rss_2.0Studia Historiae Oeconomicae FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Studia Historiae Oeconomicae Historiae Oeconomicae Feed as Labour and Labour as Development: Korczak’s Philosophy of Labour Against the Background of Interwar Childhoods<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this article, I consider two Korczakian conceptions complementary to each other of children’s labour as a means of building their agency and autonomy. The first is the concept of labour as development. While the second is development as labour. I analyse testimonies from Korczak’s institutions, including notes gleaned from children’s accounts <italic>Wspomnienia z maleńkości dzieci Naszego Domu w Pruszkowie</italic> [Recollections from the Children of Our Home in Pruszków], children’s texts (<italic>Mały Przegląd</italic> [Little Review]) and programme and literary texts by Janusz Korczak/Henryk Goldszmit and Maria (Maryna) Falska, who collaborated with him. In the anthropological perspective of new childhood studies I ponder the radicalism of Korczak’s projects involving child labour in light of the time, their perspective on child labour, and childhood itself. In what sense did they have modern origins? And in what sense did they transcend modernity – along with its concepts of childhood and child development?</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue from the 2nd National Scientific Conference on ‘Work Culture’, December 1, 2022<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>On December 1, 2022, the 2nd National Scientific Conference on ‘Work Culture’ was held at the Faculty of History, Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań, entitled “Little Workers: Child Labor in Social-Cultural and Economic Perspectives Throughout History”. The organizers of the meeting were the Department of Economic History, the Department of Eastern European History, and the Workshop of Cultural History of the Faculty of History at Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań. Due to the participation of speakers from abroad, the conference had an international character this time around.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Remarks About the Workers’ Motherhood in the Industrial City of Łódź in the 19th–20th Centuries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Łódź, the so-called “Polish Manchester”, was the biggest textile center in the Eastern Europe, which developed in the 19th century and experienced all dramatic changes that happened in Poland during the long 20th century. As the vanguard of modernity, this industrial city was the place when all the pros and cons of the early capitalism appeared in much more dramatic way then elsewhere in Poland. In a result the problem such as workers motherhood and child labor became the real social phenomenon that forced many journalists, medical doctors, factory inspector and political activists to work against them. In this article, the way in which the workers motherhood and child labor was problematized in the discourse of Łódź is analyzed as the struggle with modernity. In author’s opinion, the experience of living in the industrial cities cause that approach to such complicated social problems developed in places like Łódź is less ideological and more empathizing then nationwide one. The specific case of Łódź can be useful in refreshing the Polish debate about modernity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue One that Wasn’t: Child and Youth Labour in the Post-Stalin Era in the Soviet Union<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper examines the phenomenon of child and youth labour in the post-Stalin era in the Soviet Union. The starting point for the consideration constitutes the analysis of the law adopted by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR in 1958 titled “On the strengthening of the link between school and life and the further development of people’s education in the USSR”. This law placed great emphasis on combining education with practice and involving pupils from the earliest grades in various forms of both productive and socially useful labour. Subsequently, four categories of labour to which children and young people in the USSR were systemically forced has been distinguished. These included: occasional labours, work and leisure camps, so-called <italic>subbotniki</italic> and little communal works, as well as compulsory recycling. The paper thoroughly depicts all of them in the light of memoir material.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue from the Scientific Conference Entitled: “Saving the Economy: Reconstruction, Stabilization and Creation of Economic Development Paths in the 19th and 21st Centuries” [Na Ratunek Gospodarce: Odbudowa, Stabilizacja I Kreowanie Ścieżek Rozwoju Gospodarki W XIX–XXI Wieku]. Lubin, September 14–16, 2023<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In 2021, the Polish Association of Economic History (PTHG) prepared and submitted to the 21st General Congress of Polish Historians – Białystok 2024, a panel entitled <italic>Saving the economy: reconstruction, stabilization and creating paths for the development of the Polish economy in the 19th and 20th centuries</italic>, which was accepted by the congress organizers. The main goal of the research undertaken is to analyze systemic actions to overcome crises in the 19th and 20th centuries, in particular the activity of the state and public institutions “helping the economy”, the tools used and their effectiveness and long-term consequences. The events of the last three years, especially the Covid 19 pandemic, the War in Ukraine, and the energy crisis, have put the world economy once again on the threshold of a global crisis. In this context, scientific reflection on the tools and mechanisms of “saving the economy” and “creating development paths” may have not only a cognitive, but also a practical dimension.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Girl Child Labour in the Bangle Industry of Hyderabad, India<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present paper attempts to see the women and child worker in the old city of Hyderabad in the Bangle industry. Women make up a sizable portion of India’s labour force, yet they are paid less and have less secure jobs than men. As a result, many of these mothers choose to earn an income for their families by working from home. Women who work in the informal sector work with minimum pay and hence the girl child is an easy prey to assist the mother in supplementing the income and helping in the household chores so that more time is left to pursue the trade for an income. Our sample includes 100 women respondents and 150 girls. Being in the unregulated, home-based informal sector has made it challenging to organize the employees, leaving the bulk of bangle-makers in precarious positions both at work and at home. The increasing number of children, especially girls, who are taking part in the production of bangles is also a cause for alarm. It would appear that the piece rate method of payment and the fact that the work may be done from home encourage the participation of family members, including children, in the labour force.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Minors in Industrial of Ukrainian Lands (19th – Early 20th Century)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>At the present stage, the phrase “labor of minors” sounds alarming and is a sign of the low economic and cultural development of society. For the period of industrialization of the 19th – early 20th century this phenomenon was by no means a rarity, but rather one of the components of economic modernization. The Ukrainian lands were no exception in this regard, child and adolescent labor was used in coal, metallurgical, chemical and other industries.</p> <p>This study is based on workers’ memories of their teenage years, memories of mining engineers, factory inspectors, public figures, as well as, albeit very scattered, statistics on the employment of minors in industry in the second half of the 19th – early 20th century. The most significant and, in this regard, reflected in the memoirs of participants in the production process, were such aspects of the work of minors as working conditions, wages, “professions” of minors, their employment statistics, the evolution of labor legislation and numerous violations of approved norms. The complex conclusion is that it took a long mutual development of public opinion, legislation and family foundations to eradicate the work of minors in industry.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Labour of Polish and Soviet Children Under Nazi Occupation Discussion by Prof. Johannes-Dieter Steinert and Prof. Beata Halicka, 1 December 2022<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The following conversation is an abridged transcript of a discussion that Prof. Dr. Beata Halicka (UAM ) held with Prof. Dr. Johannes-Dieter Steinert of the University of Wolverhampton in the UK . It took place on December 1, 2022 and was the opening event of a conference entitled <italic>Little Workers: Child Labor in socio-cultural and economic perspectives throughout history</italic>. The conference was organized by the Department of Economic History, the Department of Eastern European History and the Research Unit of Cultural History and was held at the Faculty of History of Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznań. Johannes-Dieter Steinert is a prominent specialist in the field of child forced labourers in National Socialist Germany and German occupied Eastern Europe. His books on the subject have been published in English, German and Polish.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Labour and Health During the Industrialization in Western Europe with Special Reference to Prussia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Child labour is a controversial issue both in presentday as well as in past societies. In historical perspective, studies focus on the factory labour of children during the industrialization process. On the one hand, its contribution to the family income is mentioned as a potential positive effect on the living standard of the whole family, on the other hand reference is made to the permanent health risks for children working in the factories. Using qualitative sources, there were contemporary testimonies supporting both views. The present paper, thererfore, uses a rather quantitive approach referring to the number of working days lost due to illness, anthropometric indicators such a height and weight, the results of draft examinations as well as mortality differences and cause-of-death rates from “accidents” in urban and rural areas during the nineteenth century. Available data do not provide clear evidence of direct harmful effects of child labour; many indications point to a neutral or even positive effect.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Models of Child Labour in the Past<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nowadays we perceive child labour as a shameful torture and a wicked destruction of the natural order of things. After all, childhood is a time for carelessness, fun and schooling, and children are innocent and vulnerable. Nowadays people believe that these are primeval and natural rights, which is not true. There used to be two models of child labour which I present in my paper. Domestic work in the countryside and in cities, characteristic of the feudal economy at the time when a workplace and a place of residence were the same place (this is still the case in the countryside nowadays), and work outside home, for example in a factory, characteristic of the capitalist economy. There were also varied mixed forms. Thus, in the pre-modern period, rural children were already given to work on a lord’s farm, to a rich farmer, or to serve in a city. Similarly, in modern times, children worked at home in domestic industries. The extensive use of child labour was first made possible by the lack of compulsory schooling, which in turn later prevented regular child labour. As long as there was an economic need, however, school had to give way to earning a living for one’s family.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue a Relic of the Past and a Socialist Duty: Child and Adolescent Labour in ‘Comunist Poland’ in the Light of Literary Fiction for Young People (1948–1980)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper examines the cultural image of child and adolescent labour performed in the People’s Republic of Poland in the years 1948–1989 as was presented in the literary fiction addressed to the young people. During the Stalinist period, literature officially condemned child labour on individual farms, but affirmed the labour of adolescent workers in state industry and construction. After the 1956 Thaw, the subject matter of labour was receding into the background, for several reasons. Nevertheless, the post-1956 youth literature also featured labour-related themes: community works, school cooperatives, work in family crafts, tutoring, and shady trade.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in Peasant Children’s Reading Practices and Living Conditions in Dnieper Ukraine at the Turn of the 19th–20th Centuries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article analyzes the reading practices and living conditions of Ukrainian peasant children as a social phenomenon. The children’s reading modes in the family system and social distribution of household duties and leisure activities are presented. Herein characterized are the specific features of reading training in the period of modernization transformations against the background of the urbanization processes; post-reform emancipation; public life’ politicization; and increasing volumes of information required for the reorganization of the lifestyle. The author shows the gradualness of changes in view of economic problems, the close connection between reading practices and oral culture; the lack of educational institutions, the inertia in public perceptions of the social position of the peasantry, and the assessment of social perspectives for the self-realization of literate villages. It was found that despite the unfavorable circumstances, there was an increase in the pace of peasants’ awareness of the importance of literacy for their children in the future. New reading practices contributed to the transformation of the private sphere of young people, personal independence, and individualization of life scenarios.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Report from the 23rd International Congress of Historical Sciences Poznań 2020/2022 on 21–27 August 2022 Attempts at the Incorporation of Cities in the District Duchy of Greater Poland in the 13th Century<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the second half of the 13th century, the process of incorporation or institution of cities (a.k.a. the process of granting municipal rights) under German law began in Greater Poland. By 1314, i.e. until the end of the existence of a separate district duchy of Greater Poland, 51 successful city incorporations were carried out in its area, by princes and clerical as well as secular feudal lords At the same time, there were also 8 unsuccessful incorporation initiatives (14%). An unsuccessful settlement is a settlement that did not lead to the creation of a town or a settlement that had to be repeated after some time, especially with the consent of another ruler or another settlement owner. The article discusses these failed ventures while attempting to analyse the specific reasons for the failures. The following factors or their combinations can be pointed out: periodic unrest and political instability in the region, limiting the circle of potential settlers only to newcomers from abroad (with the exclusion of the locals), unclear legal and ownership status of the settlement being incorporated, competition from a nearby, stronger center, lack of sufficient support from the feudal owner (especially in the case of clerical and private feudals). At this early stage in the development of urban life, it is also possible to see a clear advantage of monarchical incorporations, which usually had a greater chance of success and further successful development. A similar distribution of unsuccessful and successful granting of municipal rights to towns (15%) has been noted by the literature in medieval Silesia.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue, Housing, Work, Retirement: Resourcefulness in Everyday Life as an Element of the Functioning of Society and the Economy in the People’s Republic of Poland (Selected Aspects)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article attempts to determine the usefulness of the concept of resourcefulness for research in the field of social history of the People’s Republic of Poland. On the basis of examples concerning problems with provisions, housing, professional work and retirement benefits, an analysis of specific issues was made, where this resourcefulness manifested itself particularly intensively. The research shows that in many cases it was pathological. It meant a strategy of behavior consisting in achieving the assumed goals by individuals or various groups of people using means that are in conflict with the norms, rules, procedures accepted as appropriate in a given political and socio-economic order.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Review: With a Zest and in a Refined Form…The 7th International Congress of Historical Sciences in Warsaw, 1933 Review: Polish Minority in the Russian Federation: Conditions, Current Status and Prospects [Mniejszość Polska W Federacji Rosyjskiej: Uwarunkowania, Stan Aktualny I Perspektywy] Entrepreneurship in Interwar Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>State entrepreneurship, or rather statism, was a strongly developed phenomenon in the economy of interwar Poland. Initially, its source was the legacy of the partition period in the form of the considerable assets of the partitioned states, numerous industrial plants, banks, transport infrastructure, forests and land. In a reborn Poland, in order to strengthen the economy and military potential, the authorities undertook, among other things, a number of industrial investments, developed state-owned banking and transport enterprises and organised profitable treasury monopolies. The share of the state sector in the economy reached 20%, and in some areas even 100%. Researchers of state entrepreneurship, usually, have emphasised its considerable economic efficiency and important social role.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Shaping and Composition of the Management Staff of Polish Industry (1945–1956)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Numerous studies on the economies of socialist countries indicate that one of the main sources of their weakness was the attitudes and behavior of “socialist managers”. Contrary to the predictions (e.g. by Joseph Schumpeter), they were not characterized by entrepreneurship, innovation, the ability to lead changes or the ability to formulate strategies. This was due to the nomenclature system existing in all countries of the Soviet bloc. Nominations, promotions, but also dismissals were at the discretion of party bodies. It was the main source of the communist party’s dominance in the country and the fundamental factor guaranteeing control over all spheres of social and economic life. Determining why the nomenclature system turned out to be dysfunctional requires considering three issues: what were the goals of the communist personnel policy, what methods were used to implement it, and finally who were the people appointed to perform managerial functions in the economy. We will focus our analysis on the management of Polish industry in the years 1945–1956. This is because it was the most important sector of the economy of the People’s Republic of Poland, and the personnel policy mechanisms developed at that time remained valid until the end of the “real socialism” system.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Life of Post-Mining Facilities: Mines as a Tourist Attraction of Southern Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this article is to present a tourist mining path located in southern Poland. This involves coal, silver, gold, salt, flint, chalk, uranium mines and oil wells. It includes some buildings connected with workers and mine-owners as well. These buildings were previously tied to mining. Currently, they function as museums or service-buildings.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue