rss_2.0Sustainable Multilingualism FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Sustainable Multilingualism Multilingualism Feed Parents Raising a Bilingual Child in Turkey<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This case study explores the bilingual upbringing of a 5 year 2 months old child in Turkish and English through “non-native parents (NNP) strategy” within a context where English is neither the first nor the majority language of the community. Drawing on the Parental Discourse Hypothesis (Lanza, 1992) and Modeling Hypothesis (Comeau et al., 2003), the researchers examined not only the development of the child’s English, but also the approach of the father towards the child, and his self-perception as a father seeking opportunities to raise a bilingual child. The data were collected by means of a series of video recordings of the interaction between the child and the father, as well as via two semi-structured interviews with the father. The findings show that even quite limited exposure to a (second) language may lead to the acquisition of that language thanks to strict adherence to NNP strategy, and the parents’ concentrated efforts at refraining from code-mixing in their own speech.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Multilingual Skills in Children with Autism: Parent and Teacher Perspectives on Teaching ESL<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Research on autistic children who grow up in multilingual environments remains sparse, despite more than half of the global population being multilingual. Autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by severe impairments in communication and language skills. Many ASD parents ask specialists for advice about whether their child should study both languages simultaneously in a bilingual environment. The study investigated the challenges faced by teachers and parents in educating children with ASD in learning English as a Second language (ESL). The study sample consisted of nine parents and five teachers of children with ASD who were interviewed using a qualitative approach. According to the findings of the study, teaching English as a Second Language to children with autism spectrum disorders with visual aids, modeling, and repetition has been shown to be an effective method to enhance the language and social abilities of children with autism. While it is difficult to develop teaching strategies that are effective for children with autism spectrum disorders, teachers have found that these children are extremely proficient in acquiring new languages. Additionally, to ensure successful language learning programs for children with ASD, it is essential that educators and parents collaborate in order to make the programs successful. Moreover, this study demonstrates various methods that educators and parents could use in order to assist children in achieving bilingualism. The study recommends that more research is needed to fully comprehend the difficulties that ESL teachers face when they are trying to teach children with ASD how to learn languages.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Adaptability in Family Language Policy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Heritage language maintenance is affected by many different factors. Particularly for families in subtractive bilingual environments, it is crucial to have a well-defined family language policy (FLP). Even with an established FLP, major disruptions and changes, as well as smaller shifts in families’ lives, can significantly affect children’s multilingual development and threaten heritage language maintenance. These shifts can be sudden or gradual. This study focuses on the importance of bringing the need for a FLP into multilingual families’ awareness and explores the challenges of sustaining it. More specifically, this study uses two parents’ reflections regarding their own families’ language policies to gain a better understanding of the challenges and to make recommendations to other families. It is guided by the following questions: To what extent are parents aware of their family’s multilingual habits and policies? How can parents support their children’s heritage language development in the face of significant disruptions or even subtle life changes? Two linguists raising multilingual children in different contexts agreed to become accountability partners to gain a better understanding of their own dynamic situations and support each other to become more intentional in their family multilingual development. Data were collected over a six-month period. Findings suggest that intentionality increased due to the accountability partnership. Furthermore, this study challenged several of the researchers’ assumptions, particularly regarding the amount of heritage language spoken, how transitions affect the family, what it takes for linguistic changes to occur, and the ease of tracking one’s own family’s linguistic habits. This study suggests that having a FLP is not sufficient, but that it requires periodic updating, and changes need to be implemented to match the evolving plan.