rss_2.0Studia Geotechnica et Mechanica FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Studia Geotechnica et Mechanica Geotechnica et Mechanica Feed laser scanning in the construction of a numerical model geometry related to underground post-mining facility<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The procedure of building a quasi-3D geometry of a numerical model of an underground post-mining facility is presented in the article. For this purpose, measurements were made, based on the terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technology, of a fragment of St. John adit, which is part of the underground tourist route “Geopark” St. Johannes Mine in Krobica in Lower Silesia in Poland, in the neighborhood of Krobica, Gierczyn and Przecznica – the places located in the vicinity of the well-known health resort Świeradów Zdrój. TLS, as one of the most advanced mining surveying technologies, enables accurate mapping of even the most complex geometries of underground mining facilities. This opens wide possibilities in the construction of more accurate numerical models of the behavior of the rock mass around such underground objects. As a result, more reliable calculation results are obtained, which are the basis for designing mining support protection, for example, with rock bolting. This translates into an improvement in the safety of underground excavations, in the conditions of exploitation in mining as well as in historical post-mining excavations made available to tourists.</p> <p>In the construction of the geometry of numerical model, software such as Trimble RealWorks was used to orientate individual “point clouds” from measurement stations. CloudCompare software was also used to generate cross sections to the adit axis, and AutoCad software was used for processing and spatial orientation of a selected characteristic cross section. Using the latest version of the FLAC 3D v.9.0 software, the excavation cross-section geometry obtained from measurements was mapped to and discretized (i.e., meshed), giving it a third dimension at the same time.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Wetting-Drying Curves from Elastic Wave Velocities Using a Novel Triaxial Test Apparatus<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The relationship between the soil water characteristic curve (SWCC) and the mechanical behavior of unsaturated soil is imperative and has been well investigated. However, the correlation between elastic wave velocity along the wetting and drying paths of SWCC is largely unknown due to the nonavailability of a standard experimental setup for such a purpose. An ordinary triaxial apparatus has been modified for laboratory assessment of SWCCs under different K<sub>o</sub> stresses, along with the measurement of shear and compression wave velocities in due course. The main aim of the study is to draw SWCC, wave velocity characteristic curve (WVCC), and a Poisson’s ratio characteristic curve (PRCC) and to establish the phenomenon that these curves possess hysteresis. The Poisson’s ratio was obtained indirectly by measuring Vp and Vs. Three soil samples with relative densities of 85%, 56%, and 39% were prepared and placed in a modified triaxial test apparatus under wetting and drying cycles. The test results showed that the newly developed apparatus is accurately capable of measuring SWCC. Owing to the similarity in the shape of wave velocity and Poisson’s ratio, response to SWCC, WVCC, and PRCC are drawn. The phenomenon of stress history and the effective stress of the soil affected the behavior during wetting and drying paths.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the modified clothoidal (MCL) shape of composite dowels against the background of fatigue and technological issues<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Composite dowels opened new possibilities for engineers designing composite structures. The fundamental and most important characteristic of composite dowels is the shape of the cutting pattern (called line). It is important to understand why only one particular shape of the cutting line, the modified clothoidal (MCL) shape, is being used in bridge engineering, while so many different shapes have been investigated by many researchers. The essential part of the process of developing composite dowels – the development of shape of the cutting line – is presented in this paper. The investigation, development, and evolution of the MCL shape, which is the final form of composite dowels for bridges and has been widely introduced in bridge engineering, are presented. The results of comparative tests of different shapes under cyclic loads are discussed. The background for the design formulas for the steel part and the fabrication aspects are highlighted.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue fracture openings in mortar using different imaging techniques<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents a quantitative characterisation of the fracture openings obtained in triaxial shear tests on several cement mortar samples. The comparison was carried out on three samples with various apertures using different methods of semi-destructive and non-destructive characterisation: optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray computed tomography, digital volume correlation and the <sup>14</sup>C-polymethylmethacrylate method. The fracture aperture distribution results are in good agreement between the different methods. Although the opening results obtained are comparable, the most advantageous method was considered to be XRCT profile analysis based on the size of the target area studied and the specific characteristics of each technique.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Structure-Soil-Structure Interaction (SSSI) between piled neighboring bridges: Influence of height ratio<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper explores the impact of height ratios on the seismic Structure-Soil-Structure Interaction (SSSI) for three adjacent bridges with varying superstructure masses (M<sub>st</sub> = 350, 1050, 350 t) through 3D numerical simulations. A comprehensive series of numerical analyses has been conducted across different height ratios (R = 1, 1.1, 1.15, 1.2, 1.25, 1.5, 2, and 3) to assess their influence on superstructure acceleration and the internal forces within the foundation piles. The bridges under investigation are supported by groups of piles embedded in nonlinear clay. The numerical simulations were executed using fast Lagrangian analysis of continua in three dimensions (FLAC 3D), a three-dimensional finite differences modeling software. The findings revealed that variations in mass ratios significantly impact the SSSI effects on superstructure acceleration and pile internal forces. Notably, adverse effects were more pronounced for mass ratios of R = 1.1 and 1.2, leading to an increase in bending moment, shear force, and superstructure acceleration by up to 237.8%, 291.4%, and 70.33%, respectively. In contrast, a mass ratio of R = 3 resulted in a decrease in bending moment, shear force, and superstructure acceleration by up to 72%, 82.14%, and 81.13%, respectively. This implies that a careful arrangement of adjacent structures with different masses can be employed effectively to manage the (SSSI) effects.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Analytical Study of Annular Raft on Granular Piles<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Rafts are frequently used to design foundations on soft soils to minimize the overall and differential settlements of structures built on them. In many cases, the raft alone can offer sufficient bearing capacity and all that is needed to restrict foundation settlements to a predetermined level with a few widely spaced piles. Granular piles (GPs) can be used due to their several advantages over steel or concrete piles. An annular raft foundation is generally provided for overhead water tanks, chimneys, etc. The provision of granular piles underneath the annular raft foundation not only increases the capacity of the foundation but also minimizes the settlement to an acceptable level. The present study deals with a rigorous analysis of annular raft foundation supported by GPs based on the continuum approach. A new numerical method is developed with geometric considerations for excluding the loaded pile portion from the region of the raft area by considering two distinct zones. This article introduces a novel approach, the annular raft over granular piles, which represents an innovative solution in geotechnical engineering. This innovation has the potential to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of foundation design in various construction projects. The response of annular raft foundation with GPs is evaluated in terms of settlement influence factor (SIF), load shared by granular piles (in %), and normalized shear stress variation along the GP–soil interface. The present study reveals that the presence of the pile influences the stress distribution locally. The stiffness of GP, relative length of GP, relative size of the raft influence the settlement and load sharing of annular raft with GPs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Into Estimation of Sand Permeability: From Empirical Relations to Microstructure-based Methods<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study evaluates various methods for estimating soil permeability using microtomography-derived data and compares them to the conventional laboratory approaches. Different methods, including measurement in custom-designed permeameter at micro-CT-compatible scale, empirical equations, simulated sifting, semi-theoretical equations, pore-network modeling, and lattice-Boltzmann simulations, were applied to samples of sandy soils with distinct microstructural properties. The empirical equations showed varied results, highly dependent on the method chosen. The simulated sifting method was able to adequately estimate the granulometric properties of the soil, allowing the use of empirical permeability formulations for substantially small samples. Semi-theoretical equations based on the microstructural properties presented reasonable agreement for some samples. The pore-network modeling approach demonstrated computational efficiency but lacked accuracy. The lattice-Boltzmann method required significant computational resources but did not provide substantially closer alignment with the measured hydraulic properties of some samples. None of the simulations was able to properly determine the permeability of silty and organically contaminated sand. The study highlights the complexity of permeability estimation, emphasizing the need for choosing volumes of interest, resolution of micro-CT scans, and methods that match specific soil characteristics and available computational resources.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of generalized boundary conditions for homogenization of thermal and filtration properties of soils<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the paper, generalized boundary conditions were used for the homogenization of coefficients of the Laplace partial differential equation in the context of Darcy flow and heat diffusion phenomena. The mesoscopic boundary value problem was defined and analyzed from the variational perspective and the finite element formulation of the homogenization problem was provided. The matrix equation for the apparent macroscopic properties, resulting from FEM discretization, was derived and utilized in two illustrative examples: homogenization of the filtration coefficient of clay amended with expanded shale and thermal conductivity of the soil with multiple fractions. It is shown, that generalized boundary conditions can provide very good homogenization results without the assumption of the periodicity of the material. For best results, the microscopic length parameter has to be properly estimated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue between Cone Penetration Test parameters, soil type, and soil liquidity index using long short-term memory neural network<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Accuracy and quality of recognizing soil properties are crucial for optimal building design and for ensuring safety in the construction and exploitation stages. This article proposes use of long short-term memory (LSTM) neural network to establish a correlation between Cone Penetration Test (CPTU) results, the soil type, and the soil liquidity index <italic>I<sub>L</sub></italic>. LSTM artificial neural network belongs to the class of networks requiring deep machine learning and is qualitatively different from artificial neural networks of the multilayer perceptron type, which have long been widely used to interpret the results of geotechnical experiments. The article outlines the methodology of CPTU testing and laboratory testing of the liquidity index, as well as construction and preparation of data for the network. The proposed network achieved good results when considering a database consisting of the parameters of eight CPTU soundings, soil stratifications, and laboratory test results.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue effects in horizontally loaded reinforced concrete columns<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper deals with the second-order effects in horizontally loaded reinforced concrete columns. The current standard approach according to Eurocode 2 is the starting point for the considerations. Simplified methods that take into account the secondary effects, that is, the nominal stiffness method and the nominal curvature method, and their limitations are discussed. Most attention is devoted to the general method. As only general guidelines for this method can be found in the literature on the subject, the author presents his own original approach to calculations done using this method. Exemplary analyses for the corbel columns of high bay racked warehouses are made. Columns of different lengths are analyzed. The calculations show the overestimates introduced by the simplified methods and the benefits stemming from the use of the general method, especially in the case of quite slender columns.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Use of CPTU and DMT Methods to Determine Soil Deformation Moduli—Perspectives and Limitations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents the concept of determining constrained modulus—<italic>M<sub>0</sub></italic>, initial shear modulus—<italic>G<sub>0</sub></italic>, Young modulus—<italic>E</italic>, and rigidity index—<italic>I<sub>R</sub></italic> on the basis of parameters from static penetration tests CPTU (Piezocone Penetration Testing), SCPTU (Seismic Piezocone Penetration Testing) and dilatometer tests DMT (Flat Dilatometer Test), SDMT (Seismic Flat Dilatometer Test). The basis for constructing the empirical relationships between the mentioned modules and parameters from the CPTU and DMT studies was to determine the factors that affect these relationships. The article discusses the impact of the following factors; geological and geotechnical conditions, conditions of recording measurements in CPTU and DMT tests, factors relating to the CPTU and DMT testing methods, factors affecting reference parameters from laboratory tests, factors related to subsoil properties. The basis for obtaining the empirical relationships for determining the analyzed modules and rigidity index were extensive research of the soils of various origins, in Poland. Measurement uncertainties and factors influencing the recorded parameters in the CPTU study were documented by the studies of the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute and the former Department of Geotechnics of the Agricultural University in Poznań. In these studies, penetrometers from several reputable manufacturers were used. The article summarizes the established empirical relationships for individual modules, taking into account the effect of overconsolidation. It also comments on the interrelationship between constrained modulus <italic>M<sub>0</sub></italic> from CPTU and DMT test for soils in Poland.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Clay–rubber Mixtures for the Transportation Geotechnics—the Numerical Analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The use of waste materials (including rubber) in industry is one of the most important issues in terms of environmental protection. One of such applications is the use of soil–rubber mixtures in backfills or lower layers of embankments or road structures. The numerical analyses of the behavior of a clay–rubber mixture layer built into a road embankment are presented in this article. An elastic-perfectly plastic model with a Coulomb–Mohr yield surface was used in the finite element analysis. The parameters of soil–rubber mixtures adopted for the analysis were estimated on the basis of triaxial tests: monotonic (UU—unconsolidated undrained, and CU—consolidated undrained) and cyclic (CU) performed with low frequency (<italic>f</italic> = 0,001 Hz). The triaxial tests were carried out on mixtures of kaolin (K) and red clay (RC) with the addition of 1–5 mm rubber granulate (G) in the amount of 5–25% by weight. Numerical analyses included a static plate load test (VSS) of a layer made of a rubber–soil mixture built into the embankment and testing the stability of embankments using the <italic>c</italic>–ϕ strength reduction procedure. The results of laboratory tests confirm the necessity of testing soil–rubber mixtures each time before their use in embankments. The observed overall decrease in shear strength and stiffness of the tested material is variable and depends on the type of soil and the content of rubber waste. Satisfactory results of the analysis were obtained, both in terms of the values of layer stiffness modules and slope safety factors, which allows for the conclusion of the possibility of using soil–rubber mixtures (with the recommended granulate addition up to 30% by weight) in the layers of road embankments and (depending on the road class) in the lower layers of the pavement structure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue requirements for static liquefaction test of soil in triaxial apparatus<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Since in the field of research concerning liquefaction phenomenon, the largest database exists for triaxial tests, this type of apparatus was selected as the most relevant. Available data concerning laboratory research on liquefaction tests for identification of undrained response of sand indicated that the results are very sensitive to even smallest incorrectness in the testing procedure. Besides, due to a complex nature of liquefaction phenomenon, it was considered prudent to undertake some efforts directed to increase the objectivity of tests. Therefore, before commencement of the actual test program for investigation of undrained response of soil, it is necessary to carry out some preparatory experimental work consisting of application of indispensable modification necessary for enhancement of a quality of a triaxial test. The paper presents the key issues pertaining to the implementation of the experiment. Significance of these modifications for desired characteristics is emphasized. Relevance of some upgrading of the equipment for liquefaction tests is exemplified.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Resonant Column and Torsional Shearing Apparatus With Multipoint Contactless Displacement Detection System<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this study, a modification of resonant column/torsional shearing (RC/TS) apparatus was proposed to perform a qualitative analysis of a noncohesive soil specimen vibration during RC tests. An additional multipoint displacement detection system was installed in the RC/TS WF8500 device. In the new measuring system, 48 mini-magnets are attached to the side surface of a cylindrical soil specimen, creating a regular grid of measuring points. Around 48 Hall sensors (Honeywell SS495A1) are used to measure changes in the magnetic field strength due to the movement of the corresponding magnets on the surface of the specimen subjected to dynamic torque. The Hall sensor generates an analog signal that is proportional to the change in the magnetic field. The measurements are collected with a newly developed data acquisition system that consists of a set of analog-to-digital converters and a set of ARM (Advanced RISC (Reduced Instruction Sets Computing) Machine) microcontrollers. The measurement system is controlled with a dedicated software, <italic>ControlRec,</italic> developed by the authors. The measurements are taken synchronically with and independently from the standard RC test procedure. The new measuring technique allows to observe displacements of the 48 points on the specimens’ surface with over 4 times higher sampling rate than in the original measuring system. As a result, additional effects related to the mechanical wave propagation through soil specimen were observed (local disturbances in distribution of vibration amplitudes or significant displacements near the bottom end of the specimen, which is assumed to be fixed in the standard RC/TS results analysis), that could not be identified using the standard equipment of the device.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Numerical Model in Some Geotechnical Problems<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The concept of equivalence of the realistic, initial reference model and the simplified, reduced model is proposed. In reduced models, the action of the soil on the structure is replaced by the action of a layer with prescribed properties, defined by a set of parameters. The main difficulty here is to find the parameter values required by the simplified theory. The subject of this work is to find the dependence of the parameters of the reduced model on the parameters of the full model, including realistic soil behavior, in order to ensure the equivalence of both models. We show the potential of the method by presenting two examples: Winkler and Pasternak's model of a plate on the ground. We assume that both models are equivalent if they give identical results (displacements) at a finite number of observation points. An artificial neural network (ANN) is built in order to approximate and record the dependence of the parameters of the reduced model (at the network output) from the parameters of the full model (given at the network input). The complex network acts as a formula that assigns the parameters of the reduced model to a realistic description of the soil structure that is used for finite element method (FEM) modeling. The formalism we propose is quite general and can be applied to many engineering problems. The presented procedure is entirely numerical; it allows to calculate the parameters of the reduced model without resorting to symbolic calculations or additional theoretical considerations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Methods for Determination of Stress History Parameters in Soils<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Stress history acquired by any cohesive soil influences, to a large extent, three groups of fundamental properties indispensable in geotechnical design i.e. state of soil, shear strength, and stiffness characteristics. The basic stress history parameter (from which other parameters are derived) determined directly from laboratory tests is a preconsolidation stress <italic>σ′</italic><sub>p</sub>. Since the first method proposed by <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_sgem-2023-0017_ref_006">Casagrande in 1936</xref>, value <italic>σ′</italic><sub>p</sub> is determined in the oedometer test as a border between overconsolidated (OC) and normally consolidated (NC) zones. Approach based on division between predominantly elastic, (recoverable) strain, and plastic (irrecoverable) strain is a main principle of several methods of <italic>σ′</italic><sub>p</sub> determination, which have been proposed over the past eighty-six years.</p> <p>Accumulated experiences have revealed that any laboratory procedure based on the oedometer test does not provide realistic value of preconsolidation stress, especially in heavy preconsolidated soils. The major reason for that results from the fact that the mechanism responsible for natural overconsolidation is more complicated than mechanical preloading. Therefore, there is a necessity to reevaluate effectiveness of standard methods and look for another solution of evaluation yield stress <italic>σ′</italic><sub>Y</sub> in natural soils.</p> <p>This article presents the comparison between <italic>σ′</italic><sub>Y</sub> determined for various soils with use of standard methods based on conventional oedometer test and yield stress determined on the basis of alternative procedures. The latter are represented by various approaches as e.g. based on SHANSEP procedure or initial shear modulus and others. The most promising among these alternative methods is a new concept based on dilatancy phenomenon that takes place during shearing of a dense soil. The parameter reflecting stress history is derived from pore pressure response and is based on characteristic values of Skempton's parameter A record. Consistency of data concerning stress history parameters profile obtained for deep subsoil on the basis of various methods is shown for comparison.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Deformation During the Construction of Record Span Soil-steel Buried Structure in Ras-Al-Khaimah (UAE)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The algorithm presented in this paper concerns the processing of data in the form of coordinates of measurement points located around the structure periphery, obtained from the geodetic measurements. The geometric parameter used here to study the deformation of the steel shell is the change of curvature. It is used to estimate the bending moment and hence the normal stress in the corrugated steel shell. The results given in the examples of calculations of the analyzed structure show the possibility of determining places with extreme values. For this purpose, a dense layout of measuring points and use the precision geodesy technique is necessary. Of significant importance in stress estimation is the correction of the geodetic measurement base. This is due to the fact that the points in the initial measurement do not lie on a section of the circle as a reference curve, used to determine the deformation of the shell.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Work Criterion in the Stability Analysis of an Earth Dam Subjected to Seepage<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Failure may take different forms: reaching the Mohr–Coulomb limit stress condition is accompanied by yielding, strain localisation may occur in shear, compaction or dilatant bands, arbitrary large strain and loss of strength may be accompanied by a field of chaotic displacements of soil particles. Failure is also related to material instability. It takes place when there is a loss of uniqueness of constitutive relationships. It has been found that instability domains exist strictly inside the Mohr–Coulomb failure surface. Material instability can be detected by local Hill's criterion, that is the second-order work at a point. Results of a coupled hydro-mechanical finite element analysis of an ‘earth dam – subgrade’ system at changing hydraulic boundary conditions have been presented in the article. Normalised values of the second-order work and factor of safety values by the shear strength reduction procedure for corresponding stages of the analysis were calculated. It has been shown that the value of the safety factor corresponds to the values of the second-order work. The analysis results show that a decrease in the value of the safety factor is accompanied by a decrease in the value of the second-order work until negative values occur at some points.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Screw Displacement Pile-Bearing Capacity Based on Drilling Resistances<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article presents an engineering, empirical method of estimating the bearing capacity and settlement characteristics <italic>Q-s</italic> of screw displacement piles and columns, based on soil resistance encountered during the drilling to form piles/columns in the ground. The method was developed on the basis of correlation analyses of the test results of 24 piles made during the “DPDT-Auger” research project (<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_sgem-2023-0014_ref_011">Krasiński et al., 2022a</xref>). In the proposed method, the load capacity of a screw displacement pile is estimated using two main parameters of auger screwing resistance: torque <italic>M<sub>T</sub></italic> and the number of auger rotations per depth unit <italic>n<sub>R</sub></italic>. The method applies to piles and columns made with a standard <italic>screw displacement pile</italic> (SDP) auger and with the proprietary, prototype DPDT (<italic>displacement pile drilling tool</italic>) aguer, patented in Poland (2020). Based on the estimated ultimate capacities of the pile shaft and base, an approximate method of predicting the pile settlement characteristics <italic>Q-s</italic> was also proposed, using the transfer function method. This article describes a correlation procedure of field test results together with their statistical analysis and presents a method of estimating the pile-bearing capacity based on correlation results. A calculation example is also provided. The conclusion looks at the useful practical applications that could be found for the proposed method.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Addition of Dispersed Reinforcement on the Resilient Modulus of Slightly Cemented Non-Cohesive Soil<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this article is to determine the effect of the addition of dispersed reinforcement on the resilient modulus of non-cohesive soil used as material for improved subgrade or subbase course of the pavement structure. Resilient modulus (<italic>M</italic><sub>r</sub>) is a parameter used in road construction, which characterises soil subgrade or base aggregates stiffness in flexible pavement subjected to the traffic load. This article presents laboratory test results of non-cohesive coarse material (gravelly sand – grSa – without fines) with the addition of 1.5% cement and dispersed reinforcement – polypropylene fibres in lengths of 12, 18 and 40 mm. Tests were conducted on the samples with various percentages of fibres (0, 0.2 and 0.3%) relating to the dry mass of the soil. Samples were compacted according to the standard Proctor (SP) and modified Proctor (MP) methods. Main laboratory tests were conducted in the triaxial apparatus enabling testing samples subjected to cyclic loads according to AASHTO T307 standard. Resilient modulus was determined after 7 and 28 days of curing. The results indicate the influence of fibre amount, fibre length, and curing time on the <italic>M</italic><sub>r</sub> of the soil modified with 1.5% of cement. The obtained results were also influenced by the method of compaction. The addition of polypropylene fibres decreases the resilient modulus of soil stabilised by 1.5% of cement. The best results of dispersive reinforcement were obtained for samples containing 0.3% of fibres with a length of 18 mm, compacted by the MP methods.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue