rss_2.0Technical Transactions FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Technical Transactions Transactions 's Cover audit of refrigerated shelving<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article describes how an energy audit of equipment and the resulting design changes can have a major impact on reducing the electricity consumption of refrigeration equipment. The legal basis introduced by legislation forcing work on the improvement of refrigeration unit is provided. Eight points detail and describe the changes applied to the construction of cooling units. Additionally, a list of the refrigerants which are used is presented, along with the essential parameters of their work. The following analysis includes a description of the research performed along with the measured and calculated results for individual optimisations. The basic parameters that were used for comparison are: daily electricity consumption [kWh/24 h] and the temperature of the packages placed in the device [°C]. Finally, the percentage differences in energy consumption for each modernisation are summarised in a tabular form. The device used for the tests was the VARNA refrigerated rack, model 900, manufactured by P.P.H.U. JUKA Sp. z o.o. sp. k.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Virtual Museum. Museum of the Future?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The following article discusses examples of museums that implement virtual reality in presentations of exhibits and museum objects. Trends that shape contemporary museums are discussed. The aim of the article is to familiarise the reader with the possibilities of modern applications in museum exhibition presentations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Architecture as a set of instruments for shaping a friendly and safe living environment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the basic human needs is the need for security. As a primary objective, it has both a direct and an indirect impact on architecture. The elimination of threats and protection against them is the basis for shaping contemporary architecture.</p> <p>Since the beginning of history, man has sought refuge from animals and nature. This covers everything from the basic feats of providing warmth and shelter from rain and animals to creating an environment in which one can develop their personal needs and preferences. This article presents aspects of security in architecture. It is related to human needs. The classification of stress factors in urbanised space is also presented. In addition, the analysis of spatial systems in architecture and the ways of marking the space are described. Based on the conducted analyses, conclusions are drawn concerning the methods of ensuring human safety in the built environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-07T00:00:00.000+00:00The application of neural networks for the life-cycle analysis of road and rail rolling stock during the operational phase<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this article is to assess the possibility of using neural networks to analyse the life cycle of rolling stock in the operational phase by selecting the number of rolling stock sets and rail using the example of public transport in the Szczecin agglomeration. The research was conducted in September 2019 and June 2020. It included the number of tram and bus rolling stock sets on individual public transport lines based on data from the Central Public Transport Management System in the Szczecin agglomeration. The research, which was based on comparative analyses of individual types of rolling stock and their technical and economic data, took into account the life-cycle assessment criteria associated with the operation of vehicles in relation to the number of rolling stock sets. The use of neural networks on the example of the city of Szczecin for the purpose of life-cycle analysis, can make a significant contribution to creating a decision model for the improvement of public transport in cities with various types of public transport vehicles.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Optimisation of a mobile device frame structure – practical aspects<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents a strength analysis of a steel container frame fastened to a Jelcz 8x8 chassis with four ISO 1161 corners. As part of the work, optimisation of the structure was performed using the numerical finite element method (FEM) and experimental tests with the use of strain gauges. The results of simulations and tests are summarised in appropriate tables and in the form of the distribution of stress contour lines using the Huber-Mises hypothesis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-20T00:00:00.000+00:00The destructive influence of external factors on building partitions in historic buildings<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents the destructive influence of external factors on building partitions in selected historic buildings made from made full-bodied solid ceramic bricks. The external factors are an additional element that adversely affects the maintaining of historic buildings in a good technical condition, and they are complementary to a number of harmful factors that destructively act upon on such buildings. In order to estimate the range of damage in historic buildings, selected buildings that have been exposed to external factors for a long time in the Podlaskie and Warmińsko-Mazurskie Voivodships were analysed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Planning of areas in the vicinity of large industrial plants<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Planning space around large industrial plants affects urban development and significantly impacts the integration of industrial areas with a city’s structure. Large industrial plants act as functional and spatial barriers within the urban fabric. Their immediate areas undergo transformation and are currently becoming sites of various uses. New manufacturing technologies limit the nuisance caused by industry and the siting of plants aids in using the areas around them. The objective of this paper is t present an analysis of the transformation of the existing function-spatial structure, transport layout and compositional relations in the vicinity of selected large industrial plants in Kraków and Skawina. The study covered areas around the north-eastern territory of the Metallurgy Plant in Kraków and selected industrial plants in Skawina.</p> <p>This study was based on original analyses of the existing functio-spatial structure, compositional relationships and transport accessibility. The form of development of areas adjacent to large industrial plants was found to be a product of local determinants. Compositional relationships and functional linkages affected the quality of the space and its visual reception, which in many cases is a natural urban development reserve.</p> <p>Due to the specificity of industrial areas, concentrations of vehicular traffic and dominance within space, it may prove interesting to develop a dedicated form of development for areas near large industrial plants. This form would have to shield against possible nuisances while also offering the potential for a new, attractive and diverse functio-spatial structure. The transformation of and the problems present in these areas are distinctive of many cities in Poland and around the world and require new, cohesive planning principles.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of the possibility of employing 3D printing technology in crisis situations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Events related to climate change and the increase in the occurrence of natural disasters, as well as the increasing incidence of new diseases, have all caused the prominence of regional security and crisis management around the world to rise. Three-dimensional printing, which has seen noteworthy developed in recent years, both in terms of print parameters, and the magnitude of the production potential, may prove helpful in this matter. Enormous opportunities have arisen which, if properly directed, can save human life and preserve health in crisis situations, when traditional supply chains could be disrupted or even prevented. The use of additive technologies, however, has its limitations and in order to be able to take full advantage of the opportunities they offer, a legitimate functional system should be created and embedded within proper structures to support crisis management. This paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of using 3D printers and the possibility of their implementation as part of the current crisis-response systems. The article proposes a model for incorporating additive technologies into the crisis-management system.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Operational problems of tramway infrastructure in sharp curves<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Elements of the tramway track that require special attention in the design and maintenance of the tramway infrastructure are sharp curves (curves with small radii). In such places, there are a number of unfavourable operational problems, which are discussed in the article below. It describes the characteristics of such geometric elements and analyses the interaction of the wheel-rail system. Moreover, the most important operational problems are presented, such as the wear of wheels and tramway rails, the buckling of the rails, and noise and vibrations occurring during the passage of the tram. Methods of reducing unfavourable phenomena occurring on curves in the tramway infrastructure were also highlighted.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Calculation of brake-force distribution on three-axle agricultural trailers using simulation methods<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents a new methodology for calculating the optimal linear distribution of braking forces for a three-axle trailer with “walking beam” and “bogie” suspension of the rear axle assembly that will meet the requirements of the new European legislation, EU Directive 2015/68. On this basis, a computer program for selecting the linear distribution of braking forces between axles has been developed. The presented calculations and simulation results of the braking process can be used in the design process to select the parameters of the wheel braking mechanisms and then the characteristics of the pneumatic valves of the braking system. The adaptation of the braking system of agriculture trailers is a very important factor for improving the safety of the transportation systems.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Improved rack and pinion drive<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A typical rack and pinion drive set is comprised of a rack and a pinion. There is an inter-tooth clearance between the mating teeth of the rack and the pinion, which has advantages and disadvantages. The disadvantage of this clearance is the errors that occur in the positioning of the machine tool during set-up. Elimination of clearance between teeth is possible by using a pinion drive with two pinions. This ensures continuous contact between the teeth, regardless of the direction of machine movement.</p> <p>These are found on new machines, while older machines do not have such a solution. This paper presents a solution with two pinions, which can be used in such older machines and which makes it possible to achieve qualitative parameters that were not possible before.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-04T00:00:00.000+00:00The systems method as an educative tool for sustainable architecture design on the example of solar building design<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The following article discusses the systems method as an educative tool for teaching sustainable architecture, including environmental design. Based on this method, a systemic model was created which provided a pillar of the learning process that concluded with a solar building project. This method offered a holistic view of the issues of pro-environmental design and led to an understanding of the relationship between the urban scale and the scale of the building. This aspect was considered crucial in teaching sustainable development architecture.</p> <p>The systems method has been recently used in China as a part of an environmental design course which only lasted for forty-eight lesson hours. The method proved to be an effective educational tool that enabled the obtaining of satisfactory design effects in such a short period of time. Additionally, the method was successful in conditions of cultural and linguistic barriers and a lack of prior preparation of students in the field of architectural design. The created systems model determined a precisely defined path for the teaching process in advance, as the specified issues included only those that were needed to achieve the set project goals. This approach resulted in the optimisation of teaching time, while ensuring the completeness of the assumed results.</p> <p>Experience gained from the didactic process leads to the conclusions that the systems method can be an adequate educative tool for solving multidisciplinary problems. Based on the example of solar building design, a systems method made it possible to indicate three main external factors that influence the design: macro-scale urban elements (district scale), micro-scale urban development (housing estate) and climatic conditions. The article also presents the possibilities of transforming the system model, in order to facilitate its more universal application, with reference to such issues as the topic of classes, as well as to the required scope and level of detail of the design task.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Rzeszów as an example of a ‘new town’ tailored for the modern era<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The city life cycle is an issue that can be considered from many perspectives. Klaassen’s period cycle is the basic model of city life: urbanisation– suburbanisation–deurbanisation–reurbanisation. In each of these periods, cities develop by, building and transforming their structures. This article presents various approaches to shaping new urban spaces using the city of Rzeszów as an example. In the city’s history, three periods are distinguished during which structures referred to as the ‘new town’ were created in the 16<sup>th</sup> and 20<sup>th</sup> centuries and continue to be created now. After analysing the site-forming processes, the most important features of new-town urban systems are compared.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Humic substances and significance of their application – a review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper is based on recent articles regarding applications of humic substances (HSs). HSs are natural organic materials, which have a number of potential applications. Furthermore, HSs are cheap, widespread and obtainable from bio-waste materials. HSs can be used as organic compound sorbents or in detoxification. They are applied as organic additives due to their positive effect on soil and plants, even under stress conditions. HSs reduce water consumption and minimise environmental problems. HSs are utilised for the remediation of multi-metal contaminated soils and as substitutes for synthetic washing agents. From an environmental engineering point of view, it is beneficial to remove HSs from municipal management, where they are undesirable (by-products of disinfection) and to utilise them where they are valuable. The aim of this article is to provide a greater insight into research about the applications of HSs.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of the technical condition of mines with mechanical fuses<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Contemporary armed conflicts reveal that the use of effective mine barriers has a significant impact on the course of hostilities. Therefore, the Polish Armed Forces selected reliable and effective explosive ordnance as a priority, both newly-acquired material and those currently in operation. For this reason, among others, strict supervision over the technical condition of mines is exercised, in particular during their long-term storage. The reasons behind the increased mine unreliability may include physical and chemical changes in the construction materials used (corrosion, deformations, loss of strength properties), deterioration of the physicochemical properties of the main charge, booster and primer-detonator, inadequate technical condition of the safety components, or the failure of mine fuse mechanisms. In order to assess the mine’s operational reliability, each mine fuse subassembly is examined and then a check of the entire assembled mine is performed. This requires proper planning of the full test cycle and the use of inspected and calibrated measuring devices and test stands enabling the precise adjustment of mechanical and climatic stress parameters.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-22T00:00:00.000+00:00The efficiency of municipal sewage treatment plants inspiration for water recovery<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article presents a detailed analysis of the functioning of municipal sewage treatment plants. The presented findings are based on questionnaires from over seventy wastewater treatment facilities, covering from several hundred to several hundred thousand inhabitants. The required quality of treated sewage and the necessary efficiency level of the treatment plant were determined in the context of the content of the applicable regulations, and were then compared with the actual data obtained from sewage treatment plants. The findings provided the basis for formulating an evaluation of the efficiency of municipal sewage treatment plants and for further analyses of the possibility of the recovery of water from sewage and its reuse.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Historical, non-existing synagogue in Przeworsk<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The history of southeastern Poland is inseparably linked with the Jewish community that settled mostly in larger cities located near significant trade routes. Despite limiting privileges, in many cities Jews managed to establish their own quarters, in which synagogues were the most important structures. Only a few cases of historical Jewish religious architecture, in varying states of preservation, have survived to the present. In Przeworsk, to the north of the town hall, an impressive, masonry Jewish synagogue had stood for several centuries. The building was erected at the start of the seventeenth century and up to the Second World War constituted a significant element of the city’s spatial structure. Despite the passage of over eighty years since the demolition of the synagogue, its site has not been commemorated. This paper presents the genesis and architecture of the historical synagogue. The massing of the building, its functional and spatial layout, and its interior décor were investigated. The paper also discusses the commemoration of historical buildings, pointing to the significance of place-based identity and broadly understood cultural heritage.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Depth control for biomimetic and hybrid unmanned underwater vehicles<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Unmanned underwater vehicles which use biomimetic mechanisms are becoming increasingly useful in the realisation of tasks requiring silent and efficient propulsion. Complex fish kinematics are simplified to some extent and implemented in such vehicles. One of the essential fish behaviours is their ability to adjust their buoyancy using a swim bladder. This paper covers the issues concerning the implementation of artificial swim bladders as well as depth regulators in two underwater vehicles: biomimetic and hybrid. The control of vehicle depth through buoyancy change was examined in the computer simulation and in the experiment. Two types of artificial swim bladder were tested – a rigid cylinder with a piston and an elastic container with a water pump.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-22T00:00:00.000+00:00A short history of the form of octagonal and elliptical city squares<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article starts with the short discussion of two geometrical figures, i.e., octagon and ellipse, their genesis in architecture and urban design, and the examples of buildings whose plans were based upon them. Then, the selected octagonal and elliptical city squares are discussed: their genesis, context, layout, architecture surrounding the square, objects appearing in the square and, most specially, urban form and composition. The theory of architectural-landscape interiors has been applied to pinpoint the type of city squares by the assessing of the degree of openings in the square’s perimeter. The review consists of 22 case studies (9 octagonal and 13 elliptical) from the 15<sup>th</sup> to the 20<sup>th</sup> century. The last discussed case in each group, both atypical created in Krakow in the 20<sup>th</sup> century, are discussed even more thoroughly. The conclusions were presented first separately for octagonal and elliptical city squares and finally also for both groups in a comparative way.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-06T00:00:00.000+00:00A suitability assessment using an instrumented impact test of the use of selected structural steel grades on the basis of their changes in response to exposure to fire<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this article, changes occurring in structural steel after exposure to fire are described and discussed. The steel structure before and after fire determines its susceptibility to brittle cracking. The individual phases of cracking are described and interpreted on the basis of a load-displacement graph, directly obtained from the Charpy impact test. The relationship between the intensity of individual fracture energies and the type and appearance of the sample fractures are demonstrated. The program of planned Charpy impact tests and expected hazards after the exposure to fire of selected steel grades are presented. Standard simplified load-displacement graphs are assigned to the steel transition curve. The course of various cracking mechanisms occurring in the case of brittle fractures and plastic fractures are discussed. The aim of this article is to evaluate the possibility of the assessment of structural steel after a fire based on results obtained during the Charpy impact test.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-27T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1