rss_2.0Studia Historiae Oeconomicae FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Studia Historiae Oeconomicae Historiae Oeconomicae Feed in Sub-Africa: Reflecting on the Failure of International Global Governance<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper studies the phenomenon of poverty in underdeveloped/third-world countries, particularly within the context and the failure of international organizations in Sub-Saharan Africa. The article analyzes that the increasing problem of poverty in the region’s countries/Africa is a replication of the failure of the organizations such as the IMF and the World Bank policies such countries. Despite some projects such as Millennium Development Goals (MDG), Sustainable Development Goals (SDG), and many more by the United Nations. Many of these programs have failed to eradicate or reduce poverty. Instead, the situation has worsened most, especially in Africa, where the rate of poverty is increasing, with several regions in the continent experiencing the worse hunger epidemic in recent times. Therefore, the research posits that the failure of international institutions, the World Bank, and IMF policies have immensely become a significant contributing factor to the poverty level in Sub-Saharan Africa.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Silesian Factory of Nicotine Preparations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The state-owned enterprise under the name of Lower Silesian Factory of Nicotine Preparations (Dolnośląska Wytwórnia Preparatów Nikotynowych; DWPN) with its registered office first in Szalejów Dolny and then in Góra Śląska existed in the years 1952–1958. It produced, above all, nicotine sulphate used by farmers for plant protection (primarily to combat extremely widespread aphids). The plant was managed by the Polish tobacco industry, which supplied the raw material in the form of tobacco waste and waste from tobacco plants. The article first presents the post-war demand of Polish agriculture for nicotine preparations and the plans of the tobacco industry to concentrate their production in one place. Initially, nicotine preparations were manufactured in plants in Szalejów Dolny, Góra Śląska and Kraków-Czyżyny. Finally, under the auspices of the tobacco industry, the DWPN company was established, which produced nicotine preparations for the entire Polish agriculture. DWPN produced approximately 40 tons of nicotine sulphate annually. The plant employed an average of 60–70 employees. Economic reasons and a reduction in the demand for nicotine sulphate resulting from the appearance of cheaper and equally effective insecticides on the market made it necessary to liquidate the plant. The company’s facilities were taken over by the Provincial Union of Enterprises of State Industry in Wrocław.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue from the Academic Session “Human and Nature: Between Destruction and Creation” Organized as Part of the 23rd International Congress of Historical Sciences in Poznań on 24th August 2022 Art, Industry and Entrepreneurship: Artistic, Design, and Managerial Activity of Professor Zbigniew Horbowy in 1959–1989<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Zbigniew Horbowy (1935–2019), a graduate of the Faculty of Glass of the State Higher School of Fine Arts in Wrocław, conducted from the end of the 1950s, throughout the next several decades, exceptionally fruitful and original artistic, academic, design and managerial activities on the intersection of art and industry. His artistic achievements quickly found recognition in the national art circles and in the international arena. At the same time, as the only glass designer in the times of the Polish People’s Republic, he managed to combine artistic and commercial success. The utility glasses designed by him and mass-produced and sold on a mass scale were a symbol of Polish glass in general in the public awareness. He carried out his entrepreneurial activity with amazing efficiency in spite of the conditions of the industry in the People’s Republic of Poland. And this, in principle, was extremely difficult to effectively use innovation or design. As a lecturer at the PWSSP (State Higher School of Fine Arts), then a member of the university’s management and at the same time the head of design units of the leading Lower Silesian glassworks, he played an extremely important role in educating design staff and development directions of Polish industrial design.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue’ Activities Aimed at Improving the Economic Condition of Rural Farms in the Years 1918–1939 (On the Example of Kielce Voivodeship)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Large landownership was one of the main market players in the interwar period. It was a specific enterprise, legally and economically separated. It had its own organisational structure, human, financial and material resources. It carried out production and commercial activities with the aim of making a profit. The number of landowners in Kielce Voivodeship was estimated at 711, and together with their family members they made up a collective five times that number. The landowners were entrepreneurs, who coped with the economic reality with more or less success. The list of landowners was headed by owners of large estates – the Myszkowski, Drucki-Lubecki, Wielopolski, Łubieński, Czartoryski, Radziwiłł, Potocki, Tarnowski and Zamoyski families. However, farms consisting of a single manor, with an area of 180–300 ha, predominated. Apart from a small group of farm owners who wasted their fortune, the landowners were attached to the land and wanted to keep it in good economic condition. Owning a farm entailed responsibility for it. It obliged the owner to manage it properly and not leave it to its fate. My aim is to characterise the activities of landowners as entrepreneurs aiming to improve the economic condition of their property. I have in mind modernisation, which manifested itself in modern technical procedures, mechanisation, selective crop-animal production and the industrialisation of landed estates</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue from the Academic Conference “Entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurs and Enterprises: Between Synthesis and Case Study. On the 100th Aniversary of the Chair and Department of Economic History at the University of Poznań and the University of Adam Mickiewicz” in Poznań on 22–23 September 2022 Portrait of the Galician Oil Entrepreneurs<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>When presenting the careers of entrepreneurs operating on Polish soil at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, researchers usually focus on individuals operating in the most industrialised areas, especially the Kingdom of Poland. Much less attention has been paid to successful entrepreneurs in Galicia. Studies on Galician entrepreneurship have mainly taken the form of biographical entries in encyclopaedias and lexicons and in the Polish Biographical Dictionary. These are profiles of individual business leaders of the Austrian partition, while far fewer works deal with the issue of entrepreneurs as a group, despite the fact that there are many sources for such research. This article is an attempt to create a group portrait of a number of Galician oil entrepreneurs who played an exceptional role in the economic, the social, and the political life of Galicia.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in Sport: Sport in Business, Using Professional Football as an Example<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The issue of entrepreneurship in sports joins the more general trend of catching up with the long Renaissance period of “reflecting” on the character of the professional sportsman (athlete), so peculiarly overlooked, and one of the main protagonists of the culture of antiquity, alongside the artist or philosopher. The author of the article adopts the convention of the ‘corporate athlete’, for which he sees a contemporary exemplification in football, the most popular sport. The examples cited from the economic history of football, preceded by an outline of the basic categories of entrepreneurship, are an attempt to show the essence of an economic, two-way view of these issues. The description of the institutionalisation of analytics and football’s ‘information bank’, highlights the effectiveness of an interdisciplinary approach to entrepreneurship in sport. In contrast, the characterisation of the re-engineering carried out at FC Barcelona is a case of an approach that treats sport as a natural economic environment. Providing a wholesome, inspirational building block, grounding some elements of management and entrepreneurial.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Review: Decade of Wonders 1988–98. This is How Polish Capitalism was Born [Dekada Cudów 1988–98. Tak Się Rodził Polski Kapitalizm] Review: Housing Problems in Poland in the 1970s in the Light of Personal Documents [Problemy Mieszkaniowe W Polsce W Latach Siedemdziesiątych Xx Wieku W Świetle Dokumentów Osobistych] Health Database: A Historical Database of Medicalization Spreading in Transylvania Before 1918<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Providing valuable research on social history is, nowadays, impossible without the use of complex digital tools capable of providing, through appropriate interrogation, comprehensive answers to the researchers’ increasingly varied research questions. The development of Historical Population Database (HPDT) has brought us closer to other research problems that require the input of digital tools in order to be investigated as widely as possible. One of these is the process of medicalization of Transylvania, a historical topic about which there are relatively few and rather narrow approaches. On the basis of administrative and sanitary directories, various other sources referring to the allocation of doctors’ posts in the communes and the filling of these posts, medical reports, press, publications, statistics, parish registers and other sources related to the medical situation, we have built the Transylvania Health Database (THD), a research tool that is expected to be released for public use by the end of 2022. THD is a method-oriented database, built in MySQL, whose presentation can be used for the implementation of similar projects in the Eastern European area, which is still underdeveloped in terms of digital tools useful to researchers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Population Censuses in the 19th and 20th Centuries: Scope and Subject Matter in the Context of International Standards<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper analyses the population censuses on the Polish area, particularly, the subject of censuses and their thematic scope. the study refers to the censuses in the 19th and 20th centuries (the study closes with the 1988 census). The paper consists of three parts. The first one presents the origins of censuses and the first censuses conducted in Europe in the 18th century. This part also shows the efforts of international statistical institutions to normalise and standardise national censuses. It allowed for building international standards to make national censuses comparable. The second part shows censuses in the 19th century, and the third part discusses censuses in the 20th century. A fundamental feature of the censuses is a set of questions common to demographic and social issues. This makes it possible to carry out comparative analysis in different regional cross-sections on a secular basis. It should also be provided that census categories are not always comparable, hence various conversions and estimates are necessary. The universality of the censuses have made them a huge organizational challenge each time. The greatest effort was borne by the statistical institutions responsible, not only for conducting the censuses, but also during the compilation and publication of the data.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Agricultural Censuses in Poland from 1921–2010: Evolution, Thematic Scope and Relevance for the Study of Rural and Agricultural History<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Population censuses have been organised sporadically since antiquity, but in the 19th century they acquired a universal character. These censuses are a good source of information on the rural population, but it was not until the introduction of systematic national agricultural censuses that a broader picture of the countryside and agriculture was obtained. In the censuses conducted after 1918 in Poland, there was a fixed catalogue of questions on the characteristics of farms, but each time new questions were also introduced to reflect the specificity of agriculture in a given historical period. The censuses were conducted on a fairly regular basis and, therefore, they provide valuable information for comparative analyses. Due to their universality and thematic scope, they also collect data on demography and socio-professional and economic relations that are not available in other sources.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Victims of the “Great War” in Transylvania: Recovering the Sources and Designing a Database of Invalids, Orphans, and War Widows<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present work introduces the scholarly community to a database containing information about the invalids, orphans, and widows of the First World War in Transylvania – the IOW database, which uses data extracted from the files relating to pensions awarded to these social categories as its main sources. these consist primarily of civil status documents, reports on the personal characteristics of the enrolled soldiers, data relating to war participation and testimonies proving disappearance or death in addition to medical records, as well as information regarding the situations of the beneficiaries’ families and the amounts of money they received, and evidence attesting changes in the status of pension beneficiaries. Next, the details were entered into a relational database that will enable multiple scientific investigations in the fields of humanities, social sciences, and legal studies, as well as medicine and history of medicine, and offer the possibility of having a social and cultural impact among the general public and local communities. the preliminary results, drawn from the table relating to widows, illustrate the negative consequences of war on the lives of men, women, and children in transylvania. Finally, the paper outlines further development of the database and future lines of research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Registry Cards for Inhabitants of Lodz as a Source of Information About the City’s Population in the 19th and Early 20th Century<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>During the industrialization period of the city of Lodz, one of the most important industrial centres in the Kingdom of Poland (the former Russian Partition), experienced a dynamic population growth caused by migratory movement from rural areas to the city. The population registry cards for inhabitants of Lodz contained information on dates of birth (sometimes on dates of death), place of birth, religious denomination, nationality, and address of residence in the city, as well as the number of children born in a family. The aim of this paper is to present population registry cards of permanent and non-permanent residents of the city of Lodz deposited in the State Archives in Lodz, as a source for research on urban society during the period of industrialization. In this work, the use, quality, and reliability of population registry cards, as well as their research limitations for studies are discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Disease: Cause-of-Death-Registration in Prussia During the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In Germany, the recording of the causes of death has had a long tradition and goes back a long time in history, but remained unsystematic and nonuniform as it was an autonomous matter of the different German states. this article pursues the question of how the cause-of-death statistics developed in Prussia, the largest territorial state of the later German reich. it is asked how these statistics, organized by the Prussian Statistical Bureau, have been related to the nationwide health policy since the 1870s. The historical development of official statistics in Prussia reveals that it is neither self-evident which information was collected, nor the criteria according to which this was done. rather, the data actually recorded are the result of complicated negotiation processes between different actors, not only within the statistical offices, but also between the most diverse interest groups from science, politics and the state.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Studying Epidemics of Cholera in Upper Hungary (Contemporary Slovakia) in the 19th Century<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We can conclude that epidemics in the 19th century reached historical populations in a new way. Sources from this period increasingly show a growing proportion of childhood as well as the arrival of a new strong epidemic of the adult population. it was cholera that decimated the adult population of the european continent, primarily, in several waves. these epidemics can be studied on the basis of different types of primary and secondary sources. in this article, i will present the possibilities of analyzing the primary statistical sources created by churches and the state. reactions to the course of infectious diseases, applied measures or recommendations for treatment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue State Railways in 1945–1989 – A Research Contribution<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the history of Poland after 1945, the functioning of the railway was one of the most important elements of everyday life – great migrations, modernity, commuting to work or holidays, military or employment. The largest transport in history was recorded by the state carrier at the end of the seventies. In reality, however, the activity of PKP was paid for by numerous compromises – outdated rolling stock, organizational structure and network in fact reflecting the beginning of the 20th century, the pursuit of electrification of almost all sections with a limited degree of motorization, mass transport and the abandonment of many potential customers. The aim of the article is to summarize the state of research and indicate questions that will allow to answer the question posed in the title. The inspiration came from the thesis of M. Jarząbek, expressed a few years ago, that the railway in this epoch from a symbol of modernity became an unwanted choice out of necessity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Transport as a Factor of the Economic Miracle (Wirtschaftswunder) of West Germany<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The post-war economic policy of West Germany (FRG) is largely associated with the so-called economic miracle (German: Wirtschaftswunder) and therefore its causes are the subject of many different analyzes. They include the correlation between the rate of economic growth in Germany and the development and transport potential of transport, including rail and road-car transport. This position prompted the author to try to search for long-term interdependencies and thus verify the thesis using the analysis of time series (1950–1989) available for West Germany and using original econometric methods in this field, e.g. unit root test to determine the stationarity and the Engle-Granger cointegration test.</p> <p>In addition to the introduction, the article consists of three parts and conclusions. The broadest one includes the description of the assumptions and stages of the research procedure and its results, both on the empirical and methodological level. It is based on synthetic theoretical foundations presented on the basis of a review of international literature on the subject and review of the essence of the German economic miracle and the main trends in changes in the field of economic growth and transport development in Germany after World War II. The research presented in this way fits into the principles of the <italic>new economic history</italic> paradigm, which is still not very popular in Europe.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Ideological Background of Japanese Expansionism, C. 1900<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper examines the ideologies informing the expansion of Japanese rule at c. 1900. The core feature discussed is the idea of <italic>tenka</italic> (天下; literally translated: all under heaven), constituting the group of ruled in terms of a universalist indigenat (<italic>kokumin</italic> 国民), which allowed its expansion beyond the Japanese archipelago at government discretion. The concept of the universalist indigenat, having been tied to the Confucian perception of the world as a well-ordered and change-absorbing entity, conflicted with the European concept of the nation as a particularistically conceived type of group, tied to the perception of the world as a dynamic and largely unruly entity. During the latter third of the nineteenth and the early years of the twentieth century, some Japanese intellectuals came to appreciate the dynamism enshrined in the European perception of the world and worked it into established universalism. The fusion produced a powerful ideology of colonial expansion targeted primarily at East and Southeast Asia as well as the South Pacific. By contrast, European military strategists and political theorists, unaware of the Japanese strategic conceptions, expected that solely Russia formed the target of Japanese military expansion.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue