rss_2.0Sustainable Multilingualism FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Sustainable Multilingualismhttps://sciendo.com/journal/SMhttps://www.sciendo.comSustainable Multilingualism Feedhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/638fa374b460d8681e73e29b/cover-image.jpghttps://sciendo.com/journal/SM140216Students’ Linguistic Attitude Towards Language Mistakes/Errors in Learning and Using a Foreign Languagehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>As the intensity of communication increases, the number of language mistakes/errors increases. Nowadays, the acquisition and use of a foreign language often takes place in parallel, and language mistakes/errors are a natural part of this process but this does not mean that they must be tolerated. The study is based on the results of a sociolinguistic survey obtained in 2018 and 2019. 253 students of four Universities and specialties, as well as different study levels from Liepāja, Ventspils and Rīga participated in the survey anonymously. Most of the respondents indicated that Latvian was their mother tongue; for a small number of participants, it was a second language or a foreign language. The surveyed students also differed in the type and number of foreign languages acquired. The present paper is the second part of a wider study (see the results of the first stage of the research by Laiveniece and Lauze, 2020). The aim of this paper is to characterize students’ linguistic attitude towards language errors in learning and using a foreign language: how to evaluate errors, whether errors are generally permissible, what affects them, and how to eliminate them. In the course of the research, an assumption emerged: the more foreign languages are learned, the more tolerant the linguistic attitude is towards mistakes/errors that are made when speaking a foreign language. However, the analysis of the questionnaire findings did not confirm this. Most of the respondents attributed errors to the language learning process. Whether or not errors were made when speaking a foreign language was determined by the situation and purpose of the communication, as well as the level of language acquisition.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-00192022-12-04T00:00:00.000+00:00In-Service Primary Teachers’ Practices and Beliefs About Multilingualism: Linguistically Sensitive Teaching in the Basque Autonomous Communityhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>European schools have seen a considerable increase in the number of multilingual students (Bergroth et al., 2021). Teaching languages separately restricts the use of students’ entire linguistic repertoire; however, new lines of research have pointed out the usefulness of multilingualism and the potential benefits of pedagogical translanguaging (Leonet et al., 2017). In this context, Linguistically Sensitive Teaching (LST) allows teachers to make multilingualism visible in their classrooms (Llompart &amp; Birello, 2020). This qualitative research study was conducted in the Basque Autonomous Community (BAC), where Basque and Spanish are official languages. In most cases, English is taught as a Foreign Language. Even though the minority language is not the student’s first language in many cases, most students’ families choose Basque as the language of instruction (Basque Government, 2020). This study analyses in-service primary teachers’ perspectives on multilingual education in a government aided semiprivate school. Data were collected through linguistic landscape analysis, observations, and a focus group discussion. Two researchers observed one hundred six primary multilingual students and eight in-service language and content teachers for three weeks. Teachers who participated in the study were at least bilingual and fluent in Basque and Spanish and some (4) were also fluent in English (B2–C1 according to the Common European Framework of Reference for languages). The findings reveal that in-service primary teachers are aware of the utility of putting LST into practice, and they are willing to teach and flexibly use languages. In addition, they believe in transferences across languages and highlight the value of using language to learn content. Although in many cases, multilingual strategies are appropriate for adapting to the current situation, those strategies are not systematized, creating a climate of insecurity. The results suggest the need for more linguistically sensitive education and training.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-00162022-12-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Identity Formation and Career Prospects of Bilingual Professionals: Blending Language Skills to Create Novel Applications to Career Pursuitshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The most widely believed misconception about bilingualism purports that exposure to a second language within the community will automatically yield bilingual children, who can apply their balanced language skills in every domain of their future employment. However, this misconception does not represent the real-life experiences of most bilinguals. Through a pivotal focus on individual cases, this study was designed to manifest (1) bilingual identity formation and (2) career prospects of early and sequential bilinguals. The study analyzed collected data from individual surveys and in-person interviews with bilingual professional adults. Findings revealed that conscious engagement with the languages they were exposed to as children plays an active role in a bilingual speaker’s identity formation process and influences their career pursuits, instead of the common notion that being exposed to a second language is adequate to embrace bilingualism. Hence, this article brings implications to consider on career pursuits of bilingual speakers as the results indicate bilingual career pursuits transcend language-related occupations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-00132022-12-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Multilingualism in Sao Tomé and Principe: Use of Subtitling Approachhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Sao Tome and Principe (STP) is a developing country where several languages coexist, although only one of them, Portuguese, serves as the official language. The rest of the languages are limited to private use and many of them are at risk of disappearing. As a pilot experiment to find formulas for the preservation of these languages, this work takes Forro Creole as a reference. Forro is no longer transmitted from parents to children, nor is it studied in schools, and it is mainly the elderly who maintain it. At the same time, elders form a social group that suffers abandonment and discrimination from their community. In this context, we wondered whether subtitling would be useful to preserve and promote Forro Creole and to contribute to the integration of the elderly into society; what the linguistic perceptions of Forro-speaking elderly and non-elderly Santomeans are; and, finally, what experts in International Cooperation (IC), Audiovisual Translation (TAV) and Linguistic Cooperation (LC) think of the possibilities of subtitling in this area. The results show the participants’ perception of Forro, the situation of elders and subtitling, and lead to a final proposal: the recording of videos in Forro, subtitled in Portuguese and aimed at children whose protagonists would be elders who would encourage Forro learning and the ancestral culture through stories or songs that could be screened in schools or in the communities as a mobile cinema.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-00122022-12-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Endangered Languages: A Sociocognitive Approach to Language Death, Identity Loss, and Preservation in the Age of Artificial Intelligencehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Sociolinguists suggest language death entails significant cultural, personal, and ecological loss. Socio-cultural and socio-political factors exacerbate language erosion and encourage supplantation by another more dominant language. Hence, we ask: what are the sociocognitive principles which make language death hurtful and symbolic? Within this article, we attempt to outline a sociocognitive account of language death, situating the Hallidayan perspective of language as a “social-semiotic” system alongside a Cognitive Linguistic approach. We further contextualise language as inseparable from culture, drawing insight from the sociological thought of Bourdieu. We contend that language death entails psychological trauma, representing the destruction of cultural genealogy and the loss of knowledge intrinsic to personal self-imagery and identity. To this end, we present a case study of the Māori languaculture in Aotearoa (New Zealand), tracing the impact of colonialism and marginalisation to current efforts and ambitions to ensure the languacultural survival of Māori and reclaim space in Aotearoa as a respected knowledge system and means of expression, particularly in the socio-technical age of artificial intelligence (AI) and the Web. We argue that our analysis bodes practical implications for language maintenance and revitalisation, concluding that sociolinguistic practitioners should consider a socio-cognitivist as well as socio-technical paradigm for language intervention. In closing, we discuss leveraging AI technologies towards language heritage, archival, and preservation to limit the destructive impact of the death of a language.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-00112022-12-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Flash Fiction Story, an Authentic Text for Literacy Development in Spanish as a Foreign Languagehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The present study is based on flash fiction texts as a tool for literacy. Literacy has been highlighted as one of the main ideas in the new Educational Standard of Latvia (in force since September 2020). This fact, followed by Solvita Berra’s recent research on original texts in foreign language teaching, leads to the exploration of flash fiction stories (sp. <italic>microrrelatos</italic>) as an authentic text and a perfect tool for promoting literacy in the Spanish as a foreign language (ELE) classroom, since it blends perfectly with a variety of creative writing exercises. The flash fiction is a narrative genre that has had a great impact on the Spanish academic field in recent decades. The introduction of flash fiction in the ELE classroom has so far been proposed in several master’s dissertations, but its research at a scientific level is still very scarce. The benefits of the introduction of this literary genre in didactics have been treated at the doctoral thesis level by Belén Mateos Blanco (University of Valladolid) and later published in the manual “The flash fiction as a didactic tool in the teaching of ELE”, and few others. However, flash fiction stories are good socio-cultural references and serve both, for the teaching of different literary, linguistic and sociocultural aspects, as well as for the promotion of literacy. In addition, they represent a great variety of Spanish, since they have been written by authors from almost all Spanish-speaking countries. The empirical part of the article presents two didactic Units developed based on the use of flash fiction stories for the A1–A2 and B1 Spanish acquisition level. These two units form part of a 20-unit didactic material created as a result of a doctoral thesis. Here published proposal has been proved in the classwork with University of Liepaja students of the 1st and 2nd year of Spanish studies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-00182022-12-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Attitudes Towards Translanguaging Practices: A Comparative Study of Literature and Food Engineering Classeshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>With an increase in the number of colleges and universities offering courses in English in the education market globally, higher education institutions face serious challenges. In non-native settings where English is favoured as a prestigious choice for the medium of instruction, learners struggle with the huge barrier between demanding course contents and necessary language proficiency levels, which encourages them to use translanguaging and alternative strategies extensively in and out of classrooms. In this light, this study aims to look at an under-researched topic by questioning how university students’ and lecturers’ views on translanguaging practices show parallels and differences in literature and engineering courses from a comparative perspective. The data of the study were collected at English Language and Literature (ELL) and Food Science (FS) programmes of Gaziantep University (GAUN) in Turkey through face-to-face interviews and class observations. The classrooms were visited and observed for 21 lesson hours. 15 students and 6 lecturers from each department volunteered to participate in the study. The recorded and transcribed data were analysed then by using content analysis. The results show that while the lecturers from the FS programme stress that L2 use is vital for students to develop content knowledge and linguistic skills, the lecturers from the ELL programme claim it to be a context-sensitive practice, so some courses might necessitate more frequent use of L1 or translanguaging during the delivery, analysis or comprehension of the specific content or in formal or informal exchanges. The study has thus revealed how lecturers’ and students’ views in different departments change substantially based on the requirements of/expectations from the courses and how translanguaging functions as an effective and essential learning/teaching tool in the content-based courses. Accordingly, the findings should encourage teachers, lecturers and policy-makers in countries such as Turkey to reconsider the nature of bilingual teaching and learning in different areas of tertiary level education.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-00152022-12-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Multilingual Competence of Philology Students: Results of a Case Study on Multilingualism as a Resource in German as a Foreign Language Lessonshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The importance of promoting individual multilingualism is emphasized repeatedly around the world. Likewise, in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (2020), the prior knowledge of the learners and the networking of languages are pointed out. For this reason, the principles and methods of multilingual didactics with their positive effects occupy a prominent place in foreign language teaching, and the question of how individual differences between learners regarding their linguistic backgrounds can be considered in language teaching is increasingly being dealt with. This article examines the question of whether and how Lithuanian university students see their multilingual repertoire as a resource for learning German. For this purpose, a survey was carried out among the students at Vilnius University who are studying German as their major or German as an elective course. The aim of this study was to find out whether the previous knowledge of other languages helps the students to learn German or whether they see the influences of their mother language and other foreign languages as interference phenomena and judge them negatively. The data obtained from the survey present the students’ attitudes towards multilingualism, their multilingual skills, and language awareness as well as their language-related experience in acquiring German as a foreign language.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-00142022-12-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Interactional-Sociolinguistic Analysis of the Dynamics of Power and Solidarity in German– Lithuanian Business Negotiationshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-0020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The article analyses German-Lithuanian business negotiations in the English language, focusing on questions of the dynamics of power and solidarity (Tannen, 1993, 1995), realized through various politeness strategies (Brown &amp; Levinson, 1987). In the evaluation of the audio material and the determination of the type of conversation as “business negotiation”, it has been assumed that this is a communication situation in which the participants want to make an agreement based on different or identical objectives (Wagner, 1995). In the first phase of the analysis, the excerpts of the discussions were selected to determine which goal is being pursued by the participants. In the next phase, the politeness strategies used by the participants are explained to determine how the dynamics of power and solidarity arise locally and which intentions are thereby realized by the participants or what special purpose the local dynamics serve against the background of the general discussion goal. The exemplary analysis refers to the theoretical-methodological approaches of Gumperz, Brown, and Levinson as well as Tannen, whereby special importance is given to the studies that deal with the politeness strategies with regard to the generation of the dynamics of power and solidarity in institutional interaction, especially from the point of view of conversational analysis (Kulbayeva, 2020; Zhuang &amp; Huang, 2020). The results of the analysis could be helpful for learners and teachers of a foreign language, especially if they are interested in intercultural business communication and teaching language for specific purposes and want to deal with authentic material.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-00202022-12-04T00:00:00.000+00:00The Use of Digital Tools in Pre-Service Teachers’ Professional Development Towards Linguistic Diversity in Primary Educationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>As language diversity in education gradually increases, several challenges for primary school teachers arise. According to previous studies, there are not many adequate teacher training programs that prepare teachers in linguistically diverse classrooms and, therefore, teachers that teach pupils with linguistically/culturally diverse backgrounds highly depend on their own engagement with plurilingualism. This shows the need for initial plurilingual(-oriented) pre-service teacher training and in-service teachers’ continuing professional development that focus on acquiring language awareness and obtaining strategies for promoting and recognizing linguistic diversity in the classroom. In addition, most teachers feel the need for further professionalization and tools to help them manage and acknowledge the diversity in their classrooms. Through a pre-post-intervention design, this study examined a) the effects of digital tools for teacher professionalization for plurilingual education on pre-service teachers’ attitudes and knowledge, and (b) how AR-games can be used to further language awareness and openness towards plurilingualism of pre-service teachers and their pupils. The participants reported that the digital tools contributed to their knowledge of linguistic diversity in the classroom, as well as ways to implement plurilingualism in their teaching practices and further language awareness.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-00172022-12-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Lexical Collocations and their Acquisition in French as a Foreign Language (FLE)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The importance of stereotypical uses of language is recognized by most didactic studies of the vocabulary (Granger and Paquot, 2008). Collocations are an area of vocabulary which is difficult to master by non-native learners. This type of lexical relation often presents itself as a semi-frozen binary lexical co-occurrence. The meaning of collocations is often transparent in reception, while in production, it requires a special effort on behalf of the learner. In this paper, we have tried to verify this assertion by comparing the corpus of French language and that of learners, and to define the regularities of lexical combinations in the French interlanguage of Lithuanian learners with level B1. Thanks to the corpus at our disposal, we observed that nomino-adjectival collocations at this level are more frequent than verbal collocations. However, in the percentage of total, the number of collocations only represents a contingent part of the corpus. The corpus also reveals that the present combination of words is not always diversified either by its syntax or by its lexical content, which is sometimes atypical of standard French. Learners choose from a fairly limited number of rather free lexical units. The process of interference and hybridization can be seen as an essential contamination of collocations, both lexically and syntactically. The data received makes it possible to note that collocational competence is insufficient. The results of this study also show that the analysis of collocational constructions can reveal the relationships between competence and performance of speakers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-00082022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Mediation: Teachers’ Attitudes and Perceptions of Needs at European Universities in the Context of Eu Language Policyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Mediation is a novel concept in language teaching and learning, and the needs and attitudes of language teachers towards it are largely unexplored. This article provides a brief overview of European language policy and discusses the action-oriented approach in the context of this paradigm shift in language learning and teaching. Finally, an exploratory study is presented that examined the needs and attitudes of language teachers from four European universities regarding mediation, as it has been formulated in the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) (Council of Europe, 2001) and redefined in the CEFR Companion Volume with New Descriptors (Council of Europe, 2018). The participating teachers were from the language centres of Charles University in the Czech Republic, Vytautas Magnus University in Lithuania, the University of Helsinki in Finland, and the University of Warsaw in Poland. The study survey measured the strength of (dis)agreement of the teachers with 12 statements concerning various aspects of mediation in the context of their teaching practice. These related to understanding what mediation is and its importance, mediating a text, mediating concepts, mediating communication, and mediation strategies. In addition, two open questions concerned the practice of promoting multilingual and intercultural education and the needs of teachers in the area of mediation. Although the vast majority of the 79 participating teachers (91%) agreed that mediation is vital in language learning and teaching, only a third of them claimed that they understood the concept. Furthermore, the findings indicate that some aspects of mediation are more challenging for the teachers to embrace than others and that some fundamental aspects of mediation do not seem to be part of the current teaching practice of all teachers. Overall, the present study confirmed some of the challenges with the implementation of the CEFR into teaching practice at the higher education level.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-00062022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00The Encyclopaedic Meaning of in Koine Greek Toponyms. A Cognitive Approach to the Definition of the Ancient Colour Cardinal Points Systemhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The cartographic and historiographic traditions interpreting the Greek toponym <italic>Erythra Thalassa</italic> indicate this expression could designate several water basins in classical historiography, though it is usually rendered univocally as the Red Sea. This research applies cognitive semantics to the history of geography to retrieve the <italic>encyclopaedic meaning</italic> of the term <italic>erythros</italic> in relation to its <italic>dictionary meaning</italic> “red”. Computationally generated lists of frequency from about 50 ancient Greek and Latin oeuvres denote a predominant toponymic use of the term and a <italic>fixed collocation</italic> in conjunction with <italic>thalassa</italic> “sea”. Additional statistical data extrapolated from the <italic>Septuagint</italic> and the Greek New Testament reveal the tendency in the biblical tradition to use exclusively the inflected form <italic>erythra</italic> in <italic>fully fixed collocations</italic> with the term <italic>thalassa</italic>. The paper finds out that the specific shade of red denoted by <italic>erythors</italic> has been used since the seventh century BCE in a number of other toponyms and ethnonyms to convey the conceptual meaning of “southern”. To comparatively verify this hypothesis, several Greek toponyms incorporating the term <italic>leukos</italic> – “white” or “western” – are discussed in relation to their relative position in the oikumene. Based on comparative chronologies and diatopic attestations of the phenomenon, the hypothesis that the Turkic colour cardinal points system and the linguistic means to convey it was introduced to Greece during the period of contact with the Scythe people is proposed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-00102022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Translation and Adaptation of Culture-Bound Words in Subtitles: A Case Study of the Lithuanian Historical Drama Film https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The publication deals with the problem cultural realia and terms in translation. The empirical part is a case study that investigates challenges in subtitling when rendering the subtitles of the Lithuanian memory film <italic>Emilia. Breaking Free</italic> (2017) from Lithuanian into German and English. Subtitling, the oldest form of Audiovisual Translation, is both a process and a result when a source text is translated into the target text in a synchronized manner with the original verbal message. Serious translation problems can arise because the subtitles are supposed to convey the verbal or non-verbal message in a compressed form. Cultural realia and terms are cultural elements that structure human life from the time of birth to the extent that they shape our behavior and worldview. Moreover, since the areas referred to by real property descriptions can be very diverse, they are subject to different classifications depending on the character and the object. Accordingly, monocultural, infracultural and transcultural references can be subdivided more precisely into socio-political, geographical, ethnographic and non-verbal realia. When transferring realia, three large groups of translation strategies can be identified: the unchanged adoption of the realia in the target language, the omission and the replacement by an equivalent. Since most translation techniques in the corpus studied appear as strategies of change, the central question is to what extent linguistic and cultural-specific items can be reflected in the subtitling movies about traumatic historical experiences.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-00092022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00“Accept All Pupils as they are. Diversity!” – Pre-Service Primary Teachers’ Views, Experiences, Knowledge, and Skills of Multilingualism in Educationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Schools across Europe are experiencing a growing number of multilingual pupils; however, teachers claim to be generally underprepared for dealing with this ever-increasing linguistic and cultural diversity. Initial teacher education often pays insufficient attention to multilingualism, thus there is a call for research on what pre-service teachers learn about the topic during training. Against this background, this small-scale exploratory study sets out to explore pre-service primary teachers’ (a) views of multilingualism in education in general, (b) experiences of multilingualism in education as trainee teachers, and (c) self-perceived knowledge and skills acquired and developed during training, in the context of the Netherlands. Based on 195 survey responses, descriptive statistical analyses indicate that the sampled pre-service primary teachers have slightly positive views of multilingualism in education, specifically regarding their opinions on the role of multilingualism in education, focusing on school and home languages, and their tolerance of multilingualism in the classroom and at school. A qualitative content analysis reveals that several pre-service primary teachers have had general experiences of teaching pupils with migrant backgrounds, such as in transition classes (Dutch: <italic>schakelklassen</italic>), and of teaching pupils who communicate with each other only in their home languages. Challenges in teaching multilingual pupils are also reported, such as the implications of being unable to understand pupils’ home languages. Regarding their self-perceived knowledge and skills, the content analysis shows that some pre-service primary teachers in this study are aware of how to encourage collaboration between multilingual pupils to involve their languages in their learning, and have knowledge of language comparison and awareness approaches that can be implemented in multilingual classrooms. A concerning finding, however, is that according to pre-service primary teachers’ self-reported communication skills for multilingual pupils, there is a tendency to use simplified language, which may have a negative impact on pupils’ language development. These findings highlight the need for further research that employs a mixed-methods longitudinal approach to gain insights into the depth of knowledge and skills acquired during training and how views of multilingualism in education influence classroom practices. This study further reveals shortcomings of primary teacher education in the Netherlands regarding the topic of multilingualism, which are followed up by preliminary recommendations for improving training programmes; for instance, training institutions should aim to collaborate with more multilingual schools where pre-service teachers can gain first-hand practical experience.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-00052022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00A New Corpus-Driven Lexical Database for Lithuanian as a Foreign Languagehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>In this paper, we describe a new lexicographic resource for advanced learners of Lithuanian, the <italic>Lexical Database of Lithuanian Language Usage</italic>, which is the first attempt in Lithuanian lexicography to prepare a description of vocabulary based on the word usage analysis in the particular corpus. The written subpart of the Lithuanian Pedagogic Corpus (approx. 620,000 tokens) was used to develop headword lists and collect word usage information in the form of corpus patterns. In the database, there are 3,700 lexical items, words and multi-word units (compounds, idioms or sayings). For the appr. 700 most frequent words from a shared vocabulary (they appear in texts assigned to A1, A2, B1 and B2 levels, and their frequency in the whole corpus is 100 occurrences and above), we prepared a full-record entry: it includes sense-related corpus patterns with grammatical, semantic and lexical information and the examples illustrating all pattern components. The short-record entry (no patterns, only examples) is prepared for the less frequent words from the shared vocabulary, which are derivationally related to the most frequent headwords. The users are provided with 2,542 derivatives, which are linked to 940 headwords. In the database, 28,550 encoding examples are manually selected for all 3,000 headwords and 700 phrases. We discuss the features of the database, and, particularly, the adopted semi-automated procedure of Corpus Pattern Analysis, which was used for the description of word usage. We evaluate the approach applied, and discuss its advantages for users as well as provide the suggestions for the future improvements of the resource, which can be used as an additional resource in the classroom of Lithuanian as a foreign language, and, together with the available corpora, fill in a gap of usage information in the existing (learner) dictionaries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-00072022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Ecolinguistic Mode in the Language Policy of Ukrainehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The national language is not only an important component of the internal policy of the state but also an integral factor in interstate relations. It is one of the elements and indicators of geopolitical transformations. In the sociocultural space of Ukraine, the issue of implementing an effective language policy is relevant in the context of the development of statehood and the implementation of the European integration strategy. The language situation in modern Ukraine is defined by sociolinguists as bilingual because two languages “compete” in communicative, social (demographic), and other aspects on the territory of Ukraine – Ukrainian and Russian. In the implementation of modern state language policy, it is necessary to take into account the specifics of the functioning of the national language in a global multicultural continuum. The latter is being asserted as a result of the rapid development of information technologies, as well as the emergence of common challenges for the world community, in particular those related to the COVID-19 pandemic, when the remote intercultural method of communication became dominant for the first time in the history of humanity. The purpose of this study is to analyze the social ecolinguistic mode of the language policy of Ukraine, largely determining the trends in the dynamics of the language situation, because it makes it possible to record, predict and control changes in the structure and status of the language. The problem of the ecology of the Ukrainian language actualizes the creation in Ukraine of a nationwide structure – the Council under the President of Ukraine on the Ukrainian language as a reliable platform both for scientifically sound resolution of issues of language dynamics (Hrytsenko, 2021) and for putting into practice the results of these developments, reducing the distance between the formation new ideas and their implementation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-00012022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Linguistic Hegemony and English in Higher Educationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Linguistics hegemony, linguistics imperialism, and linguistic colonialism are serious issues that have not gained enough attention in applied linguistics research. English as a medium of instruction (EMI) in non-anglophone countries is a type of linguistics imperialism (Phillipson, 2018). EMI policy has led to adverse outcomes in several aspects such as low achievement of learning outcomes, challenges to students’ identity, limited access to educational resources, unjust treatments, and unfair assessment in undergraduate programs. This research study investigates the views of students and academic experts using questionnaires and interviews. The data were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. The findings of this study demonstrate the lack of educational justice and the strong connection between linguistic hegemony and the colonization of consciousness. The findings show that participants in EMI programs do not engage in authentic, rigorous, and fun learning. Decisions to use EMI are either based on fallacies regarding the nature of language, on fuzzy assessment of educational priorities, or both. We strongly encourage applied linguists, language policymakers, and university administrators to play significant roles in challenging English hegemony and English supremacy to promote educational justice, equal opportunities to learn, and fair treatment in EMI undergraduate programs around the globe, especially in non-anglophone countries.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-00022022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Pre-Service Teachers’ Perceptions of Plurilingual Pedagogieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>In light of the growing diversity in European and Slovenian schools, equity-centered plurilingual pedagogies have gained prominence across the political, educational, and scientific spectrum. This gives particular weight to this study, which aims to contribute to the understanding of the complexity of factors that promote the mainstreaming of plurilingual pedagogies. The concept of Linguistically Sensitive Teaching (LST) was used as a lens to study pre-service teachers’ perceptions of plurilingual pedagogies in their educational context. More specifically, the study aims to examine pre-service teachers’ perceptions of the relevance of plurilingual pedagogies for their future profession and their understanding of the teachers’ competence in regard to the implementation of plurilingual pedagogies in Slovenian schools. Data from 27 pre-service primary education teachers from the University of Ljubljana of the Faculty of Education were examined. Reflection prompts were used to stimulate and guide the critical engagement of participants within the context of LST: a video, a document, and a SWOT analysis template. The findings illustrate pre-service teachers’ awareness of the relevance and the benefits of plurilingual pedagogies for their profession and their understanding of the complexity of factors, specifically in relation to teachers’ knowledge, attitudes, and skills that promote the mainstreaming of plurilingual pedagogies. The study highlights how the reflections of pre-service primary education teachers can support the development of future pre-service teacher training within initial teacher education. As such, it has positive implications for developing teacher education to better respond to the needs of linguistically and culturally diverse classes in today’s schools.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-00042022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Experiencing Everyday Otherness: A Study of Southeast Asian Marriage-Migrants in South Koreahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>This study explores the everyday Otherness experienced by Southeast Asian marriage-migrant women in South Korea. South Korea is increasingly ethnically diverse due to the dramatic rise in international marriages between foreign women and Korean men, most of which are facilitated by marriage brokers. Yet little research has been conducted on marriage-migrants’ experiences of communicating with local Koreans. Drawing on data collected through in-depth interviews with five participants from Cambodia and Vietnam, this study focuses on specific factors that cause conflicts between these women and local Koreans in various social contexts, including the household, workplaces, and wider communities, and how the women respond to such conflicts and manage challenging interactions. The participants’ narratives demonstrate the tensions and conflicts they encounter, which can be divided into three categories: the imposition of Korean ways of living, negative stereotyping, and language use. The women describe being perceived as deviating from Korean society’s cultural and linguistic norms and facing pressure to conform to these norms, which sometimes conflict with their own sense of identity. In addition, they experience marginalization through Othering and negative stereotyping in their interactions with Koreans and struggle to develop a sense of belonging to the host society. The results of this study provide implications for second language programs designed for marriage-migrants, which have the potential to enable marriage-migrants to achieve sustainable development in their second language learning and to support their development of multilingual and multicultural identities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtruehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/sm-2022-00032022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1