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Language Use and Identity Construction: A Study of Two Korean-American Bilingual Adolescents<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study examines heritage language use and identity construction of two Korean-American bilingual adolescents who have acquired a high level of proficiency in the heritage language. An analysis of the interview narratives showed that the high level of their heritage language proficiency played a crucial role in understanding the heritage culture and its people, developing a strong sense of self, and building social relationships with members of the heritage language and mainstream communities. In addition, it was found that their ethnic identities were co-constructed and reshaped over time not only by their individual choices but also by various sociocultural factors — the environment, their surroundings, and their relationships with others. However, although both participants agreed that their heritage language and culture were fundamental parts of their identities, the forces and processes that shaped each participant’s identities were different. One participant developed his dual identities by maintaining cultural boundaries and group differentiation whereas the other participant tried to combine two cultural characteristics in creating a new self, having invested in dual identities — Korean and American — which she would assume in the private and public spheres of her life, respectively. The findings shed light on the complex process of bilingual adolescents’ identity construction.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Factors Influencing the Willingness to Use English in Teaching Japanese as a Foreign Language by Non-Native Speakers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In recent years, teachers have had students from diverse language and cultural backgrounds in their classrooms due to increasing human migration in many countries. Therefore, multilingual learning and teaching have become a widespread phenomenon. Research on English language teaching and learning in multilingual contexts has gained great importance. However, teaching languages other than English and foreign language teachers’ practices in this specific context have received little attention so far. Teaching the highly contextualised Japanese language poses challenges in multilingual classrooms, and teachers more frequently resort to using English as the medium of instruction. To shed light on Japanese non-native teachers’ practices, the study explored and analysed two hundred and seventy-four teachers’ responses to the questionnaire “Teaching the Japanese language in multilingual classrooms – English medium instruction approach (EMI)”. The research attempts a worldwide study on using EMI in teaching Japanese as a foreign language (JFL). It examines a broad geographic scope of JFL teachers’ practices from fifty-seven predominantly non-Anglophone countries. The present article focuses on investigating various factors affecting JFL teachers’ willingness to use EMI that can be classified into <italic>demographic</italic>, <italic>linguistic</italic>, and <italic>contextual</italic>. The results revealed several factors of significant influence, such as JFL teachers’ work experience, the highest education level attained, educational stage, geographic region, native language group, Japanese language proficiency, and knowledge of other languages (multilingualism). The factors that appeared to be of insufficient influence were age, study of teaching methods/linguodidactics and level of Japanese taught. The factor of JFL teachers’ language proficiency (both English and Japanese) falls into a separate category of influence, where a significant difference was noted for proficient and near-native levels.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Analysis of the Most Common L1 Interference Grammar, Vocabulary and Syntax Errors of Lithuanian Learners in Written English<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper describes a study on the most common English mistakes among Lithuanians in written tasks on the topic of business and finance. The study was conducted with high school students and university students, and the effectiveness of error feedback in reducing the occurrence of errors was also examined by comparing 2 written texts of each participant. Grammatical errors related to the use of articles and punctuation were found to be the most common types of errors, and feedback on errors was found to be an effective tool in increasing learner motivation and understanding, reducing common errors but not reducing the most common types of errors. The research showed that detailed, personalized feedback can help minimize mistakes in writing assignments, especially if it can be accessed during or in between tasks. However, it is uncertain whether this method will have long-lasting benefits or if improvements are dependent on continual feedback reference. Participants were advised to keep their error feedback forms and utilize teachers’ feedback as a constant guide for improvement. We plan to utilize data on frequently occurring errors to conduct additional research on tackling and enhancing language errors that have become ingrained, employing various strategies. Based on the findings, directions for future research were identified. In the future we intend to carry out a study, using controlled texts with a pre-determined number of errors in diagnostic testing. This would allow us to more precisely analyse learners’ improvements in the use of given structures, through a more extensive research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Corpus-Based Study of Dual Pronoun Translation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article aims to answer the following questions: what is the distribution of dual pronouns in original and translated Lithuanian fiction texts; what English language patterns are rendered by Lithuanian dual pronouns; and how Lithuanian dual pronouns are translated into English. In line with the unique items hypothesis, it is hypothesized that dual pronouns, as a characteristic feature of the Lithuanian language, should be less frequent in translations, as English texts do not have an obvious translation stimulus. Corpus based methods were used for data extraction and