rss_2.0Studia Humana FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Studia Humana Humana Feed is the Teleological Argument so Popular?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Why are teleological arguments based on biological phenomena so popular? My explanation is that teleological properties are presented in our experiences of biological phenomena. I contrast this with the view that the attribution of teleological properties to biological phenomena takes place at an intellective level – via inference, and as belief or similar propositional attitude. I suggest five ways in which the experiential view is the better explanation for the popularity of such teleological arguments. Experiential attributions are more <italic>easy</italic>, <italic>impactful</italic>, and <italic>implastic</italic>. The experiential view accommodates cases of conflicting attributions, and it makes sense of the readiness with which we follow such teleological arguments. I respond to objections and explain how my view builds on existing answers to this question found in the philosophical literature.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Devil’s Triangle: Empirical Evidence from Turkey on Growth, Current Account Deficit, and Inflation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Determining the existence of the relationship between economic growth, current account deficit, and inflation will guide the selection of policies to be implemented. The distortions that may be caused by the policies to be preferred can be minimized by the measures to be taken if the relations are known. From this point of view, this study is a metaphorical study emphasizing <italic>the Bermuda Triangle</italic>, which caused unexplained losses due to the name given to the study. In the study, to determine the existence and direction of the relations between the variables, Turkey’s annual growth, current account deficit, and inflation data for the 1974–2020 period were taken and subjected to various analyzes. In this study, carried out from this point of view, to determine the existence and direction of the relations between the variables, the annual growth, current account deficit, and inflation data of Turkey for the 1974–2020 period were taken and subjected to various analyzes. Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) (1979, 1981) and Philips-Perron (PP) Unit Root tests (1988) and Lee-Strazicich Unit Root Test (2003) were used for stationarity tests. Regression was used since the variables were determined to be stationary at the level and cointegration could not be obtained. The current account deficit changed by 0.181812 units in the negative direction as a result of a one-unit rise in growth, according to the regression analysis (GDP). Furthermore, it has been shown that if inflation increases by one unit, the current account deficit moves in the positive direction by 0.042096 units. Toda Yamamoto Causality Analysis (1995) was used to investigate short-term causality links, and as a consequence, a two-way relationship between GDP and inflation, one-way from GDP and inflation to current account deficit was discovered.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Influence of Organizational Culture on Human Capital Development of Polish Army Officers in the Context of Post-Service Employment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Organizational culture paves the way for employees, shows how one should function in a given organization – it aims to keep it together by adhering to similar values. Thanks to conditions prevailing there, specific rules employees know how they can perform their duties, properly cooperate with others and also how looks like the possibility of professional development, which is very important in the development of human capital. Human capital is people, their skills, creativity and qualifications. Development of capital through competence development has a positive impact on further functioning of the organization, but also on the satisfaction of employees themselves. In the case of retired officers of the Polish Army, who acquired specialized knowledge and valuable skills during their service, it is important to use their capital after the end of service. They can be supplemented with additional courses, training that will enrich their existing potential, and also enable them to find work in the civilian market. A survey was conducted among retired Army officers and employers/supervisors hiring retired officers from 2019 to 2021. The snowball method was used. A qualitative method was used – a survey questionnaire.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Foreign Exchange Rate-Femicide Nexus in Turkey: Evidence from the Cointegration Tests Based on Nonlinear and Fourier Functions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this study is to look at <italic>femicide</italic> from a different perspective, even though it may seem unrelated at first. Accordingly, it investigated the existence of a link between foreign exchange, which was a major cause of the crises and unemployment, and <italic>femicide</italic>, which was the outcome of violence against women other than murder. The data were acquired from the We Will Stop Femicide Platform and the Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey in light of the study’s goal. According to the findings of the investigation, there is a long-term cointegrating association between the foreign exchange rate and <italic>femicide</italic> in Turkey. After 22.6 days, the deviation induced by a 1% change in the currency rate could be balanced. This study is notable for approaching <italic>femicide</italic> from a hitherto overlooked economic perspective, as well as demonstrating that exchange rate changes are “vital” in terms of non-economic reality and public health.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue to Hewitt on Abortion<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The defense argument in favor of abortion sees the fetus as an invader, a trespasser, someone against whom violence is justified, since this very young person (the fetus) has initiated violence against his mother. Hewitt [30] rejects this argument. The present paper maintains the justification of this defense argument. My perspective is based on the private property rights of the mother. She owns her person. It is as if her body is her house, and a trespasser has invaded it. Surely, she has the right to evict such a person. This analogy is relatively easy to see in the case of rape. The unwanted fetus, now occupying a part of her body is in effect a intruder. If she really owns her body, which I contend she certainly does, she has a right to expel this person from her property. I also argue that voluntary sexual intercourse does not constitution an “invitation” for the pre-born baby to occupy her premises for nine months.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Labor: Toward a New Theory of Community and Economic Development<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the United States, the rise in income inequality and downward intergenerational social mobility since the 1970s represent twin problems facing community and economic development today. This paper proposes a <italic>Structure of Labor</italic> theory to apply at the local and regional level to address these development challenges. The objective is to provide a simple local approach to development that maximizes upward economic mobility and enables individuals and communities to achieve their development goals in the 21st century development landscape of the United States. The proposed theory fuses free-enterprise principles with state-planned dirigiste efforts to maximize the best of both theoretical perspectives. After reviewing pertinent literature and articulating the Structure of Labor theory, the latter sections of the paper explicate its implications for community and economic development practice.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Between Philosophical Kitsch and Identitarian Ideology: Heidegger’s Pastoral World-View in the . Trial on a Classification<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Martin Heidegger is still subject to controversial discussions about his political views. The question in the centre of the discussions is not if he was politically on the far right, but how far right he was, and also how far right his philosophy is. However, the details of Heidegger’s political approaches in his work are largely disguised and hidden behind Heidegger’s typical writing style, which has remained undefined for so long. There is a short essay in Heidegger’s work that may shed light on the roots and details of his ethnic-identity thinking: “Memorial Address”.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue, Concretism and Schopenhauer Diagrams<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Reism or concretism are the labels for a position in ontology and semantics that is represented by various philosophers. As Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz and Jan Woleński have shown, there are two dimensions with which the abstract expression of reism can be made concrete: The ontological dimension of reism says that only things exist; the semantic dimension of reism says that all concepts must be reduced to concrete terms in order to be meaningful. In this paper we argue for the following two theses: (1) Arthur Schopenhauer has advocated a reistic philosophy of language which says that all concepts must ultimately be based on concrete intuition in order to be meaningful. (2) In his semantics, Schopenhauer developed a theory of logic diagrams that can be interpreted by modern means in order to concretize the abstract position of reism. Thus we are not only enhancing Jan Woleński’s list of well-known reists, but we are also adding a diagrammatic dimension to concretism, represented by Schopenhauer.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Judgmental Reconstruction of Some of Professor Woleński’s Logical and Philosophical Writings<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Roman Suszko said that “Obviously, any multiplication of logical values is a mad idea and, in fact, Łukasiewicz did not actualize it.” The aim of the present paper is to qualify this ‘obvious’ statement through a number of logical and philosophical writings by Professor Jan Woleński, all focusing on the nature of truth-values and their multiple uses in philosophy. It results in a reconstruction of such an abstract object, doing justice to what Suszko held a ‘mad’ project within a generalized logic of judgments. Four main issues raised by Woleński will be considered to test the insightfulness of such generalized truth-values, namely: the principle of bivalence, the logic of scepticism, the coherence theory of truth, and nothingness.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Truth: Essays in Honour of Jan Woleński<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>It is a Preface to Volume 9:3/4 that has brought a renewed focus to the role of truth conceptions in frameworks of semantics and logic. Jan Woleński is known due to his works on epistemological aspects of logic and his systematization of semantic truth theory. He became the successor and the worthy continuer of prominent Polish logicians: Alfred Tarski and Kazimierz Ajdukiewicz. This volume is collected on the 80th anniversary of Woleński’s birth and draws together new research papers devoted to judgments and truth. These papers take measure of the scope and impact of Woleński’s views on truth conceptions, and present new contributions to the field of philosophy and logic.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Note on Intended and Standard Models<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This note discusses some problems concerning intended, standard, and nonstandard models of mathematical theories. We pay attention to the role of extremal axioms in attempts at a unique characterization of the intended models. We recall also Jan Woleński’s views on these issues.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Mystery of the Fifth Logical Notion (Alice in the Wonderful Land of Logical Notions)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>We discuss a theory presented in a posthumous paper by Alfred Tarski entitled “What are logical notions?”. Although the theory of these <italic>logical notions</italic> is something outside of the main stream of logic, not presented in logic textbooks, it is a very interesting theory and can easily be understood by anybody, especially studying the simplest case of the four basic logical notions. This is what we are doing here, as well as introducing a challenging fifth logical notion. We first recall the context and origin of what are here called Tarski-Lindenbaum logical notions. In the second part, we present these notions in the simple case of a binary relation. In the third part, we examine in which sense these are considered as logical notions contrasting them with an example of a nonlogical relation. In the fourth part, we discuss the formulations of the four logical notions in natural language and in first-order logic without equality, emphasizing the fact that two of the four logical notions cannot be expressed in this formal language. In the fifth part, we discuss the relations between these notions using the theory of the square of opposition. In the sixth part, we introduce the notion of variety corresponding to all non-logical notions and we argue that it can be considered as a logical notion because it is invariant, always referring to the same class of structures. In the seventh part, we present an enigma: is variety formalizable in first-order logic without equality? There follow recollections concerning Jan Woleński. This paper is dedicated to his 80<sup>th</sup> birthday. We end with the bibliography, giving some precise references for those wanting to know more about the topic.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Normative Permission and Legal Utterances<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The author proves that rejecting the existence of permissive norms and limitation of norms to prohibitions and commands alone is possible only with reducing the idea of a function. The essence of the function is then the ability of the expression to generate independently the universal norm formation. Such manipulation is easy on the level of logical analysis, but proves risky from other points of view. If we want the deontic logic, which we construct, to consider the fact that permission is pragmatically necessary for the law-maker to convey his normative preferences, we must solve the consequences of the adopted structure of the function of norms, which originate on the socio-linguistic level. It appears, however, that due to a lack of a pragmatic theory useful for lawyers, there is no proof that the pragmatically strong permission can be expressed by means of a lot of prohibitions and commands (dos and don’ts). Besides, reducing permissions only to the language of legal rules is an obligation to accept the structure of an act of communication, which can find its full motivation in the Husserl’s structure of the direct cognition.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Philosophy of Mathematics and Mathematical Proofs<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The Euclidean ideal of mathematics as well as all the foundational schools in the philosophy of mathematics have been contested by the new approach, called the “maverick” trend in the philosophy of mathematics. Several points made by its main representatives are mentioned – from the revisability of actual proofs to the stress on real mathematical practice as opposed to its idealized reconstruction. Main features of real proofs are then mentioned; for example, whether they are convincing, understandable, and/or explanatory. Therefore, the new approach questions Hilbert’s Thesis, according to which a correct mathematical proof is in principle reducible to a formal proof, based on explicit axioms and logic.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Consequence Operators and Etatism<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In the paper, there is presented the theory of logical consequence operators indexed with taboo functions. It describes the mechanisms of logical inference in the environment of forbidden sentences. This kind of processes take place in ideological discourses within which their participants create various narrative worlds (mental worlds). A peculiar feature of ideological discourses is their association with taboo structures of deduction which penalize speech acts. The development of discourse involves, among others, transforming its deduction structure towards the proliferation of consequence operators and modifying penalty functions. The presented theory enables to define various processes of these transformations in the precise way. It may be used in analyses of conflicts between competing elm experts acting within a discourse.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Some New Methods of Analytical Philosophy. Formalization, De-formalization and Topological Hermeneutics<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In this article I want to continue the characteristics of philosophical methods specific to analytical philosophy, which were and are important for Professor Jan Woleński. So I refer to his work on the methods of analytical philosophy, but I also point out a few new methods that have grown up in the climate of studies of philosophers, especially analytical ontologists. I will therefore describe the following methods: generalization, specialization, formalization, de-formalization and topological hermeneutics. Instead of the term “method” I use interchangeably the terms “operation” or “procedure”. I will show that each of these operations makes an important contribution to ontological investigations, and, in particular, to formal ontology.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Truth in Mathematics<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Two crucial concepts of the methodology and philosophy of mathematics are considered: proof and truth. We distinguish between informal proofs constructed by mathematicians in their research practice and formal proofs as defined in the foundations of mathematics (in metamathematics). Their role, features and interconnections are discussed. They are confronted with the concept of truth in mathematics. Relations between proofs and truth are analysed.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Artificial Intelligence<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Artificial Intelligence, both as a hope of making substantial progress, and a fear of the unknown and unimaginable, has its roots in human dreams. These dreams are materialized by means of rational intellectual efforts. We see the beginnings of such a process in Lullus’s fancies. Many scholars and enthusiasts participated in the development of Lullus’s art, <italic>ars combinatoria</italic>. Amongst them, Athanasius Kircher distinguished himself. Gottfried Leibniz ended the period in which the idea of artificial intelligence was shaped, and started the new period, in which artificial intelligence could be considered part of science, by today’s standards.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Determinism in Robert Grosseteste’s<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In this paper, the theory of necessity proposed by Robert Grosseteste is presented. After showing the wide range of various kinds of determination discussed by him (connected with: (1) one’s knowledge about the future, (2) predestination, (3) fate, (4) grace, (5) sin and temptation), a different context of Grosseteste’s use of the notion of necessity is analyzed (within logical and metaphysical approaches). At the heart of his theory lie: the definition of necessity, which is that something lacks the capacity (<italic>posse</italic>) for its opposite, and the distinction between two perspectives within which we can consider necessity: (1) the one according to which the truthfulness of a <italic>dictum</italic> determines that it cannot be the opposite, (2) a pre- or atemporal one, as if something had not yet begun. On these grounds, Robert explains that God’s omniscience is compatible with contingency, including human free decisions. Robert’s theory is still relevant and useful in contemporary debates, as it can provide strong arguments and enrich discussions, thanks to the twoperspectives approach, which generates nine kinds of positions on the spectrum of determinism and indeterminism.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Relationship in the Context of Jan Woleński’s Metaethical Naturalism<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In this paper, we indicate how Jan Woleński’s non-linguistic concept of the norm allows us to clarify the deontic relationship between sentences and the given normative system. A relationship of this kind constitutes a component of the metalogic of relating deontic logic, which subjects the logical value of the deontic sentence to the logical value of the constituent sentence and its relationship with a given normative system in the accessible possible worlds.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue