rss_2.0SEEU Review FeedSciendo RSS Feed for SEEU Review Review Feed of Students’ Leadership Potential and Skills in Foreign Language Learning<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper examines the way students developed their leadership potential by delivering an oral presentation and a project in an ‘English for Social Sciences’ course. By using a communicative approach, students were motivated to develop their leadership skills, which stimulated their learning and understanding at deeper levels. The survey was conducted with 14 students at undergraduate level, in their second year ESP Social Sciences 1 course; the students attend the Public Administration, International Communications, and Political Sciences departments of South East European University. The results showed that students attending this course showed the potential of developing leadership skills, and expressed positive attitudes and proficiency when delivering an oral presentation and project according to their preference in their field of study. Students were challenged and motivated to develop leadership skills, such as integrity and strength of character, that will prepare them for becoming potential leaders.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Comparative Corpus-Based Study on the Political Discourse of the U.S. Presidents: Obama and Trump<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this research is to analyze the political discourse and the language they used in public addresses provided by two former presidents of the United States, specifically, President Barak Obama and President Donald Trump. This research reflects on the material that has been collected for several months which aimed to contribute on the analysis of the corpus, distinctions and similarities, as well as their attitudes towards the public opinion. The objectives of this study are mainly empirical and theoretical. Considering the empirical objectives, this study seeks to explore, identify and categorize the most used words in a political speech according to the categories, form, function and meaning, whereas, the theoretical objectives of this study are to provide a description of the language that is used in major events from well-known politicians when aiming to capture people’s attention. Their rhetorical habits were examined, in every delivery of Mr. Obama’s political speech; his speeches were carefully and well-articulated throughout his 8 year political service in the oval office, portraying him as a kind person. On the other hand, Mr. Trump’s, as a non-politician, more as a businessman, political speeches throughout his campaign and 4 years in the office were very often seen as aggressive, unforeseen, and nonetheless straight to the point.</p> <p>This study covers the linguistic level analysis as well as semantic and pragmatic levels. Initially, the selected corpora were analyzed using the Ant Conc software regarding frequency of usage and then move into detailed analysis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Murder from Suicide: Prevalence and General Investigative Features<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The right to life includes the absolute freedom of the individual to live without being endangered or threatened, in conditions of freedom and promotion of interpersonal values. The purpose of the paper is to provide a general overview of the right to life, including the consequences of denying this right, as well as the main forms or distinguishing investigative characteristics in determining whether it is a case of murder or suicide. To provide the required data, a statistical method was used, through which the frequency of murder and suicide during the years 2019-2022 was presented. The comparative method was used to compare the findings on the change in number in relation to the prevalence of murders and suicides. The interview method was used to collect data on the prevalence of murders and suicides at the local level, as well as to determine the distinctive investigative features of these cases. The results of the research indicate that murder, aggravated murder and suicide have been decreased during the period 2019-2022, respectively the first six months of 2022. The results also indicate that investigators may face some difficulties such as the lack of cooperation of witnesses, the unintentional and intentional destruction of evidence, the movement of the victim’s body by changing its position, or even in some cases the lack of professionalism of the investigator. Based on the results, the investigators can distinguish whether it is a case of murder or suicide based on the position of the victim, the type of caused wound, bodily secretions, the past of the victim and the presence of a weapon at the scene. Investigators do not often face doubts as to whether the case is murder or suicide due to sufficient evidence. The research indicates that in some cases the investigators can also face those situations when the murder is staged with manipulative methods to look like suicide.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Responsibility (Insanity Defense)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Criminal responsibility refers to a person’s ability to understand his action, behavior at the time a crime is committed, what a person is thinking when he commits a crime or the expected result when a crime is committed. Crime is defined in terms of an act or omission (actus reus) and a mental state (mens rea). In this paper, is presented the general concept of irresponsibility and essentially reduced responsibility as a reason to be exempted from the punishment provided by the Criminal Code. Any perpetrator of a criminal offense who is capable of undertaking any action can be an active subject of a criminal offense, with the fact that regarding their sanctioning by the criminal system is concerned there are some restrictions related to age as well as dividing the perpetrators into responsible and non-responsible ones. For a person to be convicted of a crime, there must be evidence that proves his guilt, and that proves whether the perpetrator was in a regular state of mind or committed the criminal offense due to his irresponsibility.</p> <p>Another important element of this scientific paper is the historical aspects of how irresponsibility has been treated from the customary law to the present day, a huge focus gets also the treatment of the biological-psychological concept on one hand and the treatment of the legal concept on the other hand for this category of people. A criminal defendant who turns out to have been incapacitated at the time he committed a crime may be acquitted because of his incapacity, or he may be sentenced leniently because he was unable to understand the importance of his actions. Legally, the defendant must prove and convince the court that he was not able to understand his actions, or he is not able to distinguish right from wrong, or he must prove that he committed the act in uncontrolled impulses.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Survey on Authorship Analysis Tasks and Techniques<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Authorship Analysis (AA) is a natural language processing field that examines the previous works of writers to identify the author of a text based on its features. Studies in authorship analysis include authorship identification, authorship profiling, and authorship verification. Due to its relevance, to many applications in this field attention has been paid. It is widely used in the attribution of historical literature. Other applications include legal linguistics, criminal law, forensic investigations, and computer forensics. This paper aims to provide an overview of the work done and the techniques applied in the authorship analysis domain. The examination of recent developments in this field is the principal focus. Many different criteria can be used to define a writer’s style. This paper investigates stylometric features in different author-related tasks, including lexical, syntactic, semantic, structural, and content-specific ones. A lot of classification methods have been applied to authorship analysis tasks. We examine many research studies that use different machine learning and deep learning techniques. As a means of pointing the direction for future studies, we present the most relevant methods recently proposed. The reviewed studies include documents of different types and different languages. In summary, due to the fact that each natural language has its own set of features, there is no standard technique generically applicable for solving the AA problem.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Perspectives on Inclusive Education and Teacher’s Role in Inclusive Classes with Specific Focus on Children with Disabilities<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper provides various perspectives of scholars on inclusive education throughout its history and the role of an inclusive teacher in inclusive education schools with specific focus on children with disabilities that attend regular classes with their non-disabled peers.</p> <p>The paper is based on the literature review of various research papers and studies that were published by prominent and specialized scholars, institutions and relevant organizations in the field of inclusive education, with a focus on disabled children and their rights to have equal chances for education in regular schools with their peers. The paper further reflects teachers experience and perception on the inclusive education process and the challenges they face in this regard.</p> <p>Finally, the paper provides various views on what is expected by an inclusive teacher and what type of support and assistance they need to get from other educators and teachers specialized in education of children with disabilities in order to meet children’s needs in the context. The paper also describes the importance of inclusive teacher’s collaboration with the school management, children’s parents and caregivers and other relevant specialists in order to understand the specific background of child’s type of disability with the aim of adapting his teaching methodology, tools and materials as per child’s specific needs for an individualized education planning if needed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Discourse Analysis of Strategies Pursued by the Party of Labor of Albania to Eliminate its Enemies in the Early Years of Communism in Albania<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the paper is to explore the discourse strategies of the Party of Labor of Albania to eliminate its enemies in the early years of establishing communism in the country. The contention is that PLA and its leaders made possible the elimination of thousands of people by normalizing the process. The enemies of the party were declared enemies of the people and as such, they had to disappear in one way or another, so that the integrity of the body politics could be preserved. The class enemy was considered a parasite that should be eliminated in the name of social prophylaxis. By using discourse analyses the paper will investigate the discursive strategies followed by the communist party and its leader when addressing the class enemy. Speeches of Enver Hoxha in Party Congresses, Plenums, and gatherings with people will be analyzed. Only by normalizing the process of elimination of everyone who was depicted as an enemy, did the communist party make possible the elimination of thousands of people. Normalization is understood as the standardization of the procedure so that everyone knew in advance what would happen if someone had to be declared an enemy of the people. The paper will analyze the vocabulary used to portray the class enemy and his/her destiny in specific cases. The study has analyzed the speeches given to justify the elimination of Patër Anton Harapi, Lef Nosi, Maliq Bej Bushat, dom Lazër Shantoja, dom Ndre Zadeja, and the sabotage group of the Maliqi swamp. The analysis covers the period immediately after the end of the IIWW when communists seized the power.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Climate Change Mainstreaming in Spatial Planning at the Central Level in Kosovo<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Spatial developments contribute to climate change through greenhouse gas emissions and disordered land use. At the same time, climate change impacts have spatial implications, influencing the land uses and settlements development, and damaging habitats, ecosystems, infrastructure and other assets. Considering its regulatory character and multi-sectorial approach, spatial planning is gaining an increasingly important role in climate change management. As such, it could be better utilized in increasing climate resiliency and achieving decarbonization targets in Kosovo as well. While Kosovo is prone to natural hazards such as floods, landslides, droughts, and wildfires, the future climate change could further impact the economy, infrastructure, buildings, energy, health and wellbeing of its communities. Assuming that climate change considerations are not sufficiently integrated in spatial planning policies at the national level in Kosovo, this research assesses the extent that the Law on Spatial Planning and the Spatial Plan of Kosovo (also referred as the Spatial Planning Strategy) address those considerations. Upon the identified gaps, this research provides recommendations for better climate change management, risk reduction and resiliency building. Considering that the Spatial Plan of Kosovo has expired, and the Kosovo’s institutions are currently reviewing and considering the updating of the Law on Spatial Planning, the findings of this research could better inform and orient climate change mainstreaming in spatial planning at the central level.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Preface and Domestic Factors Shaping Kosovo’s Euro-Atlantic Integration<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study examines the complex and dynamic relationship between Kosovo and NATO. It argues that Kosovo’s prospects for NATO membership are shaped by an array of contradictory and often confusing international and domestic political forces. It draws on theoretical sources, media reports, and descriptive statistical data to the factors shaping expectations for NATO membership. The study relies on theories and concepts from the established and evolving literature on alliance formation and expansion to explain how states aspiring for membership in security organizations must navigate a pattern of political and security hurdles in their quest for membership accession. It then explores Kosovo’s case for NATO membership by examining whether Kosovo has met key political and security benchmarks and devotes significant attention to the settlement dispute with Serbia, the roles played by the U.S. and E.U., and identifies alternative paths for Kosovo’s membership in NATO.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Migrations and the International Law<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Forced population migration is not a modern phenomenon. It is often an integral part of totalitarian policies and has been used repeatedly to ensure the survival of political regimes or achieve specific political ambitions. Violent migration is present practically throughout history when considering the time scope and everywhere, practically in all continents of the world, with a specter of variations depending on the context imposed by the political circumstances, we can encounter it under different names. These variations have also reflections in the terminology used, among others, they are also indicators that speak of the different methods applied in order to achieve particular policies.</p> <p>Individuals, families, or even whole peoples are forced to migrate violently, abandon their homes and leave behind them all their lives, including the material goods created up to that moment. Seen from a normal retrospective, forced migration represents the culmination of a regime’s goals to dominate the territory without hindrance from any possible resistance. This fact has brought so many tragedies to humanity, and even worse, it has often ended with “legitimization” by international treaties or has even been the product of inter-state agreements. Forced population migration has clearly brought to the surface the evil purpose and has revealed territorial ambitions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Leadership of Private and Public Schools in Kosovo<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Managing a company or organization in today’s market is a challenge that each leader has to face. Companies have to adapt and embrace challenges, or they will be left behind by the competitors in the market. The leadership of a company has to be creative in order to fulfill the needs of the customers, the market, and its employees.</p> <p>The same rules apply for language teaching organizations, which have to follow the rapid changes in the field of education, technology and marketing all the same. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to acquire knowledge of key aspects of instructional leadership in private and public schools, to find the parameters that make an organization successful, and to compare key management decisions taken by organizations over the years. In focus of this paper is a case study with two primary schools in Kosovo, one public and one private, how they operate, how are they managed and the possible ways of further development. Interviews with the leaders of the schools have been conducted, and the findings have been compared and supported with contemporary literature review. The paper starts provides an introduction, the literature review, the framework used, an interpretation and critical discussion of the data collected, and it ends with the conclusion on instructional leadership.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Towards Creating a National Brand in Kosovo (2008-2021)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>States in the context of foreign policy apply specific strategies that relate with strengthening their international position, especially in relation to the promotion of attributes and values that make changing the perceptions of citizens of other states, and consequently of decision makers. Small states find it difficult to impose on the large international system knowing that their power and potential is little measurable.</p> <p>Kosovo since its proclamation as a state, is facing this dilemma, as crises, political instability and the inability to conclude the problem of recognition have cost it in external perception as a country with unsolvable political problems, while from within as the place where opportunities for work and well-being are seen as difficult to achieve, while interethnic cooperation remains dependent on the fate of the Brussels Talks or reconciliation and forgiveness, which are also linked to political talks. The need to affirm the truth of Kosovo, found it without concrete strategies, while the application of some marketing on foreign television, was not followed by any concrete plan.</p> <p>Kosovo had launched a campaign entitled “Young Europeans”, while only a few years later, 200,000 young people left the country, producing paradigmatic upheavals, in “young European immigrants”. Applying a series of methods, such as content analysis, statistics and interviews, the paper concludes that Kosovo has not had a national strategy for creating a national brand, while there are some sporadic efforts, which are not accompanied by concrete strategies, while political instability did not allow the functioning of foreign policy and consequently increased impatience of the citizens towards the institutions which was reflected in the efforts for their mass departure from the country.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Information and Journalism in Kosova 2010 - 2020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The beginnings of the practical implementation of the right on access to public documents, also known as the freedom of information in Kosova date fifteen years back from now, when the first law on access to public documents was adopted (Official Gazette of RKS, 2007).</p> <p>The freedom of information was attained with difficulties by journalists in relation with public institutions until two years ago. This was because of the oversight body of this law’s implementation was a coordinating office within Prime Minister’s Office, without a specific binding mechanism to public institutions, whilst the Ombudsperson served as a second instance, also without an executive mandate to empower achievement of this right.</p> <p>The content of this paper’s body entails, among others, aims to highlight the degree of difficulty journalists faced to provide information in the absence of an appellant authority in the country during a ten years’ period, which is the subject matter of this writing.</p> <p>Notwithstanding difficulties to freely access public documents, provided by law to be open for the public, as well as the people’s lost trust for public institutions in this regard, since 2019 when the oversight mission of the Law on Access to Public Documents was entrusted to the Information and Privacy Agency, the general perception began to change positively.</p> <p>The current situation in terms of the respect for the freedom of information may be considered to be relatively satisfactory, because public institutions are made aware of the existence of the oversight authority, which acts as an appellate authority for citizens.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Warfare in the Western Balkans: How Structural Vulnerability Attracts Maligned Powers and Hostile Influence<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study analyzes the domestic political, economic, and social conditions in the Western Balkans that provide fertile ground for hostile and maligned actors to manipulate and exploit governments and societies with hybrid war measures, namely cyberattacks and cyber intrusions and disinformation and fake news. It begins with a review and assessment of the prevailing empirical and theoretical literature on hybrid warfare. It then describes two leading empirical indices that measure degrees of permeability and structural vulnerability that elevate or reduce the risks associated with maligned and hostile interventions. The article also examines leading indicators measuring resilience levels in cybersecurity and media/information literacy, highlighting political, social, and economic vulnerabilities. It concludes by suggesting that domestic conditions in the region encourage maligned and hostile actors, especially Russia and for different reasons and to a lesser extent China and Turkey, to use hybrid measures to exploit the region. The article proposes that in addition to strengthening institutions and trust, membership in NATO and the E.U. are directly related to mitigating structural vulnerability and reducing uncertainty and insecurity in the Western Balkans.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Preface Importance of Project Based Learning in Teaching English as a Foreign Language - A Case Study from the Republic of Kosovo<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This small-scale research paper analyses both teachers’ and students’ perceptions and their roles towards the use of Project Based Learning (PBL) in a research context in the Republic of Kosovo. The study was completed by sixty students of three lower-secondary private schools in Kosovo and eight English language teachers who work there. The aim of this study was to investigate teachers’ perspectives on using PBL in their classes, the challenges they face while applying PBL, the most common benefits PBL implementation, the materials used with this method, and the impact of PBL on students’ motivation to learn English as a Foreign Language. The data obtained from interviews with teachers highlight that teachers use PBL to a certain extent, though it works much effectively with lower-secondary and upper-secondary education. Teachers preferred to use Project Based Learning in their classrooms in general, although there appears to be some uncertainty between doing projects and Project Based Learning as a strategy. English language instructors have only seen themselves as facilitators of initiatives carried out in the classroom, resulting in a student-centered environment. In contrast to the past, it appears that teachers make extensive use of technology and involve students in a variety of activities to boost their learning and keep them engaged in PBL. Students on the other hand, through a very small number, highlighted that PBL is a better teaching approach in comparison to the traditional textbook teaching and learning.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Nobility of Drivasto and Scanderbeg<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article aims to elaborate on the relationships between Georges Castriota Scanderbeg and noble families from Drivasto. Drivasto was an Albanian medieval city located in the Northern Albania, about 12 km away from Shkodra. Its origin dates to antiquity but it has achieved its cultural, economic, and political peak during the Middle Age. Drivasto had its schools, church, and social life. The city elite consisted of noble families, such as Engjelli, Spani, Suma, Moneta, and Dushmani. The city elite played an important role in the resistance against the establishment of Ottoman rule in Albanian lands, so many figures deriving from that elite closely cooperated with Georges Castriota Scanderbeg. They used their diplomatic and military background to transmit Scanderbeg’s claims abroad or to fight against the Ottomans.</p> <p>Therefore, this article aims also to elaborate on the social aspects of the society of Drivasto and its role in political circumstances, aiming thus to present to the audience some historical and social features and international relations during the Middle Age. The first part of this scientific research provides a brief presentation about the city of Drivasto during the Middle Age, continues with noble families and their role and cooperation with Scanderbeg; lastly summarises circumstances that derived from the return of Scanderbeg until the year 1478 when Drivasto fell under the Ottoman rule. The work “The nobility of Drivasto and Scanderbeg” derived of intensive scientific research. The comparative and synthetic methodologies have been used to draft this article.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Impact of ICT on the GDP Growth of Western Balkan Countries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim is to investigate the Information Communication Technology (ICT) on GDP growth in Western Balkan countries from 2000 - 2019. Different econometric techniques were used such as pooled OLS, fixed effects, random effects, and the Hausman Taylor model with instrumental variables (IV). The findings indicate that fixed telephone subscriptions and individuals using the internet have a positive effect on GDP growth, while the fixed broadband subscriptions and mobile cellular subscriptions have a negative effect on GDP growth. The results also show general government final consumption has a negative effect on GDP growth, whereas foreign direct investment has a positive effect on GDP growth, but the coefficient is statistically insignificant. The study will serve for policy makers to invest more in ICT since this will contribute to the economic growth and welfare benefits. There is no study that has been analyzed about ICT in Western Balkan countries, thus findings will be valuable to the government.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Techniques (Probability) for Quantitative Social Science Researchers: A Conceptual Guidelines with Examples<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Collecting data using an appropriate sampling technique is a challenging task for a researcher to do. The researchers will be unable to collect data from all possible situations, which will preclude them from answering the study’s research questions in their current form. In light of the enormous number and variety of sampling techniques/methods available, the researcher must be knowledgeable about the differences to select the most appropriate sampling technique/method for the specific study under consideration. In this context, this study also looks into the basic concepts in probability sampling, kinds of probability sampling techniques with their advantages and disadvantages. Social science researchers will benefit from this study since it will assist them in choosing the most suitable probability sampling technique(s) for completing their research smoothly and successfully.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue