rss_2.0Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai Oeconomica FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Studia Universitatis Babes-Bolyai Oeconomica Universitatis Babes-Bolyai Oeconomica 's Cover Settlement and Risk Attitudes: Evidence from the Motor Insurance Policyholders<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Claims, being the heartbeat of the workability of insurance, are the most critical contact influencer between the insuring public and the insurer. It serves as a critical path to truth that shapes the policyholders’ ultimate perceptions of their insurers. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the relationships between claims settlement and risk attitudes, with specific reference to motor insurance policyholders in Lagos, Nigeria. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey research design. A survey based questionnaire was applied to 287 motor insurance policyholders. The findings-show that claims settlements are significant in attracting reasonable risk attitudes. The study recommends that motor insurance providers should put in place fascinating claims packages in order to boost the confidence level of the motoring communities. Government should rejuvenate and empower the motor insurance public complaint commission to address issues relating to motor insurance claims of either party in the motor insurance contract. Future research work could direct attention to insurance fraud issues emanating from the insurance claims settlement manual.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Overview on Social Media User Behavior during the COVID-19 Pandemic: From Fear of Missing Out and Social Networking Fatigue to Privacy Concerns<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Social networking sites and social media serve as vital avenues of interaction among people all over the world as well as essential platforms for the distribution of information. Companies, like individuals, embrace social networks as a non-formal way to engage with their customers and suppliers, gather information about their online behavior, and offer personalized content. Both scholars and managers from various organizations looking to increase their competitive edge or market shares have an interest in the impact that social networks have on human behavior. Because of this, the current research seeks to investigate how users perceive a wide range of concepts related to using social networking sites, including fear of missing out (FoMO), social networking fatigue, information and communication overload, ubiquitous connectivity and peer communication, and privacy concerns. The authors also examined users’ intentions to continue using social networking sites despite the COVID-19 outbreak in order to ensure a more thorough understanding of the research topic. The findings aim to provide a better knowledge of how users see interaction on social networks in their daily lives as well as an overview of user perspectives on the terms mentioned above.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00The Impact of Access to Credit on Welfare Inequality in Malawi<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study evaluates the implications that access to credit has on welfare inequality in Malawi in order to address the gap left in previous studies concerning credit. The study employed data from Malawi’s Integrated Household Survey 2017 and used the propensity score analysis to examine what impact access to credit may have on the welfare of Malawian households using consumption per capita as a proxy for household welfare. The study further proceeded to use the generalized Lorenz curve, the Theil indexes as well as the Gini to examine the inequalities present in welfare among the households that access credit and those that do not. The results showed a positive impact of access to credit on welfare as households with access to credit experience lower levels of inequality than those without. However, a closer examination of the Theil’s indexes found that factors unrelated to access to credit had a stronger effect on inter-household inequalities than access to credit. The results imply that the impact that access to credit has on welfare inequality is a positive one, but its effect is substantially small. Thus, implying that policies aimed at enhancing distribution of credit should continue. Simultaneously, a more holistic approach on reducing inequality should be included at both household level and national level to achieve a desired result.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of Government Agricultural Expenditure on Economic Growth: Evidence from a Developing Country<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fiscal policy has been used by various governments to promote economic growth. The effectiveness of government expenditure on economic growth depends on recipient sector of government expenditure. This study contributes to this research area by investigating the effect of government agricultural expenditure on economic growth in the Kingdom of Lesotho. The government of Lesotho identified the agricultural sector as a productive sector that is central to the achievement the economic growth goal and development plan. Descriptive statistics and inferential econometric techniques (ARDL, DOLS and VEC Granger causality) over time-series data for the period 1982-2019 were utilized in this study. The results suggest that while current level and pattern of government agriculture expenditure cannot stimulate the desired economic growth and prosperity in the country, domestic investment appear to be a stimulant of the desired economic prosperity. Consequently, any economic growth policy or strategy that is premised on government agricultural sector expenditure would fail. Thus study recommends that countries including Lesotho should prioritize sustained increase in domestic investment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00An Empirical Analysis of the Relationship Between Capital, Market Risks, and Liquidity Shocks in the Banking Industry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study explores the relation between capital, market risks and banks’ liquidity conditions. In estimating the SVAR regression model, Granger causality, impulse-response functions and forecast error variance decomposition were employed and used for estimation of the results. The data sample comprised of commercial banks over the 2009 to 2018 period. The empirical results showed that liquidity shocks are caused by a combination of structural shocks. The Granger causality, impulse-response functions and forecast error variance decomposition documented that sensitivity to market risk is the key factor affecting liquidity conditions in the banking sector in the long run. In addition, the empirical results showed that capital adequacy has minimal impact on liquidity conditions in the short run. The reforming rate to sensitivity to market risk policies, capital adequacy policies and liquidity policy measures can be valuable policy tools to minimize liquidity shortages and avoid insolvent banks.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Capitalization of Human Skills and Competencies – An Exploratory Model<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper aims to synthesize the lessons learned from the analysis of the ISO 9001 quality management system standard. The objective is twofold: first, to understand the role of human capital in the conduct and success of an innovation project within a company, and secondly, to explain the simultaneous effect of this dynamic on the emergence of innovative behaviors. An exploratory study is established with the personnel of the first ISO certified company in Algeria and the proposed hypotheses are tested by the partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-sem) method. Analysis of the results show that by acting on certain mechanisms, these standards can be assimilated to a catalog of data that can be utilized to encourage and promote the construction and development of skills and competencies. The findings allow us to better understand the nature of the relationship that may exist between skills management and the quality approach.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Does Female Education Generate Economic Growth? An Empirical Analysis of Western Balkan Countries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper investigates the relationship between female education and economic growth in Western Balkan countries during the period 2000-2019. The motive behind choosing Western Balkan countries was because there is insufficient research that has been made in this field of study; hence, this research assists to expand the issue of this topic. By using GDP as dependent variable, the paper addresses the question whether female education generates or not economic growth. The techniques applied for this study are OLS, fixed and random effects, and Hausman-Taylor model IVs. The findings show a positive relationship between GDP per capita, female labor participation, school enrollment primary, and literacy rate. On the other hand, there exists a negative relationship with fertility rate, while the school enrollment tertiary is statistically insignificant. This paper brings evidence that female education generates more economic growth in Western Balkan countries. Therefore, the Government of the Western Balkans should take into consideration to invest more on education of the woman in those countries. These in turn will lead to higher economic growth.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00The Relative Success of IFRS Adopted African Countries to Attract Foreign Investment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Within the context that the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) can be linked to institutional isomorphism, the purpose of the study was to determine how successful IFRS-adopted African countries are to convert governance and economic factors into foreign direct investment (FDI) and foreign portfolio investment (FPI). Data envelopment analysis (DEA) was used to develop two models to calculate the technical efficiency (TE) for 16 African countries that adopted IFRS (2014-2019). The first model considered how multiple economic factors as input variables are converted into FDI and FPI, while similarly, the second model considered governance factors as input variables.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Human Capital Development and Sustainable Development: Evidence from Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The contributions of human capital development in achieving the sustainable development cannot be overemphasized in any economy, this is because investment in education and health has been argued as the strategic impetus for improving the quality of human resources. Against this backdrop, this study investigates the impact of human capital development on the sustainable development goal one (1) – poverty reduction. The study utilizes the Nigerian data combining Johansen Cointegration test, Granger causality test and Fully Modified Least Squares to establish how public investments in both education and health affect poverty reduction in the country between 1981 and 2019. Originating from the findings of this study, both government expenditure on health and capital formation Granger caused poverty reduction in Nigeria. This is a vital signal that human capital development in the form of investment in health of human resources is an important condition for the achievement of the sustainable development goal one (1) – poverty eradication in Nigeria. Similarly, all the selected components of human capital development have positive contributions to poverty reduction in Nigeria. However, the contributions of health expenditures and capital formation are statistically significant. This implies that health expenditures and capital formation have a trickle-down effect on poverty reduction in Nigeria. Therefore, this study recommends the following: any time the Nigerian policymakers want to achieve the sustainable development goal one (1) – poverty reduction, the Nigerian budgetary allocations to education and health sectors should be in tandem with the global benchmark; this would ensure material and human resources that could drive the country towards the sustainable development. The enhancement of educational and health facilities by the policymakers would also bring about improvement in the living standard of the Nigerians.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Involuntary Unemployment Under Ongoing Nominal Wage Rate Decline in Overlapping Generations Model<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We analyze involuntary unemployment based on consumers’ utility maximization and firms’ profit maximization behavior with ongoing nominal wage rate decline. We consider a three-periods overlapping generations (OLG) model with a childhood period as well as younger and older periods under monopolistic competition with increasing, decreasing or constant returns to scale technology. When there exists involuntary unemploymnet, the nominal wage rate may decline. We examine the existenbce of involuntary unemployment in that model with ongoing mominal wage rate decline (or deflation). Even if the nominal wage rate declines, we have a steady state with involuntary unemployment and constant output and employment. We need budget deficit or budget surplus to maintain the steady state depending on whether real balance effect is positive or negative. Also we examine the possibility to achieve full-employment by fiscal policy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-14T00:00:00.000+00:00National Industry 4.0 Platforms in the Visegrad 4 Countries – A Comparison with the Frontrunner Digital Economies in Europe<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Based on the international digitization indexes, the development level of digitalization in the Visegrad Four (V4) countries is similar in many respects. The status of the recent digital developments is comparable in results and in deficits also. These economies have similar inescapable paths in the past and further development opportunities in the future. The economic success of these four countries greatly depends on the transformation of their economic structures, mainly by utilizing digitalization. This study compares the approaches, activities and initiatives of the national Industry 4.0 platforms of the V4 countries that promote and support the digital transformation on the national strategic level. The study also highlights the results that have already been achieved by the members of the European Quartet. These four countries have reached good results in digital infrastructure investments. Meanwhile, they are left behind in skillsets, education and adoption of companies, regarding their digital transformation. Beside the direct comparison of the four Industry 4.0 platforms, the study extends the research to three of the Frontrunner countries of the EU in digitalization, namely to Austria, Germany, Sweden, to understand the best practices they use and actions they take regarding the digitalization. The paper formulates guidelines for defining competitive policies and techniques for accelerating the digitalization of the V4 economies. The study lists the pain points of the V4 digitalization and makes suggestions on recoveries, mainly on the field of the potential involvement of companies and the financing of the national I40 platforms.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The Fourth Industrial Revolution: Exploring the Determinants of Internet Access in Emerging Economies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>With the rapid developments and changes in technology in the Fourth Industrial Revolution being witnessed everywhere, this study aimed to investigate the factors that influence access to the internet by households in emerging economies with a direct focus on South Africa one of the countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. Access to broadband facilities by individuals, households and consumers is one of the critical components of the economic growth and prosperity of a country. It is generally believed that the access to broadband technologies by a community or nation helps to increase productivity which assists a lot in fueling economic growth which will have an impact on the levels of poverty. Using the logistic regression, the study found out that race, access to telephone landline, access to a cellular cellphone, access to electricity, owning a house, gender, age of the household head, net household income per month, and household expenditure were the significant variables in influencing the demand for internet access by households in emerging economies. The factors that were more important in the influence on access to the internet were the availability of electricity and access to a cellphone. Therefore, the study concludes that to improve the quality of life of the people, it is imperative that the governments across the world, do invest more in improving access to quality internet, but one of the prerequisites is that households should have a stable electricity supply and they have access to cellphones.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Quality of Information Disclosed in Integrated Reports, in the Extracting Sector: Insights from Europe<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study explores to what extent are extracting organizations from the European region, disclosing relevant information about social and environmental practices. To pursue the current exploratory study, a qualitative approach composed of two steps is performed. The first is a content analysis of 15 oil &amp; gas and mining organizations integrated reports proposing a compliance exercise toward the International Integrated Reporting Framework. Then in the second one, the integrated reports of our sample are analyzed using MAXQDA, with the extent to which social and environmental references are positive, neutral, or negative. Thus, the present paper represents the first attempt in qualitative studies in Integrated Reporting with a specific focus on extracting sector. Our results demonstrate that the analyzed sample discloses more information related to the environment than social disclosure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The Nexus Between Hedge Fund Size and Risk-Adjusted Performance<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper explores the relationship between hedge fund size and risk-adjusted performance employing a data sample of 245 US hedge funds classified into eight different investment strategies. The studied period spans from January 2005 to February 2021, with calculations performed both on the whole coverage period as well as three sub-periods, to isolate the pre-crisis, crisis, and post-crisis funds’ behavior. Similar to previous evidence found in the literature, the results reveal an inverse relationship between hedge fund size and risk-adjusted performance (as measured by the Sharpe, Treynor and Black-Treynor ratios) in most of the cases.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Green Brand Positioning for Organic Food: A Content Analysis of Corporate Websites<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this paper is to provide a perspective on the positioning bases of the green brands present on the organic food market. The research method is the content analysis of secondary data sources. The study was based on the analysis of the informational content available on the corporate websites of green brands in the portfolio of processing companies present on the Romanian market. This study identified 18 positioning bases for the investigated green brands. The positioning bases belong mainly to the category of attributes, these being in particular specific characteristics of organic food. The study notes the existence of specific positioning bases for organic food brands. The results can help practitioners to communicate brand positioning in the online environment by developing appropriate strategies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The Main Determinants of Development –PLS Path Analysis Applied to the Factors of Endogenous Development<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Many empirical analyses have been based on the theory of endogenous development, referring to the utilisation of given resources and providing the framework of quantitative analysis. The concept can be especially important in the case of less favoured and/or rural areas. However, the empirical analyses of this widely used theory often neglect the countryside or lay minimal focus on them. The research project presented here investigates the key factors of endogenous development and their presence in the rural districts of Hungary. The main aim of the paper is the examination and explanation of the effects of each capital on development. The study provides a review of the academic literature of development theories, as well as the understanding and development of the concept over the last few decades. The paper briefly addresses the delimitation of the Hungarian countryside, and it also proposes a regression model for the explanation of development, including latent variables symbolising the forms of capital. The model is examined by applying partial least squares (PLS) path analysis, which shows the connections between each form of capital through a dynamic approach. The analysis conducted for the years of 2009, 2013 and 2017 indicates that the relationship between the capitals is defined by temporal differences. Similar interactions can be seen between the capitals in 2009 and 2013, but 2017 shows a completely different system of relations. Hence, the findings show that, in a rural context, the relations between the forms of capital vary considerably over time.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00The Relationship Between Job Satisfaction and the Congruence of Desired and Perceived Job Attributes: An Exploratory Study of IT Professionals<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether employee job satisfaction is associated with the congruence between desired and perceived job attributes. The desired and perceived levels of 30 job attributes were measured on employees from a large Information Technology (IT) company based in Romania. Results indicate that employees who experience congruence between desired and perceived job attributes have higher levels of overall job satisfaction, confirming the assumptions of the value congruence theory. In addition, the results of this study show that employee job satisfaction is associated with both intrinsic and extrinsic factors i.e., job attributes. This indicates that extrinsic factors can also be a source of job satisfaction, the same as intrinsic factors, which is contrary to what Herzberg's motivation-hygiene theory assumes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Measuring Experience in International Business: A Systematic Literature Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper explores the indicators that measure the experience in international business. Literature review was used to ascertain the state of the art of the existing indexes and theories. The internationalisation of businesses is a fundamental strategic step to increase companies' competitive advantage and profits. Nevertheless, even though internationalisation is widely accepted as an important source of value for companies and is a broad object of investigation, there is still much to study about how to measure experience at the level of international business. The absence of a coherent approach to measure experience in international businesses in past empirical studies made it difficult to create a solution with theoretical concepts that would support further studies in this matter. The results are not contradictory, but complementary, as, through individual internationalization indicators, it is possible to evolve and create indices, such as the Transnationality Index or the Transnational Activities Spread Index. The biggest constraint on the analysed indices is the fact that they focus mainly on the internationalisation of transnational companies and the type of data that was used to build the indexes (secondary data). However, by studying international experience through the number of years and the network spread, it is possible to overcome some of the existing challenges.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Co-Workers Support and Job Performance<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the context of a global pandemic affecting businesses worldwide, management focus is oriented to what would enhance the employees’ work performance even in crisis situations. This paper aims to identify, explore and explain the relationships between social support, task performance and organizational citizenship behaviour as well as different demographic data which might influence these variables. The final goal is to propose relevant solutions and recommendations for managers and practitioners in human resources which could be easily applied and have a major impact on individual performance as well as on the overall performance of the organization. The quantitative research is based on a sociological survey consisting of two standardized questionnaires based on tested Likert scales measuring co-workers perceived support, employees’ task performance and organizational citizenship behaviour. The sample consists of 300 pairs of employees and their direct supervisors working in services companies based in Romania. The survey’s results are analysed by performing correlation and regression analyses in JASP free software. The results show positive relationships between the variables yet it proves that co-workers’ support is not relevant for task performance. Valuable information regarding OCB and task performance can be added to the previous job performance research. Statistically significant relationships with demographic data could not be obtained. Further studies might consider a larger sample consisting of Europeans in more than one country as well as comparative analyses between countries and companies’ fields of activity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Female Stereotypes in Romanian Advertising: An Interpretative Content Analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Advertising, by its accessibility, is incredibly powerful in spreading stereotypical representations. The way women are portrayed in advertising in different countries and cultures has been a subject of research for more decades. The paper aims to examine the way women are portrayed in advertising campaigns in Romania. The study focuses on finding the stereotypes used and their characteristics by qualitatively analyzing ads from brands’ YouTube channels. We identified seven stereotypes and the analysis shows that women portrayals are idealized in Romanian advertising. Although there are some modern approaches to the representations, ads do not reflect contemporary female roles. The most frequent stereotype is the Next-Door Woman, a stereotype that emphasis on the cuteness of the woman, not on her intelligence. Romanian brands’ advertising lacks campaigns promoting women empowerment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1