rss_2.0SEEU Review FeedSciendo RSS Feed for SEEU Reviewhttps://sciendo.com/journal/SEEURhttps://www.sciendo.comSEEU Review 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/600623dae797941b18f2ef82/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20220811T030413Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20220811%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=061993f1b29bdf172aa1499a106a09cb8230e4d41d9c964a4011c28748b5ecc8200300Instructional Leadership of Private and Public Schools in Kosovohttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/seeur-2022-0060<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Managing a company or organization in today’s market is a challenge that each leader has to face. Companies have to adapt and embrace challenges, or they will be left behind by the competitors in the market. The leadership of a company has to be creative in order to fulfill the needs of the customers, the market, and its employees.</p> <p>The same rules apply for language teaching organizations, which have to follow the rapid changes in the field of education, technology and marketing all the same. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to acquire knowledge of key aspects of instructional leadership in private and public schools, to find the parameters that make an organization successful, and to compare key management decisions taken by organizations over the years. In focus of this paper is a case study with two primary schools in Kosovo, one public and one private, how they operate, how are they managed and the possible ways of further development. Interviews with the leaders of the schools have been conducted, and the findings have been compared and supported with contemporary literature review. The paper starts provides an introduction, the literature review, the framework used, an interpretation and critical discussion of the data collected, and it ends with the conclusion on instructional leadership.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Efforts Towards Creating a National Brand in Kosovo (2008-2021)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/seeur-2022-0045<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>States in the context of foreign policy apply specific strategies that relate with strengthening their international position, especially in relation to the promotion of attributes and values that make changing the perceptions of citizens of other states, and consequently of decision makers. Small states find it difficult to impose on the large international system knowing that their power and potential is little measurable.</p> <p>Kosovo since its proclamation as a state, is facing this dilemma, as crises, political instability and the inability to conclude the problem of recognition have cost it in external perception as a country with unsolvable political problems, while from within as the place where opportunities for work and well-being are seen as difficult to achieve, while interethnic cooperation remains dependent on the fate of the Brussels Talks or reconciliation and forgiveness, which are also linked to political talks. The need to affirm the truth of Kosovo, found it without concrete strategies, while the application of some marketing on foreign television, was not followed by any concrete plan.</p> <p>Kosovo had launched a campaign entitled “Young Europeans”, while only a few years later, 200,000 young people left the country, producing paradigmatic upheavals, in “young European immigrants”. Applying a series of methods, such as content analysis, statistics and interviews, the paper concludes that Kosovo has not had a national strategy for creating a national brand, while there are some sporadic efforts, which are not accompanied by concrete strategies, while political instability did not allow the functioning of foreign policy and consequently increased impatience of the citizens towards the institutions which was reflected in the efforts for their mass departure from the country.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Freedom of Information and Journalism in Kosova 2010 - 2020https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/seeur-2022-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The beginnings of the practical implementation of the right on access to public documents, also known as the freedom of information in Kosova date fifteen years back from now, when the first law on access to public documents was adopted (Official Gazette of RKS, 2007).</p> <p>The freedom of information was attained with difficulties by journalists in relation with public institutions until two years ago. This was because of the oversight body of this law’s implementation was a coordinating office within Prime Minister’s Office, without a specific binding mechanism to public institutions, whilst the Ombudsperson served as a second instance, also without an executive mandate to empower achievement of this right.</p> <p>The content of this paper’s body entails, among others, aims to highlight the degree of difficulty journalists faced to provide information in the absence of an appellant authority in the country during a ten years’ period, which is the subject matter of this writing.</p> <p>Notwithstanding difficulties to freely access public documents, provided by law to be open for the public, as well as the people’s lost trust for public institutions in this regard, since 2019 when the oversight mission of the Law on Access to Public Documents was entrusted to the Information and Privacy Agency, the general perception began to change positively.</p> <p>The current situation in terms of the respect for the freedom of information may be considered to be relatively satisfactory, because public institutions are made aware of the existence of the oversight authority, which acts as an appellate authority for citizens.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Hybrid Warfare in the Western Balkans: How Structural Vulnerability Attracts Maligned Powers and Hostile Influencehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/seeur-2022-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study analyzes the domestic political, economic, and social conditions in the Western Balkans that provide fertile ground for hostile and maligned actors to manipulate and exploit governments and societies with hybrid war measures, namely cyberattacks and cyber intrusions and disinformation and fake news. It begins with a review and assessment of the prevailing empirical and theoretical literature on hybrid warfare. It then describes two leading empirical indices that measure degrees of permeability and structural vulnerability that elevate or reduce the risks associated with maligned and hostile interventions. The article also examines leading indicators measuring resilience levels in cybersecurity and media/information literacy, highlighting political, social, and economic vulnerabilities. It concludes by suggesting that domestic conditions in the region encourage maligned and hostile actors, especially Russia and for different reasons and to a lesser extent China and Turkey, to use hybrid measures to exploit the region. The article proposes that in addition to strengthening institutions and trust, membership in NATO and the E.U. are directly related to mitigating structural vulnerability and reducing uncertainty and insecurity in the Western Balkans.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Editorial Prefacehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/seeur-2022-0052ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00The Importance of Project Based Learning in Teaching English as a Foreign Language - A Case Study from the Republic of Kosovohttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/seeur-2022-0031<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This small-scale research paper analyses both teachers’ and students’ perceptions and their roles towards the use of Project Based Learning (PBL) in a research context in the Republic of Kosovo. The study was completed by sixty students of three lower-secondary private schools in Kosovo and eight English language teachers who work there. The aim of this study was to investigate teachers’ perspectives on using PBL in their classes, the challenges they face while applying PBL, the most common benefits PBL implementation, the materials used with this method, and the impact of PBL on students’ motivation to learn English as a Foreign Language. The data obtained from interviews with teachers highlight that teachers use PBL to a certain extent, though it works much effectively with lower-secondary and upper-secondary education. Teachers preferred to use Project Based Learning in their classrooms in general, although there appears to be some uncertainty between doing projects and Project Based Learning as a strategy. English language instructors have only seen themselves as facilitators of initiatives carried out in the classroom, resulting in a student-centered environment. In contrast to the past, it appears that teachers make extensive use of technology and involve students in a variety of activities to boost their learning and keep them engaged in PBL. Students on the other hand, through a very small number, highlighted that PBL is a better teaching approach in comparison to the traditional textbook teaching and learning.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00The Nobility of Drivasto and Scanderbeghttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/seeur-2022-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article aims to elaborate on the relationships between Georges Castriota Scanderbeg and noble families from Drivasto. Drivasto was an Albanian medieval city located in the Northern Albania, about 12 km away from Shkodra. Its origin dates to antiquity but it has achieved its cultural, economic, and political peak during the Middle Age. Drivasto had its schools, church, and social life. The city elite consisted of noble families, such as Engjelli, Spani, Suma, Moneta, and Dushmani. The city elite played an important role in the resistance against the establishment of Ottoman rule in Albanian lands, so many figures deriving from that elite closely cooperated with Georges Castriota Scanderbeg. They used their diplomatic and military background to transmit Scanderbeg’s claims abroad or to fight against the Ottomans.</p> <p>Therefore, this article aims also to elaborate on the social aspects of the society of Drivasto and its role in political circumstances, aiming thus to present to the audience some historical and social features and international relations during the Middle Age. The first part of this scientific research provides a brief presentation about the city of Drivasto during the Middle Age, continues with noble families and their role and cooperation with Scanderbeg; lastly summarises circumstances that derived from the return of Scanderbeg until the year 1478 when Drivasto fell under the Ottoman rule. The work “The nobility of Drivasto and Scanderbeg” derived of intensive scientific research. The comparative and synthetic methodologies have been used to draft this article.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00The Impact of ICT on the GDP Growth of Western Balkan Countrieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/seeur-2022-0044<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim is to investigate the Information Communication Technology (ICT) on GDP growth in Western Balkan countries from 2000 - 2019. Different econometric techniques were used such as pooled OLS, fixed effects, random effects, and the Hausman Taylor model with instrumental variables (IV). The findings indicate that fixed telephone subscriptions and individuals using the internet have a positive effect on GDP growth, while the fixed broadband subscriptions and mobile cellular subscriptions have a negative effect on GDP growth. The results also show general government final consumption has a negative effect on GDP growth, whereas foreign direct investment has a positive effect on GDP growth, but the coefficient is statistically insignificant. The study will serve for policy makers to invest more in ICT since this will contribute to the economic growth and welfare benefits. There is no study that has been analyzed about ICT in Western Balkan countries, thus findings will be valuable to the government.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Sampling Techniques (Probability) for Quantitative Social Science Researchers: A Conceptual Guidelines with Exampleshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/seeur-2022-0023<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Collecting data using an appropriate sampling technique is a challenging task for a researcher to do. The researchers will be unable to collect data from all possible situations, which will preclude them from answering the study’s research questions in their current form. In light of the enormous number and variety of sampling techniques/methods available, the researcher must be knowledgeable about the differences to select the most appropriate sampling technique/method for the specific study under consideration. In this context, this study also looks into the basic concepts in probability sampling, kinds of probability sampling techniques with their advantages and disadvantages. Social science researchers will benefit from this study since it will assist them in choosing the most suitable probability sampling technique(s) for completing their research smoothly and successfully.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of Demographic Variables on Academic Staff Performance – A Case Study from South East European University (SEEU), North Macedoniahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/seeur-2022-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aims to determine the demographic characteristics influencing the performance of Academic staff at the Southeast European University (SEEU). This study employs data from the student evaluation carried out by the students for their respective professors and courses for the Fall and Spring semesters during the academic year 20/21.</p> <p>A lot of research has been done on demographics and its effect on the professor’s performance, and they point out that demographic attributes can change the rating evaluations, therefore these factors need to be analyzed at SEEU to come to our conclusion.</p> <p>We assume that middle aged professors, females and single professors receive higher evaluation scores.</p> <p>In order to analyze the demographic characteristics of the academic staff of SEEU and how they influence student evaluations, quantitative research methodology was used including calculation of frequencies, percentages, means and cross tabulations.</p> <p>The results of the study show that students generally evaluate with high grades their professors, where the average of the whole questions asked resulted above 4.5, as per Likert scale, 1-5. Furthermore, the general results of the academic staff according to the demographic characteristics such as age, experience in teaching, academic title, gender and marital status for each academic staff do really show differences in student evaluation values. This is an important thing to know when recruiting and retaining academic staff that appear to be highly appreciated by students especially because that results from higher teaching quality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of Selected Municipalities’ Performance of Citizen-Centric Investment Planning, and Support for Youth Programming in Kosovohttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/seeur-2021-0030<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper aims to assess selected municipalities’ performance of citizen-centric investment planning, governance and transparency, financial management, and support for youth programming in Kosovo. In completing this assessment, the Municipal Performance Management System of the Ministry of Local Government Administration (MLGA) in Kosovo was utilized. Selected municipalities are based on the Municipal Performance Report of 2019. Eight from Albanian majority municipalities in the top ranking, and two municipalities with higher scores from minority municipalities. The paper aims to highlight three critical local government issues in ten selected municipalities: 1) The way of governing municipalities assessed according to the applicable legislation and 2) The provision of services in terms of quantity and quality, when possible and 3) Youth-oriented capacity building for municipal staff for better youth services (Ministry of Local Government Administration, 2019). The paper will produce findings on capacity building needs and support needed on youth and citizen-centric investment and capacity building needs. A non-exhaustive list of needed capacities is produced, while the findings from the evaluation will be used to develop a capacity-building manual for municipal staff on youth-oriented municipal services.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Prison Education Characteristics and Classroom Management by Prison Teachershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/seeur-2021-0023<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this research will be to present the classroom management issues faced by prison teachers and introduce strategies applied by prison teachers managing them within the formal education system in correctional service. Cell classrooms, inmate students, and prison teachers’ characteristics and the importance of prison education are to be analyzed within Kosovo Correctional Service. To reach these goals three questions will be raised: 1. What are the classroom management issues in prison schools? 2. Are the prison teachers professionally prepared to teach to inmate students? and 3. Do prison schools differ from schools in the common world?</p> <p>This study will be introduced through qualitative data and a literature review as instruments of the study dedicated to prison classroom management and characteristics, teachers and inmates’ responsibilities and benefits within the informal education system within Kosovo Correctional Service. The research findings revealed that similar classroom management issues are present in prison schooling compared to classrooms in the free world; prison teachers are not additionally prepared to teach in prison classrooms to inmate students. Prisoners, who plan to rehabilitate and reintegrate themselves through formal prison education, want their circumstances and prison characteristics to be taken into consideration by all factors involved in their schooling within prison walls.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Editorial Prefacehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/seeur-2021-0026ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Falstaff’s Gluttony, Lust, Avarice, Sloth and Pride in Henry IV Part Ihttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/seeur-2021-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper aims at looking at Shakespeare’s character Falstaff through the prism of some of the seven deadly sins. The paper doesn’t claim that it explores all the sins present in Falstaff’s personality. The main sins that this paper examines in Falstaff’s personality are the sins of gluttony, lust, avarice, sloth, and pride. The presence of so many sins in the personality of one character that are interconnected is known as concatenation of sins. As Bernard Spivack (1958) and David Wiles (1987) have explained, in many ways Falstaff serves as the Vice figure from the morality plays tempting Prince Hal. Since in the morality plays the Vice figure stems and is associated mainly to the seven deadly sins, this paper will try to show that the fact that Falstaff possesses so many sins can facilitate the possibility of him being identified as stemming from the Vice figure from the morality plays. I will try to find each of the afore-mentioned sins by analyzing Falstaff actions and inactions and by trying to find characteristics of the sins present in Falstaff’s behavior. This paper will also look at Falstaff’s fate and whether there is any similarity between the fate of the Vice figure in the morality plays and the fate of Falstaff in the second part.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00UNESCO’s Atlas on Endangered Languages and the Local Contexthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/seeur-2021-0021<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article analyses the overall development of the endangered language around the world in reference to UNESCO’s Atlas of World Endangered Languages and reflects on the local context. The focus to local context refers to the current territory of North Macedonia in which it is believed there are 7 endangered languages such as: Adyge, Aromanian, Gagauz (South Balkans), Megleno-Romanian, Judezmo, Romani and Torlak. These languages are classified as endangered but are still spoken in the country. The article also reflects on the status of the Albanian language in North Macedonia by drawing comparisons with two other language varieties such as Arberesh which spoken in Southern Italy and Arvanitika spoken in Greece. The challenges that these minority languages have faced in particular countries should serve as a guide in designing effective language policies in North Macedonia in order for the language not be endangered. In the last section the article report on the phenomena of Globalization in which English has become the global language and at the same time has accelerated the loss of many native languages around the globe.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Challenges of the Albanian Language in the Internet Erahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/seeur-2021-0031<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Language is a live organism and as every other living being develops and is enriched with new words and terms, which enter the life of society together with the new tool, i.e. they enter in and mix with the order of Albanian words. Such a thing is inevitable and in some cases even useful, but every word that is lined up in the order of Albanian words must be well filtered. <italic>“The introduction of new words and exclusion of old ones is a natural process, and it happens in any language. This is what happened with the Greek borrowings in Latin, with the Arabic borrowings in Greek, with the Latin borrowings in many European languages, with the Persian borrowings in Turkish, with the Turkish borrowings in Albanian, etc.</italic>” - <italic>Prof. Hajri Shehu emphasizes in a scientific interview</italic> (Shehu, 2017). In recent decades, with the expansion of the Internet, many foreign words began to enter and be used in the Albanian language. English took up more space than expected; in addition to penetrating through various tool notions, it also replaced centuries-old native words of Albanian.</p> <p>The paper has been divided into three parts and in each part an issue has been dealt with: the first part talks about the use of foreign words and the existing words in Albanian; the second part deals with the use of emoticons used instead of words and the third part deals with writing errors in the Albanian language. These are some of the issues that have created a great concern for the Albanian language in this century and they certainly need to be addressed seriously to prevent the dangers that may threaten it.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Performance-Based Rank and Remuneration University Policy for Increased Motivation and Qualityhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/seeur-2021-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Motivation plays an immense role and is one of the key factors for successful and qualitative performance in all spheres of personal and professional engagement of individuals. Therefore, educational institutions, including academia, pay special attention to finding tools for motivating students, but also for motivation of their academic staff. Increased motivation has shown to lead to better performance and better performance inevitably contributes to quality enhancement at both individual and institutional level.</p> <p>The aim of this paper is to present an institutional Ranking and Remuneration (R&amp;R) Policy based on Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) in four areas identified as the most crucial for successful operation of a higher education institution: teaching and learning, research, staff digital profile, service to society and project-based activities. Southeast European University (SEEU) in North Macedonia has developed KPIs in these four areas through an inclusive and transparent process based on its unique Total Quality Management (TQM) approach. The policy has been created after many consultations, trials and simulations and its main objective is to enhance institutional academic productivity and effectiveness through a human resource vibration that starts from individual evaluation, motivation and performance differentiation and leads to stimulation for achieving excellence. It is at an initial stage and if tested well in practice, it can serve as a model for other higher education institutions in the country and wider.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Prevention of Perpetrating the Criminal Offense of Theft-Theoretical and Practical Aspectshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/seeur-2021-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this paper is to analyze the factors that influence the occurrence of the criminal offense of theft as well as the roles of all parties involved in its preventive activities.</p> <p>Ownership creates rights and obligations, and it should serve the well-being of the individual and the community. No one can be deprived of, nor limited from property and the rights deriving from it, except when it comes to the public interest determined by law.</p> <p>Belongings can be movable and real estate. The subject of the criminal offense of theft can be only related to movable items that have economic value and serve to human needs and not in cases when they are abandoned.</p> <p>In the process of preventive fight against crime, it is of great importance to define explicitly and concretely the roles, the tasks, and the goals of certain subjects of preventive activities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Reconciliation Between the Victim and the Perpetrator-Restorative Justicehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/seeur-2021-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this research is to study and address the relation between the perpetrator and the victim, in particular the way it is regulated in the Republic of Kosovo by comparing it with the regulation in other countries. A long time ago criminal law in its institutes has paid attention only to the perpetrator, trying to guarantee his fundamental rights, it is enough to stop at the institute of presumption of innocence and many other institutes and we can see how importance criminal law and in particular criminal procedure has paid to the perpetrator, and on the other hand the victim has always remained in the shadows.</p> <p>Therefore, today we find it reasonable to address this issue, to find out from which period criminal law and authors of criminal law turn their heads towards the victim, to find out what is the position of the victim in society today, what steps have been taken in legal terms and also special attention will be paid precisely to restorative justice as a key point for the realization of the rights of the victim, the compensation of the damage and the restoration of balance and the establishment of relations in society. And it is quite important that in addition to the relations that perpetrators have with victims, we also try to understand the historical course of restorative justice and this way to make an analysis of the position of the victim and the perpetrator over the decades.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Morphological Tagging and Lemmatization in the Albanian Languagehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/seeur-2021-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An important element of Natural Language Processing is parts of speech tagging. With fine-grained word-class annotations, the word forms in a text can be enhanced and can also be used in downstream processes, such as dependency parsing. The improved search options that tagged data offers also greatly benefit linguists and lexicographers. Natural language processing research is becoming increasingly popular and important as unsupervised learning methods are developed. There are some aspects of the Albanian language that make the creation of a part-of-speech tag set challenging.</p> <p>This research provides a discussion of those issues linguistic phenomena and presents a proposal for a part-of-speech tag set that can adequately represent them.</p> <p>The corpus contains more than 250,000 tokens, each annotated with a medium-sized tag set. The Albanian language’s syntagmatic aspects are adequately represented. Additionally, in this paper are morphologically and part-of-speech tagged corpora for the Albanian language, as well as lemmatize and neural morphological tagger trained on these corpora. Based on the held-out evaluation set, the model achieves 93.65% accuracy on part-of-speech tagging, The morphological tagging rate was 85.31 % and the lemmatization rate was 88.95%. Furthermore, the TF-IDF technique weighs terms and with the scores are highlighted words that have additional information for the Albanian corpus.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1