.com/journal/SBEEFhttps://www.sciendo.comThe Scientific Bulletin of Electrical Engineering Faculty Feedhttps://sciendo-parsed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/647370e74e662f30ba53e6d6/cover-image.jpghttps://sciendo.com/journal/SBEEF140216Machine Learning Algorithms Fusion Based on DGA Data for Improving Fault Diagnosis of Electrical Power Transformerhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) continues to be widely recognized as a valuable method in recent times for the early identification of issues in oil-filled power transformers. It has gained extensive adoption as a primary approach for the early discovery of these issues, relying on the analysis of dissolved gases. This contributes to enhancing the dependability of electrical systems. This paper proposes an efficient fusion method based on DGA data using the two best Machine Learning algorithms, the neural network (MLP), the naïve Bayes (NB) throughdata input vector ppm, a percentage input vector, and an Logarithmic input vector. The fusion method predictively combined the two classifiers and obtained a statistical evaluation: accuracy, recall, precision, and F-measure higher than both classifiers separately. The proposed fusion method was evaluated for performance using a test database and compared with conventional and smart methods. Results showed that the proposed model outperformed both traditional and intelligent methods in terms of diagnostic accuracy when using percentage and logarithmic input vectors. The Prediction Based Fusion (PBF) vector Percentages achieved an accuracy rate of 97.22%, while PBF vector Logarithmic achieved an accuracy rate of 95.83%. These rates were higher than those achieved by traditional methods, such as the Modified RRM/CEGB method 91.67% and Modified RRM/IEC method 90.28%. Additionally, the proposed model surpassed the accuracy rates of intelligent methods, such as CSUS ANN 88.89% and Conditional Probability 93.06%.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-00142024-02-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Working Temperature’s Influence on the Lifepo4 Battery Generated Powerhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The battery needed to store electricity is an essential element of a photovoltaic energy production system. The place where this system element is located, during its operation, will thermally influence the way the battery works. The specialized literature presents studies on the influence of temperature on the electrical working capacity of the battery, but through this scientific paper we want to study a concrete case of a LiFePO4 battery and quantify the influence of temperature differences in the working space on the differences in the energy capacities generated by the same battery. The experimental setup allowed recording the temperature of the space where the battery is placed for a long time, so we ensured that the temperature of the battery is approximately equal to that of the working space, just like in a real case of a photovoltaic system. The monitoring of the electric power of the battery in operation was carried out only during its discharge, by imposing a constant discharge current simultaneously with the recording of the voltage at the battery terminals throughout this cycle. At the end of the experiments, we associated the average temperatures during the discharge cycles with the average powers discharged by the battery in each thermal frame. The quantification was achieved by relating the power differences generated to the temperature differences of the different thermal situations experienced. The importance of this study resides into the highlighting of importance to maintain an optimal temperature for the space where the batteries are stored, having as technical effect the maintaining the power’s functioning optimal rate of these. The design of a photovoltaic system must be oriented to a long term calculus regarding power’s rate depending by battery’s working space temperature.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-00132024-02-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Monitoring A Fluid Circuit: A Comparison between Arduino UNO and PIChttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this project is to design an electrical circuit for measuring specific parameters, such as liquid level and engine RPM, to monitor a fluid circuit. The project involves a comparison between the Arduino Uno development platform and the PIC16 development platform. The devices utilized include a level sensor, motor potentiometer, ultrasonic sensor (HC-SR04), submersible pump, a 4x20 LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) with an I2C (Inter-Integrated Circuits) interface, and various connection cables.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-00192024-02-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Enhancing power control in doubly fed induction generator based wind turbines: a performance comparison of fuzzy logic and sliding mode control methodshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Effective power regulation is critical for ensuring the stability and performance of Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG)-based wind turbines. This study conducts a comparative study between two control methodologies: fuzzy logic control (FLC) and sliding mode control (SMC), to regulate power in DFIG-based wind turbines. The paper emphasizes the importance of power regulation in wind turbines and its impact on grid stability, presents mathematical equations governing DFIG-based wind turbine systems, encompassing machine equations, power equations, and control objectives related to power regulation. A comprehensive model of the DFIG-based wind turbine system is developed, accounting for dynamic machine behavior and grid interface considerations. The modeli ng process integrates relevant electrical and mechanical components, along with power regulation control strategies. Subsequently, FLC and SMC control methodologies are developed and implemented to regulate desired power. Detailed discussions on controller design and tuning are provided, aligning with specific power control requirements. The results highlight SMC’s effectiveness in achieving precise power regulation within DFIG-based wind turbines, showcasing its superior response characteristics. The study offers valuable insights into the advantages and trade-offs associated with each control approach, aiding researchers and practitioners in selecting the most suitable control methodology for their operational needs. In summary, this paper contributes to the field of wind turbine control systems through a comparative study of FLC and SMC controllers, focusing on regulating power in DFIG-based wind turbines. The findings demonstrate SMC’s superior performance in response, enhancing our understanding of control methodologies for optimizing wind turbine performance and grid integration in sustainable energy systems.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-00182024-02-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Identifying Efective Solutions for Monitoring Swimmers' Performanceshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-0020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Given that people currently live in a digital age, and swimming is an internationally known sport, this paper aims to identify, analyze and compare several electronic devices built to monitor the performance of athletes who are involved in this type of competitions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-00202024-02-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Design of Matlab/Opensim Robust Controller of an Exoskeleton for Disuse Muscular Atrophy Rehabilitation of A Human Armhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The mean goal of this paper is to describe the design and control approach of an exoskeleton for rehabilitation of the disuse muscular atrophy of a human arm. This work includes three main parts: Firstly, the exoskeleton model wes design by Autodesk Inventor 3D software. Secondly, the dynamic simulation of the designed exoskeleton model attached to the human arm was performed using OpenSim software and its Matlab API extension, and finally a robust control law was simulated in order to ensure tracking of the rehabilitation trajectories applied by the exoskeleton to the human arm. OpenSim software makes it possible to simulate movements with musculoskeletal models, namely, the human arm. Rehabilitation in this case consists in a precise exercises given by the therapist. In our case, it is the repetitive trajectories given to the exoskeleton that must be controlled. A sliding mode controller was used since it is a robust control and ensures the best solutions to uncertainty issues. Through simulation, we tested some rehabilitation reference trajectories for the elbow and shoulder. The controller ensures high performances in terms of trajectory tracking in the presence of initial errors and also in the presence of model parameter errors. That showed the effectiveness of the exoskeleton control.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-00172024-02-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Simulated Surface Electromyographic (SEMG) Signal Generation and Detection Modelhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-0024<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>For didactic purposes, the aim of this work was to improve a simulation model of surface electromyographic (sEMG) signal by taking into consideration the shortcomings of previously developed models. This model started with the simulation of the single fibre action potential (SFAP), then the model of the single motor unit action potential (MUAP), afterwards the imitation of the train of MUAP and finally the modellig of the resultant sEMG signal which is the sum of the MUAPs trains. SFAP simulation was based on: i) the description of the volume conductor model which is composed of four layers (bone, muscle, fat and skin), ii) the description of the electrodes shapes and sizes as well as spatial filters, iii) and the transmebrane current. The proposed model shows its effectiveness in the possibility of carrying out practical work by simulation on the modelling of SFAP, MUAP, MUAPT and the sEMG signal. The most important result of this model is that signal processing tools can be applied to analyze and interpret real-world phenomena such as the effects of physiological, non physiological and sensing system parameters on the shape of the simulated sEMG signal.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-00242024-02-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Power Control Energy of a Pumping System (Photovoltaic- Diesel)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-0021<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Future Algerian agricultural projects are oriented to the Sahara. Knowing that generally electrical energy is supplied largely by Generator Diesel (DGs). Due to the difficulty and lack of land roads for these desert areas, which creates fluctuations in the fuel supply process for farmers. In order to find a solution to mitigate this fluctuation requires the use of modern technology such as the hybridization of local renewable energy such as solar energy. Our system consists of the integration of a photogenerator (PVG) with a DG to feed a synchronous motor coupled to a central water pump controlled by means of transformers. This work presents an intelligent approach for improving and optimizing the control performance of a system using the Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) based maximum power point tracking (MPPT) method. In this article, we will analyze a contribution to the use of a hybrid energy system (PVG-DG) according to a management strategy whose purpose is to reduce energy costs and reduce the emission of greenhouse gases (CO2). Our simulation results presented at the end of the article have demonstrated the efficiency and flexibility of the Matlab simulated techniques system based on the actual geographic information of the study area to validate the performance of the proposed system. Which can be used in other practical studies in the future.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-00212024-02-28T00:00:00.000+00:00A Review of Recent Control Trchniques of Virtual Synchronous Machine for Renewable Energyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Increased distributed generation (DG) integration into power system via power electronic devices results in a reduction in the total equivalent inertia of power grid utility, which lead to serve frequency stability and performance degradation of the power system. To facilitate the penetration of DG into the power grid utility, improved control schemes of the power electronics converter based DG are required to improve the system stability when it is dominated by DG based inverter. A virtual synchronous generator (VSG ) approach is suggested, which consists in controlling the static power converter to mimic the essential dynamic behavior of the conventional synchronous generator.</p> <p>The main objective of this paper is to review the most recent topologies of virtual inertia control. Along this work, a detail description of each topology is presented. In addition, VSG control equations given voltage and frequency control is explained in detail. The VSG problems and future research on VSG control are discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-00162024-02-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Etude and Optimization of MPPT Controllers in Photovoltaic Systems with Battery Energy Storagehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Three different types of MPPT techniques will be studied and compared in this work. MPPT is a technology for maximizing the power produced by solar energy systems. Fuzzy logic-based control (FLC), one of the most widely utilized MPPT approaches, is examined, perturbation and monitoring (P&amp;O), and plug-in (Inc). The power and effectiveness of a solar energy system with lead-acid batteries for storage, an energy management plan, and associated photovoltaics In order to confirm the benefit, FL-MPPT was examined in this study, and the performance of its algorithm was compared and evaluated. Using both techniques, P&amp;O and Inc. Using Matlab/Simulink 2018-a tools, simulation results showed that the power quality was higher using MPPTFLC.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-00152024-02-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Monitoring System Management for Organic Wheat Reception Basehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-0023<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this article is to present monitoring system management using the AGILE SCRUM Methodology and microprocessors based systems for temperature monitorization of a grain reception base for organic wheat. In this article is presented the well-detailed proof of concept for a web-based temperature monitoring system, using Arduino and temperature sensors for temperature monitorization and AGILE SCRUM Methodology for software development management. In this way, the operators from grain reception base will be able to monitor the temperature from different halls, build from different materials, remotely.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-00232024-02-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Compatibility between Agile Culture and Romanian Public Administration in the context of National Security Environmenthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-0022<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nowadays, there is a legitimization of enhancing managerial processes in professional environment. Efficiently managing resources, processes, and practices is fundamental. Entrepreneurs and public institution managers are actively seeking innovative solutions to achieve organizational goals swiftly, utilizing fewer resources, and minimizing or eradicating human errors. Given the challenging security environment, this paper aims to ascertain whether the public administration can leverage the advantages of Agile Culture implementation within the organizational framework of Romanian Administration. This study embarks on a structured literature review focusing on three pivotal pillars: organizational culture, Agile Culture, and Romanian public administration. It scrutinizes the feasibility of implementing Agile Culture within the organizational landscape of the Romanian Public Sector, situated within an integrative framework delineated by the current security context.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-00222024-02-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparative Study Of Five Mppt Controls In Two-Stage Three-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems Under Partial Shading Conditions https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-0004<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the maximum popular renewable electricity assets is photovoltaics. Grid-connected photovoltaic structures are designed to generate as a lot strength as possible. Photovoltaic systems have nonlinear traits imposed with the aid of environmental factors consisting of radiation and temperature, making it hard to operate at the most power factor. It may additionally be tough to extract the maximum amount of electricity due to the formation of nearby maxima because of other factors which include shading or degradation. There are several MPPT algorithms and approaches that may be used for this. Publications with comparative analyses have also been released. However, in most of these works, comparisons are based on simulations or literature review. From the simplest to the most complex MPPT methods, empirical validation remains important. The two simplest and most widely used MPPT techniques are the perturbation, open-loop, and incremental conductance algorithms. The three most challenging ones are sliding mode control, backstepping controller, and particle swarm optimization. Therefore, five MPPT algorithms are empirically studied in this paper. Under test settings, Matlab/Simulink was used to conduct experimental experiments. The findings demonstrate that under ordinary operating circumstances, the backstepping algorithm is the only one capable of finding the global MPP under the influence of local shadowing. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-00042023-09-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Study on the Behavior of Low-Voltage Cable Insulation Subjected to Thermal Cycle Treatment https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-0006<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents a study on the effects of thermal aging on a low-voltage cable. Cable samples with a length of 50 cm were subjected to thermal cycling from +140 °C to −20 °C in a climate chamber with controlled temperature. This treatment compares the short-term failure or the emergency overload of some cables under real operating conditions at low temperatures. The effect of the temperature cycle is investigated through electrical measurements such as dielectric spectroscopy, voltage response measurements, and mechanical measurements such as Shore D hardness investigation. The results revealed that the thermal cycles of accelerated aging caused the plasticizer to diffuse into the jacket and then be released into the environment. At the same time, the thermal shocks produced microcracks in the cable jacket, accelerating the removal of the plasticizer. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-00062023-09-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Labview and Remotexy Integration for Quadrotor Stabilization and Controlhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-0002<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nowadays, Small quadcopters have made significant advancements in recent years, thanks to the development of control systems, the availability of sensors, and affordable and reliable materials for their production. Additionally, programs have been developed to model and analyze these aircraft before production. The professional applications of quadcopters are seemingly endless due to their many advantages. The aim of this research is to build a quadcopter and test its stability utilizing Arduino Mega, IMU sensor (Inertial Measurement Unit) and MPU-6050 in LabVIEW environment. The objective is to select the suitable PID parameters and create a remote-control program that can be operated using a smartphone and RemoteXY app on Android OS. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-00022023-09-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Study of Different Network Topologies Using Cisco Packet Tracerhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-0005<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper article aims to explore the study of different network topologies using Cisco Packet Tracer as the primary investigative tool. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-00052023-09-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Studies About Gamma-Ray Irradiation of PVC Plates Used in Electric Cable Insulationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-0007<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this paper, studies concerning the changes brought by gamma radiation on some PVC plates were made. The respective samples were exposed to gamma irradiation, at room temperature and different doses, such as (10, 20, 40, 80) kGy. The changes in the irradiated PVC plates’ properties were studied by UV-Vis, electrical measurements, and SEM analysis on non-irradiated and irradiated samples. The results show that gamma irradiation affects the properties of PVC plates. This degradation leads to the appearance of free radicals, the interruption of polymer chains, reticulation, and the decrease of molecular weight. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-00072023-09-14T00:00:00.000+00:00The Contribution of EEG Headsets in the Development of Brain Capacity https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-0010<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>EEG headsets are a wearable electronic device used for electroencephalography, a monitoring and recording process of the electrical activity of the brain. The electrical signal of the brain is measured with the help of EEG sensors that have a precise accuracy and facilitate the graphic illustration of the characteristics of the brain’s activity, this technology promising for the future other significant benefits for the clever development of people’s health and lifestyle. This article provides an analysis of the advantages of electronic devices that use EEG sensors bring, how this technology works, and presents effective solutions for modernizing the brain. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-00102023-09-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Performance Analysis of MQTT Over Websocket for IoT Applicationshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-0008<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>With the growing popularity of the Internet of Things (IoT), the development of applications harnessing this technology is becoming increasingly widespread and accessible. Moreover, high-performance, and real-time applications necessitate the use of a low-latency protocol. Given these factors, this study aims to analyse Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT) protocol used in combination with WebSocket for IoT applications. The comparison employs experimental tests used to determine data transfer capabilities, latency, and other performance metrics. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-00082023-09-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Numerical Analysis of Inductive Proximity Sensors for Non-Ferrous Targetshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-0012<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Proximity sensors are devices found in many fields of activity from the automotive area to robotics and beyond. Among them, proximity sensors occupy an important place due to their low price and reliable response. They are found in a wide range of sizes and detection distances. In this work, a comparative study was carried out on two constructive solutions - one shielded and one unshielded. The response provided by the sensor was followed through a 2D FEMM analysis varying a series of parameters: the material from which the target is made, the distance between the target and the sensor, as well as its operating frequency. The results highlight the influence of these parameters by changing some quantities of a magnetic nature such as the spectrum of the magnetic flux density, the magnetic energy stored by the target, respectively the inductance of the sensor coil. </p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sbeef-2023-00122023-09-14T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1