rss_2.0Slovenský národopis / Slovak Ethnology FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Slovenský národopis / Slovak Ethnologyý národopis / Slovak Ethnology 's Cover“Reluctant Gatekeeper of the National Inventory” – a Case Study of the Formation of the Faroese Inventory of ICH<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As the Faroe Islands ratified the 2003 UNESCO Convention in 2018 and immediately began to develop a National Inventory, the Faroese Ministry of Culture appointed “expert” representatives of the National Museum and the University of the Faroese Islands for a small assisting committee tasked with assessing and possibly editing proposals for the inventory. The present article is based on reflections from an insider perspective of the process, as the author is one of the members participating in the preparations. The various “candidates” submitted for the inventory are presented and discussed in relation to the analyses of the parliament debates preceding the ratification and media coverage before and after the Convention was passed in the Faroese Parliament. How and by whom is the inventory formed in theory and in practice? What is the appropriate role of scholars in the process? The article suggests that the participation of academic experts as “gatekeepers” of inventories can be used to lend credibility of specific selections of intangible cultural heritage worthy of safeguarding within a particular national community. This is problematic from an academic point of view, since scholars can easily get tangled up in essentialist and outdated understandings of national culture as they enter a stage operating by different objectives than the academic discourse of critical enquiry.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-24T00:00:00.000+00:00From Unicorns to Lipizzan Horses. Romanian Folklore Studies on the Way to the Implementation of the UNESCO 2003 Convention<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As a country officially engaged in the intangible cultural heritage (hereafter ICH) inventorying and other safeguarding mechanisms of the UNESCO 2003 Convention, Romania provides an example of how folklorists strive to transcend the traditional rules of their discipline and to adapt their methodology and overview to supporting the implementation of the Convention. Starting from the recent Romanian contribution to the multinational file for inscribing the “Lipizzan horse breeding traditions” on the UNESCO Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity, this paper highlights the counterbalancing influences encountered during this process. Given the distance between this ICH element and the topoi that stand in the mainstream of Romanian folklore studies, the author will provide arguments for considering horse husbandry as a worthy example of living heritage in Romania, ensuring visibility to this tradition in a context dominated by the definition of folklore as an artistic or expressive phenomenon that is being (re)presented as ICH and less by folklife and aesthetic social and cultural manifestations. Using other examples of Romanian living heritage less visible at the level of scholarly and policy initiatives, the author pleads for a middle ground between traditional folklore studies and the theory and current practices of documenting living heritage. The topic may thus contribute to greater efforts to break the old rules of the discipline, turning experts’ eyes from mythological horses to real ones.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Book Reviews as Folk Song Collectors in Slovakia. From Romantic Nationalism to the Beginnings of Modern Research<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Collecting activities were an important cultural and social phenomenon in 19<sup>th</sup> century Europe. Women also participated in these activities, although in many cultures their role and the results of their collecting work have not yet been adequately evaluated. Taking the example of Slovakia, it is possible to highlight the contribution of women in collecting folk songs, while encompassing those features which are specific to the regional circumstances. Women took part in all important collecting projects of the 19<sup>th</sup> century in Slovakia. Reconstruction of their socio-cultural background highlighted the fact that at the inception of these projects women of the aristocracy and gentry were active collectors. The majority of female collectors came from families of the Slovak intelligentsia, who belonged to the middle class. By the end of the 19<sup>th</sup> century many such families had become part of the contemporary elite of Slovak society. We focus on two research questions: 1, how did the gender category of the collector condition the record of song material (an aspect of the collection concept); and 2, what contribution did women’s collecting activities make to the study of traditional song culture (an aspect of the collected material). A definition of women’s concept of collecting, with primary orientation on song lyrics, was deduced from the 19<sup>th</sup> century preference for the national language and the role of Slovak women in its diffusion in private as well as public life, and from analysis of the genre structure of the collected material. The romantic concept of collecting in Slovakia is compared with an early concept of documentation at the beginning of the 20<sup>th</sup> century which derived from abroad, although some of its elements were beginning to take effect also in domestic collecting activities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Multi-Ontological Dissonances and ICH Safeguarding Practices: The Case of the Patios in Cordova<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The contradictions embedded in the safeguarding practices of intangible cultural heritage (ICH) safeguarding practices have been the focus of analysis for the last couple of decades. In addition, the positioning, roles of scholars and their dilemmas are commonly analysed as a dual polarization: those scholars who analyse and criticise ICH regimes from the outside; as opposed to those who participate with a critical academic perspective in ICH safeguarding practices. This article adopts a different approach and proposes the concept “multi-ontological dissonances”. By this term, we refer to the simultaneous ontologies of ICH that take place both in the different actors involved in ICH heritage regimes and in the safeguarding instruments themselves. We analyse three levels of dissonances: various models and concepts of ICH coexist in the practices and discourses among different ICH researchers/specialists; among the safeguarding instruments and the researchers and even inside a single researcher/specialist. The case of the Fiesta of the Patios in Cordova will be used as an example of the multi-ontological dissonances in safeguarding practices.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Theorizing Practice and Practicing Practice – Public Folklore in US Higher Education<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Higher education learning programs in folklore and ethnology should include training for the mastery of ICH and public folklore practices that are integrated with core curricula, grounded in theory and designed to build comprehensive professionalization of these disciplines. It should theorize practice and include engagement in actual projects with impacts beyond the classroom. A disjunction between theory and public practice which persisted for decades is now being addressed in graduate programs in ethnology and folklore, reaching towards what Bourdieu calls the “reconciling of theoretical and practical intentions”. The theories, issues and practices of public folklore currently and potentially taught in the United States suggest approaches that can be used for ethnology and ICH training. Topics can include cultural brokerage, intervention, heritage policies, cultural representation theories, dialogism, cultural sustainability, recontextualization, activism and advocacy, how community is defined, ethics and informed consent along with topics in heritage studies and the study of tourism. Practices taught can include multiple modes of presentation, media production, archiving, organizational and financial management, folklore in education and community engagement. Graduate training should include the intellectual history and contemporary dimensions of intervention in ongoing cultural practices transformative for communities and relationships of practitioners to their traditions. Folklore should be viewed as a practicing profession integrating comprehensive university training and reciprocal relationships between knowledge production in universities and the public sphere.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Political Imperatives in the Heritage Regime and the Emergent Collaborative Scenarios on the Ground: Case Studies from the Baltics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article studies the political imperatives initiated by the UNESCO-related normative instruments, and the emergent terms of engagement in the dynamics of collaborative participation, both on scholarly and community level. The authors share participatory experience and expertise in the field of intangible cultural heritage in policy-making and research, with particular interest in the aftermath of UNESCO ICH-labelling and list inscriptions. We reflect at first critically upon the progress and stance of decisions taken as well as the international discursive framework and debates where we have participated. We likewise contemplate the collaborative role of experts in the intangible heritage framework. In our comparative case study into the impact on local heritage processes in the Baltics, the post-nomination circumstance has generated novel community-driven and negotiated collaborative efforts. Both the Seto community in Estonia and the Suiti community in Latvia have found diverse ways of using heritage resources for their own goals, but also in their continued creative collaboration where a growing self-esteem proves to be a solid basis. This investigation links community participation to the issue of agency, and its creative capacity to constitute and reconstitute with a substantial effect of generating action. We have discerned various moments of empowerment and creativity in local responses to transformational social and economic processes. Our research results foreground the functional capacity of creative collaboration as agency of change, where innovation and right to hybridity become enabling qualities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-24T00:00:00.000+00:00“Only this Theatre, Faithful and True, Can Preserve the Distinctive Identity…”<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article explores the complex role played by the staff of open-air museums in the Czech Republic, their relationship with the communities they work with, and their impact on the intangible cultural heritage outside the museum gates. It further explores the considerable role played by researchers active in policy making at open-air museums. The position of open-air museums is rather intricate from the perspective of communities and the state administration, with many different roles and tasks that allow and sometimes even encourage open-air museum employees to transform heritage rules or create new ones. Our conclusions are based on several case studies illustrating how the staff of Czech open-air museums build their relationships with communities, groups and individuals and how this collaboration effects the safeguarding of the intangible cultural heritage. Ethical issues related to museum interpretation and perceptions of interpreted elements by the public are also discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Academic and Research Engagements Alongside Professional or Public Entanglements in the Field of Intangible Cultural Heritage Hero in the Lyrical Epic Poem in the Context of Contemporary Nationalism<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The analytical-interpretative study examines the depiction of literary characters in the lyrical-epic work <italic>Detvan</italic> written by Andrej Sládkovič. It interprets the ingenious system of relations between the Slovak nation represented by the main character Martin and King Matthias Corvinus. The study notes the shifts in meaning and symbolization of relationships in this work and reveals the influence of national ideology in the creation of characters and their relations. It proves that the relationship between the king and the main character is a poetic expression of the national program, and that the story line is determined by the Slovak autostereotype of a peaceful nation. The article was written on the occasion of the 200<sup>th</sup> anniversary of Andrej Sládkovič’s birth.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-23T00:00:00.000+00:00From a Shepherd’s Hut to the Presidential Palace. Contribution to the 15 Anniversary of the proclamation of the Fujara as UNESCO Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The fujara became the first element of Slovakia’s traditional music culture proclaimed as Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in 2005 and automatically incorporated in the UNESCO Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2008. I was a member of the team that prepared the application documents and witnessed debates among fujara players on what this event would mean for the fujara and its music. The expectations of the performers, instrument makers, and other fans of the fujara were ambiguous. After 15 years since the proclamation, there is an opportunity to show what has happened with the fujara and to what extent their visions have been fulfilled. In this context, the text reflects on important contemporary events related to the life of the fujara: changes in the making technology, unification of its acoustic and intonation features, new ways of its use, presentation of this instrument in the media, as well as processes of a socio-cultural nature focused on the community of fujara players, the education of young performers, and the perception of the fujara in today’s society.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-23T00:00:00.000+00:00The Origins of Women’s Skirt and Shirt Clothing on the Moravian-Slovak Border and Its Central European Context<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Over the past one hundred years, folk clothing has been considered one of the most significant elements of cultural heritage and has been perceived in this way not only by experts but, for many decades, by its wearers as well. In the present study, the author seeks to find an answer, based on an analysis of older expert texts, as to what formed the theoretical basis for this process, who were its representatives, at what conclusions they arrived, and how the methods of their work were reflected in the formulation of their conclusions. From the historical perspective, the study summarises the opinions on folk clothing, projected through the idea of Slavic unity, as can be observed in the case of Jan Koula and, through the reception of these opinions, also in the case of Lubor Niederle, Drahomíra Stránská and Viera Nosáľová. This work also offers newer reflections from the studies by Alena Jeřábková on the shaping of folk clothing within the Carpathian culture. Through the example of women’s linen skirts, the material part of the study seeks to point out the pitfalls of these approaches and highlight the need to study the construction of folk clothing from a longer historical perspective. Only in this way is the effect of clothing styles in the form of domestication of the individual pieces of stylish clothing evident, combined with older clothing layers. Even though most parts of folk clothing are not proto-Slavic and do not necessarily relate to the culture of the Carpathian curve, as a whole, they prove well the way the countryside managed to accept the transformations of contemporary fashion over the last four centuries and to incorporate them into a unique clothing complex. </p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Contemporary Paradigms in the Historical Context of the Institute of Ethnology and Social Anthropology SAS (1946 – 1989): From the to the<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of this study is to offer a paradigmatic analysis of the development of the discipline – called predominantly “ethnography” and “ethnology” in the 20<sup>th</sup> century Slovakia – in the background of the history of its development within one of the key institutions in Slovakia where research is conducted – the Institute of Ethnology and Social Anthropology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences (IESA SAS).</p><p>It is extremely interesting in our case how, in a relatively short period of its existence, the institution under study reacted flexibly to changes in the political regimes and discursive paradigms which resulted in system changes. The changes in external settings forced the institution to interact and intervene, which was reflected in different intensities of reorganisation of the internal ecosystem in different periods. On the other hand, it is also possible to observe major resilience which enabled the institution to preserve internal consistency of its processes. In the case of the IESA SAS, we can rather speak of “micro-historical temporalities” (measured approximately over a period of individual decades) in the background of more general <italic>longue dureé</italic> processes (i.e. long-lasting and global historical changes) in which work teams, specific personalities at leadership positions as well as the external ecosystem were significantly engaged. Within the history of the institution, the study also observes the life and modus operandi of two important generations, denoting them, in terms of the metaphorical discourse, as the <italic>generation of founders</italic> (1950s and 1960s) and the <italic>generation of builders</italic> (1970s and 1980s).</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of Interventions to Reduce Antigypsyism in Slovakia: A Social Psychology Perspective<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Despite numerous efforts of Roma inclusion from various State and non-governmental organisations, segregation and socioeconomic marginalisation of the Roma is still widespread in Slovakia. In this paper, we show what social-psychological factors intervene into the process of intergroup relations change and how they can influence the effectiveness of interventions to reduce antigypsyism. We contend that establishing intergroup harmony between majority and minority may, by creating false assumptions about the absence of structural inequalities, weaken the potential for social change and minority collective action. Based on the theoretical analysis as well as the content analysis of anti-discrimination interventions carried out in the year 2018 and the thematic analysis of interviews with selected stakeholders (NGO representatives, intervention participants, sponsors) we identified four challenges that need to be tackled if the interventions are to succeed in reducing antigypsyism. These are: 1) essentializing vs. empowerment of minorities; 2) tension between the colourblind and multiculturalism approaches; 3) problem of intergroup boundaries and their consequences for generalization of positive intergroup attitudes to the whole outgroup; and 4) societal norms defining the nature of intergroup relations. We discuss how these challenges ought to be addressed in succesful anti-discrimination interventions.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Testing of Priorities in the Research of Cultural Heritage in Slovakia’s Depopulated Regions<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Along with the dynamics of findings of several scientific disciplines of the recent decades, the mechanisms and processes of culture transmission seem to be much more apparent. The knowledge about cultural heritage and the inheritance of culture produced in this way have led to the creation of several platforms of critical cultural heritage. Anthropological and ethnological findings significantly enrich these multi-disciplinary environments where the criterion of a living cultural heritage is becoming generally accepted. In this light, the Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) created a working group in 2019 with the aim to prepare an innovated Strategic Research Agenda (SRIA) for the submission of European projects in the field of cultural heritage (JPI CH). The working group invited Slovak and Czech researchers to reflect on the knowledge from the Central European research area in order to define the research topics for the priority Cultural Heritage and People. The research on the testing of the priority and clarification of the impacts of the depopulation of cultural regions on cultural heritage was conducted at selected locations of the Hont, Novohrad and Malohont regions. The key indicators for justifying the inclusion of the research topic <italic>The impact of the depopulation of EU regions with cultural heritage</italic> in SRIA include ethnographic information, historical demographic data and the modelling of the transmission of cultural heritage content to the next generations.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Elements of Traditional Crafts as an Inspiration for Modern Design and an Incentive for Regional Development from the Perspective of Experts, Manufacturers and Users<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The text seeks answers to the questions of what folk inspirations in design mean and whether local identity embedded in traditions can work as a brand able to interpret traditional products and samples and, subsequently, disseminate them by means of strategies used in design. It is a conscious, innovative process that draws creatively on local sources. Today, traditional forms and patterns are naturally present in real craft products as well as kitsch objects created as an expression of the commercialisation of tourism. Attention is also paid to the terms “craft product” and “regional product”, their significance and understanding by local manufacturers, users, self-governing bodies, and activities at the given location. The analysis of this topic is based on field research and the results of an internet questionnaire.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Intangible Cultural Heritage as a Subject of Ethnological Research Reviews Book Essays The Past: A Case Study of Experiential Learning with Young People at Historic Sites<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Learning about the past is becoming a complex issue due to the increasing need to ensure the approaches consider not only the facts, but also the implications for increasingly diverse future societies. This paper studies how experiential visits to memorial sites contribute to young people’s understanding of history from a wider and more inclusive perspective. The article presents a case study of two educational activities carried out at two memory sites related to the Spanish Civil War (1936–39) involving various qualitative techniques such as participant- and non-participant observation, expert interviews and focus groups with young people. The results show that an experiential approach to the past that works with emotions, empathy and dialogue with secondary students (17 years old) and older young people (15–25 years old) is a very effective means of offering a touching interpretation of the past and learning opportunity for youth, regardless of level of previous knowledge. Other findings show that the content needs to be reconsidered so new generations can interact with it. Young people’s worlds are shaped by cultural diversity, globalisation and the need to connect knowledge with the social environment, which enables them to engage in a critical re-appropriation of the past. This may be a new perspective that could be incorporated into the school curricula, and these types of visits could prove very useful for teachers and historical institutions such as museums or memorial sites interested in including young people’s experiences when planning their activities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-11T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1