analysis. Firstly, from the morphologically annotated ORVELIT corpus, all occurrences of pronouns in original and translated fiction were identified, and all dual forms were extracted. Parallel concordances of dual pronoun translations were obtained from the Lithuanian-English Corpus of Prose LECOP and the Parallel Corpus (English-Lithuanian translation direction) using the ParaConc software (Barlow, 2009). The most frequent forms of personal pronouns were chosen for further analysis: <italic>mudu, judu</italic> and <italic>jiedu</italic>. It has been found that differently from initial prediction, Lithuanian translations have similar or slightly higher numbers of dual pronouns in comparison to original Lithuanian texts. The data from English-to-Lithuanian translations shows several patterns rendered by dual pronouns, for example, when English plural personal pronouns describe two referents or when a combination of a personal pronoun and another referent is used with the conjunction <italic>and</italic>. When translating duals from Lithuanian into English, translators choose English plural forms of pronouns or use the formula ‘pronoun + referent/referent + pronoun’. To compensate for the loss of information about the number of referents or their proximity, translators use the number <italic>two</italic>. In original English texts, unlike in translated English texts, this usage was not frequent or common.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue for Translation Services in the Globalized World: A Periphery-Informed Explanation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The relationship between globalization and translation is one of the new areas of research in Translation Studies. Globalization has led to unstoppable spread of the English language across the globe. Yet, contrary to expectations, not only has the need for translation services not diminished, but it also has increased. This, according to Pym (2003), sounds paradoxical since as the global use of English is on the increase, the need for translation should be waning. In other words, in spite of the fact that the use of English is triumphant and English is already considered the language of the global village, not only has the number of translations not decreased, but the demand for them is increasing. The present study was an attempt to investigate Iranian translators’ views on this paradox. In other words, the study sought the perspectives of translators in the periphery on the paradox to see how the paradox proposed by Pym can be explained from the point of view of Iranian translators. Using snowball sampling, twenty-two translators (all holding an MA or a PhD in Translation Studies) were selected. To collect data, semi-structured interviews were conducted. Interpretive analysis of the data revealed that there are numerous reasons that raise the status and role of translation and translators in the Iranian context, which were categorized under three broad categories, namely the limited target language (English), a preference for Persian over English and ideological issues. As regards the limited English language knowledge, the in-depth interviews showed that the younger generation’s proficiency is mostly confined to oral skills and cannot cover all aspects of the English language. In other cases, technical differences between the two languages were pointed out, which was taken as a barrier for feeling at ease with using English. Additionally, the pervasiveness of English words and phrases in society, and especially technological tools, makes people with little English proficiency feel the need for the translation of these foreign words and phrases. Another broad category concerns the preference of Iranians for Persian over English. Throughout the interviews, even PhD holders pointed out that they were not that much at ease with English, and some mentioned in the interviews that if they had both the English and the Persian version of a text, they would probably prefer the Persian version. Another reason for such preference was shown to be their lack of confidence in their knowledge of English even though they had an advanced level of understanding English texts/talks. The final category dealt with ideological issues at both macro- and micro-level. At the macro-level, some participants referred to the government policy that prioritizes the Persian language over foreign languages in society. At the micro-level, one participant believed that some individuals intentionally use Persian words and phrases to prevent the marginalization of the Persian language.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Language Teaching at the Institute of Foreign Languages of Vytautas Magnus University: Challenges and Perspectives<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this article is to analyze the situation of foreign language teaching and learning at the Institute of Foreign Languages of Vytautas Magnus University (VMU), within the framework of the promotion of multilingualism in the European Union and the language policy of VMU. Knowledge of the mother tongue and at least two foreign languages at a sufficient level for effective communication is an aspiration set out in the European Union documents. In this study, we examine how the university’s language policy contributes to the goal of EU multilingualism and the challenges posed by its implementation. For this purpose, data on language teaching at VMU Institute of Foreign Languages over the last ten years are analyzed. In addition, a survey conducted in spring 2022 is presented which aimed at finding out which factors influence the students’ learning of other languages. The results of these two investigations reveal that, while students acquire the proficient user level in English, there is a steady decline in the interest to study other languages apart English, and the number of students who choose other languages has been decreasing. Only a small percentage of them reach the proficient user level (B1–B2 on the CEFR scale), whereas the majority of them become familiar with a new language and end their studies at initial levels (A1–A2 on the CEFR scale). The students’ responses suggest that there is room for improvement in the university system to promote multilingualism; the lack of awareness of the importance of languages, the increasing predominance of English and the lack of motivation, as well as the negative experiences associated with learning, have a significant influence on the decline of interest in other foreign languages, thus constituting a major threat to the implementation of multilingualism policies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Use of Spanish Light Verb Constructions in the Advocate General’s Opinions of the Court of Justice of the European Union<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Over the past few decades, increasing attention has been devoted towards the study of formulaic language, both in Lithuania and abroad. It is assumed that stable word combinations, rather than single words, are preferred in speaking and translating processes, which makes this study increasingly relevant. The idea of formulaic language is well reflected by light verb constructions as one of the collocation types, therefore this article aims to describe the use of these constructions in the analytic Spanish language. The article provides a theoretical overview of light verb constructions, their identification using the <italic>Sketch Engine</italic> computer program, and their usage in a representative-size corpus, compiled from the EUR-Lex database of documents from the original Spanish texts of the Advocate General’s Opinions of the Court of Justice of the European Union. The analysis of the use of Spanish light verb constructions in the analyzed text provided large objective data on their use, revealing the light verb constructions and their patterns typical to administrative Spanish. It has been found that the grammatical meaning of these light verb constructions is mostly represented by the following support verbs: <italic>tener</italic>, <italic>poner</italic>, <italic>dar</italic>, <italic>tomar</italic> and <italic>hacer</italic>. In combinations with nouns, these support verbs mark grammatical aspects such as mood, tense, person, and number. The frequent repetition of light verb constructions in the corpus indicates a standardized lexicon within the Spanish administrative language. In general, the high number of light verb constructions in the corpus reveals their importance in analytic Spanish, especially in the administrative legal language of the Advocate General‘s opinions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Mind, Many Languages: Czech as an Additional Language in Plurilingual Repertoires<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Plurilingualism goes beyond the mere ability to use multiple languages; it emphasizes the interconnected nature of languages within an individual's linguistic competence. In line with the European language policy, university students are becoming users of several languages, and international university students in Czech universities often learn Czech as their fourth language or beyond (L4+). Understanding how their linguistic competencies interact can impact their language acquisition experience. Learners may perceive interactions among the languages within their linguistic repertoire. The concept of Perceived Positive Language Interaction (PPLI, Thompson, 2016) pertains to the perception that languages previously studied are interrelated in a positive way, ultimately enhancing a plurilingual's ability to acquire additional languages. This study explores the relationships between Czech as an additional language and the learners' prior languages. The research aims to answer three main questions: Do learners of Czech as L4+ perceive positive interactions among their learned languages? In what areas do these interactions manifest? How does Czech relate to their other languages? The study was conducted at a Czech university that provides optional introductory Czech courses (A1/A2), primarily to students in the Erasmus+ program. Fifty-four international students filled in an open-ended online questionnaire over two consecutive semesters. The analysis revealed that while students perceived positive interactions among some of the languages they had learned, especially within language families, interactions across typologically different languages occurred, particularly between Czech and German. The participants' mother tongue also emerged as a significant factor. While language instruction often follows a monolingual approach, where the target language is the primary mode of classroom interaction (Woll, 2020), learners may significantly benefit from their previous language learning experiences when learning an additional language. Despite the relatively limited research sample, this study suggests the didactic potential of positive language interaction in language teaching and learning and highlights further research opportunities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Foreign Language Teachers´ Attitudes Towards Digital Teaching in the European Union Countries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the present era, both learning and teaching, including foreign language learning (FLL) and teaching, are being radically influenced by a massive implementation of digital technologies. The purpose of this study is to analyze foreign language teachers’ attitudes towards the use of technologies in foreign language teaching across Europe and to identify clear implications for their efficient implementation. The methodology of this study includes a mixed-method research design (quantitative and qualitative) with a survey conducted with altogether 234 foreign language (FL) teachers from different universities across Europe. The results clearly show that FL teachers generally have a positive attitude towards the use of technologies in their classes and that they frequently use them in their teaching since they can make students more engaged in learning a foreign language. In fact, the FL teachers have always been at the forefront of innovative approaches to teaching and learning. In spite of this, they admit that they would welcome more professional support from the management of their home institutions and demand training in the use of new technologies. The results of the research also indicate that special attention should be paid to the lack of personal contact, students' reactions, and the expression of emotions, which is difficult and almost impossible to achieve through the use of digital media. These findings are unique since they aim specifically at current FL teachers´ attitudes and needs across Europe and can be utilized by stakeholders and FLL course designers. Moreover, they can also be extended to a larger scale, i.e., the global level.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Intelligence in Language Education: A Bibliometric Analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Artificial Intelligence (AI) occupies a transforming role in education, including language teaching and learning. Using bibliometric analysis, this study aims to overview the most recent research related to the use of AI in language education. Specifically, it reviews the existing body of research, productivity in this field in terms of authors and countries, co-authorship, most cited references and most popular journals that publish on this topic. Furthermore, the study also analyses the most common keywords and extracts relevant terms that reveal trending topics. For the period between 2018 and 2022, 2,609 documents were retrieved from the Web of Science database. The results showed that each year a consistent number of publications on the application of AI in language education appears. Scholars from China and the USA have been revealed to be most productive. <italic>Computer Assisted Language Learning</italic> contains the highest number of publications. Within the research on the use of AI in language education, the most targeted language-learning aspects were acquisition, motivation, performance, vocabulary, instruction, feedback, and impact. The analysis of the most common keywords related to AI-based solutions showed that mobile-assisted language learning, virtual reality, augmented reality, elements of gamification, games, social robots, machine translation, intelligent tutoring systems, chatbots, machine learning, neural networks, automatic speech recognition, big data, and deep learning were most popular.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Nomenclature of Traditional Ornaments in Latvian and Lithuanian<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The traditional ornaments, characteristic for the Latvian and Lithuanian ethnographic regions, are an essential part of traditional Baltic culture. Since the 19th century researchers have studied their technical aspects and semiotics (Brastiņš, 1923; Dzērvīts, 1925; Celms 2007) but little attention has been paid to empirical terminology. The name is an integral part of the sign, it often carries semantic information helping to reveal its usage and significance. In Latvia, the names of traditional signs have been influenced by the work of Brastiņš and <italic>dievturi</italic> (“Keepers of Dievs”) who attributed the names of Baltic mythological deities to ornaments linking them to the manifestations of the deity mentioned in the denominations. While these denominations are very popular in Latvia, in Lithuania very similar ornaments are called and interpreted differently. This research focuses on collecting and analysing Baltic ornament nomenclature published in Latvia and Lithuania in the first half of the 20th century. It compares the ornament naming traditions in both countries and highlights the main parallels and differences. It also reviews previous research of ornament in Latvia and Lithuania where significant differences can be seen – while semiotic research dominates in Latvia, in Lithuania more attention has been paid to the nomenclature, although in both countries the nomenclature has often been viewed separately from the visual form, making the research of ornament evolution and typology difficult. It has been found that the spectrum of ornament nomenclature at the beginning of the 20th century in Latvia was more diverse than it is now; that it is common for Latvians and Lithuanians to view ornament as a pattern rather than separate graphic elements and that geometric, plant, animal, artefact and celestial body denominations dominate the nomenclature of both languages. Symbols appearing in Baltic culture are also present in ornament nomenclature.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue English Under the Sounds of Air Raid Sirens: Analysing Undergraduate EFL Students’ Sustainable Learing Practices<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents a mixed-methods study that examines how undergraduate students of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) sustain their practices of learning English during the ongoing Russo-Ukrainian war in 2022–2023. In total, 33 undergraduate EFL students (henceforth – participants) took part in the study. In order to gain insight into their sustainable learning practices, the participants were requested to write a short reflective essay titled “My Thoughts on How I Learn English during the War”. The participants were instructed to write their essays in English within a one-week timeframe. Seeking to identify and classify a range of sustainable practices related to the ways the participants learnt English during the Russo-Ukrainian war, their reflective essays were analysed qualitatively and quantitatively. The analysis of the participants’ essays revealed the following learning practices that, according to the participants, helped them to sustain their EFL learning trajectory in the wartime EFL contexts: (i) participation in online EFL courses, (ii) communication with the native speakers of English on social networking sites (e.g., Instagram), and (iii) the combination of EFL learning activities offered at the participants’ university. The findings are discussed in detail further in the article through the lens of sustainable multilingualism development. Specifically, we argue that the development of multilingualism in the time of crises is feasible and sustainable, especially if it is coupled with an EFL learner’s inner psychological factors that are further facilitated by the external support offered by the digital learning environments that are (i) institutionalised and systematic, and (ii) extra-mural and unstructured (in other words, digitally wild).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Spanish Temporal Adverbials by Multilingual Estonian Learners<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article focuses on the temporal structures used by multilingual Estonian students when expressing the hour in Spanish. Learning linguistic structures related to time is crucial in the early stages of foreign language acquisition. However, these structures can be complex and vary across languages, as they are highly idiosyncratic in terms of vocabulary and syntax. This study concentrates on the difficulties Estonian students face with Spanish time adverbials, specifically prepositions and articles. The paper aims to answer several research questions related to the repertoire of temporal expressions in the students' interlanguage, the difficulty posed by typological differences between their native language and Spanish, the influence of English, and the impact of English proficiency on Spanish production. The analysis of a corpus of interlanguage texts from Estonian students is conducted to identify idiosyncratic structures and patterns, distinguishing them from standard structures. The findings reveal that the use of articles improves with higher proficiency levels, while the use of prepositions remains challenging. Furthermore, the study explores the influence of English and Estonian on the students' Spanish production and highlights the importance of crosslinguistic reflection and attention to functional words for enhanced accuracy and fluency. The article concludes by emphasizing the significance of language proficiency levels and crosslinguistic influence in third language acquisition and suggesting areas for further research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Synchrony of Bilabial Consonants in the Lithuanian Dubbed Live-Action Film<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article explores the intricate nature of lip synchrony in dubbing as an audiovisual translation mode, highlighting its significance beyond aesthetic considerations. Often overlooked during the translation process for dubbing, the mismatch between auditory and visual signals caused by unsynchronized lip movements can have a negative impact on speech perception. Moreover, with the constant rise of audiovisual content, achieving satisfactory lip synchrony remains a crucial challenge that demands attention. Although scholars such as Fodor (1976) and Chaume (2012) have recognized the importance of bilabial consonants in maintaining lip synchrony, there is a notable research gap specifically focusing on this aspect within the Lithuanian dubbed industry. To address this gap, this study investigates the lip synchrony of bilabial consonants in the Lithuanian dubbed version of the live-action film <italic>A Dog's Way Home</italic> (2019). By employing a comparative research approach that integrates qualitative and quantitative analyses, the study draws on theoretical perspectives presented by McGurk and MacDonald (1976), Fodor (1976), Chaume (2004, 2012), and Koverienė (2015). The analysis of the cinematographic shots reveals that only a small percentage (19%) of the bilabial phonemes in the source language utterances were visually prominent instances, and consequently chosen for detailed examination of lip synchrony. This finding suggests that strict adherence to lip synchrony may not be crucial in numerous instances, allowing translators to have greater flexibility in their approach. The target language utterances demonstrate a relatively high percentage (approximately 76%) of synchronous cases for bilabials, particularly in proper names and international words. However, the research also reveals additional 94 instances of bilabials in the target language that were not found in the source language utterances, leading to dischronemes. Therefore, audiovisual translators are urged to consider not only how to maintain the lip synchrony of bilabial consonants in the target language, but also how to avoid the emergence of new bilabials.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue in Teaching and Learning of English at University Level: The Perspectives of Ukrainian Students and their Teachers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Classrooms at all levels of education are becoming more diverse, as they include more and more multilingual and multicultural students. Their teachers start understanding that, especially in foreign language classes, monolingual approaches to teaching and learning are not effective anymore, and search for other pedagogical techniques and practices that would involve their students’ linguistic repertoires as an asset in their classes. This study aimed to learn about the attitudes towards and experiences of the use of other languages in the English classroom by including the perspectives of English teachers and their Ukrainian students who, having fled their home country due to the war against Ukraine or having chosen to participate in student exchange, came to study at Vytautas Magnus University in Kaunas, Lithuania. Two online questionnaires including open and closed ended questions were used to gather data. Thus, the study was both quantitative and qualitative. Even though several literature review sections in this article describe a switch from monolingual to a more holistic paradigm that includes translanguaging, this and other terms employed to describe the use of other languages were not introduced to the research participants. The English teachers’ and their Ukrainian students’ attitudes towards and experiences of the use of other languages in the English classroom are first looked at separately and then compared in the concluding section. The findings revealed that both Ukrainian students (58.3%) and teachers (84.2%) have experience of other languages being used in their English classroom. They also agree that translation into the language that students understand is used as a strategy helping the students to understand grammar and vocabulary, yet the students indicated gesturing as a strategy used to explain unknown vocabulary. Other strategies related to the use of other languages were also mentioned and described. The teachers and the students pointed out that Russian and Lithuanian were the most frequently employed other (than English) languages in their English classroom, even though the teachers believed they used mostly Russian, whereas the students believed their teachers mostly used Lithuanian.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Attitudes and Policy Preferences: Insights From International Scholarship Applicants to Hungarian Universities<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study examined the attitudes of individuals seeking scholarships to study abroad, exploring whether their views on languages and language policy models vary based on gender, study programs, and countries. An online survey was administered to approximately 130 Hungarian government scholarship applicants from diverse nations. Statistical methods were employed to analyze responses, revealing variations and correlations between demographic and attitudinal variables. Participants expressed preferences for multilingual and monolingual language policies, aligning with their attitudes. The findings indicate that most participants pursued language learning with instrumental motivation, aiming to achieve educational and career objectives. Most participants expressed a desire for a multilingual language policy model in their home countries. While many embraced the proposal to adopt English as the medium of instruction, others maintained a critical perspective, acknowledging both the positive and negative impacts of English and multilingualism. Additionally, participants underscored the significance of preserving native languages in their respective countries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Role of Linguistic and Cultural Mediation in Learning the Host Country’s Language<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The need to reconsider the value of mediation in language teaching/learning has been highlighted due to such processes as globalization and migration in the contemporary world. The importance of a language learner's entire plurilingual repertoire has been emphasized in <italic>The Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) Companion Volume</italic> (2020) and students’ linguistic and cultural backgrounds have been recognized as useful teaching resources to enhance language learning (Piccardo &amp; North, 2017). The application of translanguaging has become an innovative method applied in language teaching and is now seen as a tool for increasing learners’ commitment and self-belief (Duarte, 2020). A survey was conducted to explore the role of mediation in learning a host country's language in the UK and Lithuania. The study aimed to investigate the use of non-linguistic competences to reduce linguistic and cultural barriers, encourage collaboration among language learners, and improve their competence in translanguaging. The survey included 23 English for speakers of other languages (ESOL) students (levels A2 and B1) and 15 Lithuanian as a second language students (levels A1 and A2). A quantitative and qualitative research methodology was used to analyze their language learning experiences during mediated lessons of the target language. The results of the surveys and short semi-formal interviews showed that learners had developed various non-linguistic competences and demonstrated the ability to use other languages for learning a new language. Although most of the research participants agreed that such a way of learning had helped them to successfully learn the target language and preserve their national identity in a foreign country, a careful guidance provided by a language teacher is necessary in order not to be misguided among the variety of similar or different languages.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue