rss_2.0Swiss Journal of Sociology FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Swiss Journal of Sociology Journal of Sociology 's Cover / Recensions critiques / Book Reviewsïve or Persistent Optimism? The Changing Vocational Aspirations of Children of Immigrants at the Transition from School to Work<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Children of immigrants are found to have higher aspirations than their native peers, despite lower educational outcomes and poor labour market opportunities. Analysing the development of aspirations shows that students with a migration background not only aim high while still in compulsory education, but also stay optimistic. This persistent optimism indicates that the high aspirations are not the result of a naïve misconception of labour market opportunities, but that the children of immigrants are inherently more ambitious than their native peers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00“The First One to Pick up the Phone”: Forms of Recruitment for Low-Skilled Jobs<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Based on a qualitative study on the employability of workers without vocational qualification in five different industries, this article examines hiring practices in the labour market segment of low-skilled jobs from a sociology of conventions perspective. In the absence of educational signals, employers use personal networks and trial workdays to reduce the uncertainty regarding the quality of job applicants. However, professional and technical intermediaries become more important, thus leading to the formalization of recruitment channels and valorisation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Socio-Judicial Intervention at the Risk of the Incident: Autopsy of an Administrative Investigation Report<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Against the backdrop of a strengthening of security concerns in the context of contemporary penalties (Feeley and Simon 1992; Garland 2001), this article takes as its subject the administrative investigation report written following a recent tragic incident in French-speaking Switzerland (“the Payerne drama”). It aims to analyse the discursive functioning of this document and the performative effects that the scripting of the production of security, organised therein, has on socio-judicial supervision practices.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The Development of Informal Competences Between the End of Compulsory School and Early Adulthood<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigates whether the informal competencies effort, exertion, perseverance and volition develop differently among youth who enter firm- or school-based vocational education and training or general education tracks, which offer distinct socialisation environments. The results show that the analysed competencies increase considerably after entry into vocational education and training. Young people in general education show a delayed development and only increase their informal competencies after the age of 18 years.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00When the Set of Known Opportunities Broadens: Aspirations and Imagined Futures of Undocumented Migrants Applying for Regularization<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This qualitative study describes the aspirations that led migrants to stay in Switzerland for more than 10 years in an irregular residence situation and how their aspirations are transformed with the implementation of a regularization program. The prospect of regularization allows undocumented migrants to project themselves more positively into the future. However, there are important differences between young adults, those with children in Switzerland, those living in transnational families, elderly migrants and single parents.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Paths to Radicalization: About Someone Who Does Not Believe and Yet Almost Moved out to Join the “Islamic State”<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article explores the question of which factors and dynamics lead also non-religious people to join the so-called “Islamic State”. The analysis starts with the biographical reconstruction of a radicalization process in Switzerland, the results of which are linked with sociological and socio-psychological explanations from the research on radicalization and extremism. The article shows that also in the field of “Islamic extremism” radicalization processes do not necessarily have to be ideologically or religiously underpinned, and that there are therefore doubts as to the comprehensive explanatory power of the religious paradigm.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Home Street Home. Experiences of Homelessness in a City in French-Speaking Switzerland<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In a city in western Switzerland (as in other cities), homeless people are targeted by three policies: a compassionate policy, specific to social emergency measures; a policy of repression; and, as far as residents are concerned, a traditional welfare policy. Based on accounts by homeless people, the article highlights their logics for using the night emergency system. It also shows how their vulnerabilities are produced by the simultaneous deployment of local, national, and European policies.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Discrimination at the Crossroads? Evidence from a Factorial Survey Experiment on Teacher‘s Tracking Decisions<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Using a factorial survey experiment, we investigate whether teachers discriminate against lower class and minority children. The vignettes include information on the pupil’s gender, social and ethnic origin, academic potential, motivation, behaviour in class as well as parental educational aspirations. While the discrimination hypotheses are not supported, we find gender-specific effects of challenging behaviour, to the disadvantage of girls. Both the usefulness as well as potential pitfalls of the factorial survey approach are discussed.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Book Reviews: Un/doing Ethnicity im öffentlichen Dienst. Ethnografien zum ethnischen Differenzieren am Beispiel von Jugendamt und Polizei in the Sociology of Education – Promises and Experiences of Group-Specific Support for College Access – Results of an Experimental Vignette Study<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In an experimental vignette study, the respondents were asked to decide whether college applicants should be credited with a bonus or malus on the admission grade, for example due to their migration background, social origin, or effort. The results show that dimensions of social educational inequality tend to be considered in the direction of compensation. Hence, there is evidence of a certain legitimacy of measures in the sense of positive discrimination in university access.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Book Reviews: Mittendrin ist vielerorts, 22 Porträts Vocations. The Promotion of Vocations by Professional Associations<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Current research on the promotion of vocations focuses mainly on best practices of institutionalized vocational guidance as well as on individually constructed images of vocations. In contrast, this article deals with the question, how occupational associations – as collective actors – diffuse vocations and, thus, inscribe them into cultural memory. Based on the analysis of recruiting videos, the article identifies different promotion strategies, and sheds light on different thought patterns and exclusive mechanisms.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Experimental Research in Education: An Appraisal of the Italian Experience<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This work provides an assessment of the Italian experimental literature in the field of education. We review 25 RCTs completed between 2009 and 2020, analysing their alignment to the CONSORT guidelines. Our findings show that the scientific reporting is on average of good quality; however, there are areas where a significant improvement is needed. We suggest viable solutions, aimed at improving the robustness of experimental research in sociology, taking advantage from consolidated rigorous praxis developed in other disciplines.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Book Reviews: Panorama Gesellschaft Schweiz 2020. Migration – Integration – Partizipation Planning as Public Space: Some Issues of Local Democracy raised by the Extension of the École hôtelière in the Lausanne peri-urban area<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Based on a field survey on the conflicts regarding the extension of the Ecole Hôtelière de Lausanne, this text discusses the production of public space. These controversies make possible an understanding of the production process of peri-urban space in terms of residential aspirations and negotiation mechanisms. This investigation allows us to understand the articulation of the two forms of public space – as publicity and as a set of freely accessible places – and the questions of local democracies related to them.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Do Intensive Guidance Programs Reduce Social Inequality in the Transition to Higher Education? Results of a Field Experiment<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper examines the effect of an intensive counseling program to promote college access of students who are eligible for college. Using data from an experimental panel study, we examine the average effect on university enrollment directly after high school graduation and the effect heterogeneity by educational background. No positive effect of participation is found. We discuss these results in relation to the potential of reducing inequalities by individual counseling in Germany.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-29T00:00:00.000+00:00The Making of ADHD: A Comparative Content Analysis of Teachers’ and Doctors’ Worldviews<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Little is known about how teachers and doctors make sense of ADHD. Drawing on a corpus of online accounts, we reconstructed their worldviews with a qualitative analysis. While both professional groups referred to a male troublemaker and to the German literary figure of the Fidgety Phil, they also expressed rival expert claims. Doctors represented the scientific authority in labeling and diagnosing ADHD, whereas teachers attached objective meaning to the medical judgement by pathologizing deviant behavior and justifying measures of control.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1