rss_2.0Treatises and Documents, Journal of Ethnic Studies / Razprave in Gradivo, Revija za narodnostna vprašanja FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Treatises and Documents, Journal of Ethnic Studies / Razprave in Gradivo, Revija za narodnostna vprašanja and Documents, Journal of Ethnic Studies / Razprave in Gradivo, Revija za narodnostna vprašanja Feed“At first it was not very pleasant … Now it is different”: Experiences and Challenges of Refugee Integration in Croatia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In observing the integration process at a local and neighbourhood level, this paper aims to analyse the integration experiences of asylum beneficiaries (refugees) in Croatia and their relationships with various stakeholders. The analyses are based on data obtained in 2018 by interviewing 25 refugees about their perceptions of living prospects in Croatia. The results indicated that most of the interviewees described their relationships and experiences with state institution officials as mostly negative or challenging, and in some cases discriminatory. Acceptance in local communities was predominantly assessed as positive, although it took a while for refugees to feel accepted.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Socioeconomic Position of National Minorities with a Special Emphasis on Slovenes in Croatia over the Past Thirty Years<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents the situation of members of the Slovene community in Croatia, focusing on selected aspects of their socioeconomic participation (inclusion) in Croatian society. This topic has not been thoroughly studied yet, firstly due to the low interest of researchers in the position and activities of members of the Slovene community in Croatia, and secondly due to a continuous lack of data on the socioeconomic participation of members of not only the Slovene community but of all minorities in Croatia in general. Based on the analysis of data mainly collected from Croatian official reports, the situation of members of the Slovene minority in Croatia is presented mainly in relation to the exercise of their rights to education and employment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Demographic Pathways of the Post-Socialist Transition: Mortality Trends in Croatia and Slovenia during COVID-19<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper discusses the COVID-19 mortality in Slovenia and Croatia in 2020 and 2021. The aim of the paper is to determine similarities and differences in mortality trends during COVID-19 period and to discuss the underlying causes and consequences. It is hypothesised that the unfavourable age structure of both countries was a catalyst of the excess mortality differentials, and that the different paths of post-socialist transitions significantly contributed to differential mortality in 2020. The analyses confirmed a biased effect of the excess mortality indicator, which is applicable only if supported with sufficient attributive data. Moreover, findings confirmed the hypothesis that COVID-19 mortality largely contributed to overall mortality in Slovenia in 2020, particularly due to the increased mortality in long-term care facilities (LTCF) which was about 70% higher compared to that of Croatia.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Education: Students from Slovenia in Austrian Minority Schools<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article deals with increasing cross-border education, namely students from Slovenia attending upper-secondary level minority schools in Austrian Carinthia. We conducted interviews with school management and focus groups with students, who also completed a short questionnaire. Based on qualitative and quantitative data, we drew conclusions about the motives of students from Slovenia for enrolment in Slovene minority schools in Austria and about the consequences of their decision – their well-being, their knowledge and use of languages, their plans for the future – as well as in relation to their sense of Europeanness and their varying identities. Cross-border schooling turns out to be a success story. The outcome seems to be particularly favourable for the Slovene minority in Austrian Carinthia as it maintains the scope and quality of minority education, while also having the positive consequence of giving the members of the Slovene minority much greater exposure to the Slovene language, especially spoken language, with which they otherwise have less direct contact.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Development in Italian L1 and L2 in Italian Nursery Schools in Slovenia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Schools with Italian as the medium of instruction in Slovenia are open to all children and young people, regardless of their ethnic affiliation. The article addresses the impact of linguistically diverse classes on the linguistic development of children attending Italian nursery schools. The children’s parents provided basic background information on the child’s language use outside nursery school. The level of the children’s communicative competence in Italian, in terms of listening comprehension and oral production, was measured by means of a standardised test. Although results may not always be statistically relevant due to the small number of participants, they show that the prevailing presence of children that only speak Slovene at home does not hinder the linguistic development of children that only speak Italian at home, and that the Slovene-only cohort clearly benefits from attending Italian nursery school.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue’ Attitudes towards Roma Pupils from the Perspective of Roma Pupils and Their Mothers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this article, we will discuss the case of fair and inclusive schools that are considerate of the specific and unique needs of their pupils and offer quality education for all. We will highlight the most important indicators of inclusive education and focus on research that confirms the importance of the teachers’ willingness to establish good interpersonal relationships with their pupils. In the empirical section, we will introduce the results of our qualitative study. Based on interviews conducted with 20 mothers and 20 primary school pupils in two Slovene Roma settlements, we explored how pupils and their mothers perceive teachers’ attitudes towards Roma children. Our findings were very promising, for they showed that the interviewed pupils and their mothers had a positive experience with the teachers and their pedagogical work with Roma children. However, we should not ignore the few cases that pointed to ethnic discrimination towards Roma pupils.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue do Croats Migrate to Austria? Motives for and Experiences of Migration since 2013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study aimed to determine the push and pull factors and the impact of the pandemic and the opening of the Austrian labour market for Croatian citizens in 2020 on the migration of Croatian citizens to Austria after Croatia entered the EU. The study was conducted using qualitative methodology, i.e., semi-structured interviews as the main research method. The results showed that, in addition to the influence of economic and personal factors on emigration from Croatia, social migrant networks stood out as a strong pull factor for respondents to migrate to Austria. Nevertheless, some respondents, regardless of family and friends in other countries, migrate to Austria for its better living and working conditions. The pandemic and the opening of the Austrian labour market in 2020 were at one time an obstacle to emigration for some respondents, and their experiences indicate that in the next few years the number of Croats who immigrate to Austria could increase, both due to delayed emigration from Croatia and the migration of Croats from Germany.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Diasporisation: Slovene National Identity in the Contemporary Globalised World<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>After a brief presentation of the history of the concept of diaspora and its derivatives, and a critical review of the relevant literature, the article explores the phenomenon of diasporic Sloveneness, with a particular focus on the contemporary Slovenian diaspora. The concept encompasses, but is not limited to, Slovenes and members of Slovene national communities (with an emphasis on Carinthian and Trieste Slovenes) who have dispersed around the world since Slovenia’s independence in 1991. The author concludes that the contemporary Slovene diaspora consists mainly of young, highly educated people who are actively striving to establish themselves in the global world. Even though they have emigrated from their country of origin, they remain - especially through modern communication technologies - connected to it. The article provides an insight into the complex and multifaceted process of diasporic grouping and long-distance nationalism, which also includes processes of transculturation and sheds light on Slovene national identity in the contemporary globalised world.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Public and State Administration: Bilingualism Bonus or Multilingualism without Bonus<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The role of education systems is crucial in creating bilingualism and multilingualism. Based on domestic and foreign literature and structured interviews with public officials in North Macedonia and Italy, the article analyses the solutions and incentives for institutional bilingualism, which have proven insufficient thus far. It also offers a model of multilingualism as a concept of an ideal environment where speakers can communicate using multiple languages. The impact of new information and communication technologies on language learning and use in bilingual areas and their contribution to the creation of an ideal environment conducive to multilingualism will also be examined. The data obtained shows, among other things, that artificial intelligence is also revolutionising language use and learning. Nonetheless, despite rapid progress, human communication in different languages cannot be replaced by artificial algorithms.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Multilevel Crisis Management from the Perspective of Human Rights, Minorities, and Non-Discrimination<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has dominated media and scholarly literature since 2020. The impact(s) of crisis management on democracy, legitimacy, human rights, minorities, marginalized groups, and persons belonging to them are mentioned but seldom the main focus. From the perspective of human rights, protection of minorities, and the principle of non-discrimination in multilevel systems in Europe, the paper discusses certain conceptual, terminological, and methodological problems in studying such complex dynamic phenomena and argues that qualitative approaches might be the most suitable for studying the perceptions of persons belonging to diverse minorities on democracy and the legitimacy of crisis management and governance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Aspects of Public Activity of the Slovene Community in Italy at the Time of Slovenia’s Independence<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Slovene community in Italy paid the utmost attention to the events in Slovenia at the time of the declaration of independence in June 1991 and the subsequent attack of the Yugoslav People’s Army. Drawing from newspaper reports, the article focuses on some major public events, charities and youth activities that were the result of cooperative activities of the Slovene community in Italy during the events in Slovenia. Thereby, the Slovene minority tried to influence the decisions of the Italian and European political leaders to intervene in the event of military aggression and support Slovenia’s independence, while also involving the public and successfully encouraging it to participate en masse in public events and charity campaigns to help Slovenia.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Criterium of Autochthony in the Regulation on the Status of Roma in Slovenia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article discusses the legal protection of the rights of the Roma community and its members enshrined in the existing international instruments and mechanisms, particularly those concerning the protection of minorities and human rights, and in the Slovenene legislation. It critically analyses the applicable legal sources, state practice and jurisprudence in order to prove the hypothesis that autochthony, as a criterion for recognising the special rights of the members of the Roma community in Slovenia, is not imbedded in the relevant international or Slovene law and is even incompatible with international legal obligations in the field of human rights. It criticizes the suggested amendments of the Roma Community Act, which are likely to result in a regression of the status of Roma community members in Slovenia and increased non-compliance with Slovenia’s international legal obligations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Aspects in the Choice of the Language Code among Slovene Writers in Italy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article explores the choice of language code among Slovene writers in Italy. During the last decade, there has been a shift in the choice of language, just like among Slovenes in Austrian Carinthia, as some writers choose to write either in their second language or language of the environment or opt for bilingual or translingual writing. In the article, the author connects this phenomenon with psycholinguistic theories on the emotional aspects of language code choice, proving that there are different levels of emotional experience of language, which of course is influenced by very different (both internal and external) factors. Since there are many responses to the literary multilingual phenomenon and because the authors themselves justify their choice in various forms, the article attempts to frame and explain it based on the findings of the psychology of multilingual speakers on the example of Slovene writers in Italy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Gottschee Germans in Diaspora a Part of Slovene Emigration?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Slovene nationalism has developed along the lines of the so-called Eastern nationalisms, which are characterised by their understanding of culture and ethnicity as the fundamental unifying element of a nation. Accordingly, the prevailing view is that the Slovene nation and Slovene emigration are based on Slovene ethnic origin and the Slovene language, wherefore the members of other ethnic groups (Germans, Hungarians, Jews, etc.) are excluded from the concept of Slovene nationhood or Slovene emigration, despite their longstanding presence in the territory of the Republic of Slovenia. Indeed, the question arises; if they do not belong to Slovene emigration, to whose emigration do they belong? Based on the civic (voluntaristic, territorial) understanding of the nation and field research conducted among the Gottscheer diaspora in the USA, Canada, Austria and Germany, I analyse the problem described in the case of Gottschee Germans.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Education as an Instrument of Ethnic Minority Protection: The Case of Italian L2 in the Slovene Littoral<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The educational system is an essential form of institutional support to ethnolinguistic vitality. In the bilingual areas of the Slovene Littoral, Italian as minority language is offered in schools with Slovene as language of instruction as a compulsory subject with the aim of educating learners for interethnic and intercultural communication. The article discusses the relationships between social and individual factors in the development of communicative competence in the minority language. Data were collected by means of a Likert scale questionnaire. The results reveal the language behaviour of Slovene speakers as age related and strongly associated to the subjective relevance of Italian in their private life. Differences in contact with Italian were also observed, however they appear to be more related to levels of language proficiency than age.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Nation: How Slovene is Slovene Literature?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Contemporary discussions often focus on questions such as What is Slovene literature and Who can be considered a Slovene writer. This shows that literature is one of the central fields of discourse related to topics including the understanding and definition of the Slovene nation and questions concerning national minorities. The authors discuss the functionality, practical value and arbitrariness of concepts such as the common Slovene cultural space, “matična” (kin-state literature) and “zamejska literatura” (literature of Slovenes living in neighbouring countries), minority literature, the supra-regional sphere of interaction, and literary affiliation. On the example of Carinthian Slovenes’ literature and with due consideration of contemporary literary multilingualism in Slovenia, the authors show that the common ethnic, identity and lingo-cultural discourses are highly problematical and do not reflect the diversity of contemporary literary practices.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Dialect among the Members of the Italian National Minority in Slovene Istria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>During the dialectological research carried out in recent years in some Istrian-Venetian localities (towns), we have learned from conversations with dialect speakers that the Istrian-Venetian dialect is most probably the language of communication of most members of the Italian national community in the coastal part of Slovene Istria. In order to get a more accurate and detailed insight into the use of the Istrian-Venetian dialect spoken by Italians in formal and informal speech situations, we conducted a quantitative survey with 232 randomly selected respondents and a qualitative survey with 50 interviews. The respondents answered various multiple-choice questions about the languages they use in their daily lives. Research has shown that the Istrian-Venetian dialect is the predominant idiom among members of the Italian national community in Slovene Istria, except when communicating with non-Italian interlocutors and in official institutions where, despite the right to use their language, i.e., Italian, the predominant language is Slovene.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Autochthonous National Communities in the Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article explores the drafting and adoption of the Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia in terms of protection of the rights of autochthonous national communities at the time of Slovenia's independence, with an emphasis on the Hungarian national community. Once the Constitution was adopted, the umbrella organisation of the Hungarian community noted that the competences of autochthonous national communities in terms of representation at the state level as well as in the fields of the economy, human resources policy, and use of their symbols expanded and financing became more stable, whereas the constitutional status of autochthonous national communities deteriorated as they were no longer listed as entities contributing to the identity of the state. Moreover, the legislature failed to adopt the planned constitutional law or a general law integrating the most relevant constitutional provisions and encouraging a more consistent implementation and monitoring thereof.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Slovene Speakers in Italy and Their Attitudes towards the Republic of Slovenia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>On the 30th anniversary of independence of the Republic of Slovenia, the article offers an insight into the basic social and cultural characteristics of the population of young speakers of Slovene in Italy. The authors attempt to define the role that young Slovene speakers in Friuli - Venezia Giulia can play in the common Slovene space and explore their attitudes towards the Republic of Slovenia on an emotional, symbolic and practical level. In doing so, they rely mainly on research conducted over the last fifteen years. They conclude that this population is not fully centred on preserving traditional cultural values and language: it is primarily a population with high human and intellectual potential, which is already an important player in cross-border and other forms of cooperation along the Slovene-Italian border and attaches greater value to multilingualism than to nationality, ethnicity and the development of the Slovene minority in Italy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Non-national Perception of Homeland by Younger Generations of Slovenian Emigrants<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article researches the subjective perception of migration, the reasons for emigration and the conditions for return, and the perception of homeland by recent emigrants from Slovenia. Since the 2008–2015 economic crisis, there has been a strong stream of net emigration and brain drain from Slovenia. By means of semi-structured interviews with recent emigrants, we found out that their prevailing reasons for migration were economic, their view of the selected location pragmatic, and their subjective perception of homeland mostly reduced to the narrow social network and world of everyday life. Only a smaller part of the interviewees identifies itself with Slovenia as an organised cultural and political space. Therefore, under the condition of the free movement of labour within the EU and a semi-peripheral position of the Slovene economy, new waves of net emigration from Slovenia can be expected in the future, especially in periods of economic crises.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue