rss_2.0Technical Transactions FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Technical Transactions Transactions Feed centric lighting luminaires: practical design<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Discoveries in medicine concerning the influence of light on human physiology provoked the creation of the Human Centric Lighting (HCL) approach. Research dedicated to this mainly focuses on optimally matching light parameters to human needs, e.g. increasing concentration, relaxation, etc. However, only a properly designed light source is capable of meeting HCL goals. This paper focuses on the LED luminaire design used in HCL systems. A review of LEDs dedicated to HCL systems was performed. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. The Tunable White (TW) design is shown to be the most universal solution for HCL systems because it enables regulation of the colour temperature and spectrum, depending on user needs. However, TW is also the most complex in design. The problems that might arise during TW luminaire design are discussed. Example strategies on how to solve them, focusing on colour mixing and LED arrangement are given. Practical examples of TW luminaire design are also described, each one with a commentary covering encountered issues and their solutions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue tests of steel double-type balcony connections<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents an analysis and results of experimental tests of full-scale prefabricated balcony sets with dimensions (width × length × height): 2.0 m × 2.78 m × 0.186 m (in a slope to 0.17 m). The sets consist of reinforced concrete slabs (balcony and ceiling) connected with each other with double-type balcony connections. The paper analyses the impact of variable parameters on the load bearing capacity of the elements. Additionally, an overview of current scientific and technical papers in the field of balcony connections is provided.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue asphalt mixes containing reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Repairs and reconstructions of asphalt roads and paved areas generate large amounts of construction debris in the form of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). The material milled from the upper layer contains aggregate and asphalt with deteriorating performance parameters as a result of long-term service under variable weather conditions. Since the debris is mostly composed of non-renewable materials, attempts have been made to recycle and utilise it in the preparation of new asphalt mixtures. This study investigates the design of an asphalt mix containing recycled RAP and summarises the testing of its performance parameters. By lowering the mixing temperature and using a two-stage method of RAP heating, it was possible to design an asphalt mix with 90% RAP content; thus, the demand for virgin aggregate and the fuel consumption throughout the mixing process could be effectively reduced.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Spatial Dimension of a Smart City: A New Tool for Measuring and Evaluating a Smart City’s Urban Form<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study discusses the link between the idea of the Smart City and urban form. The paper aims to fill a research gap in terms of the physical structure of a Smart City by investigating how its spatial dimension can be evaluated and measured. The methodology used is based on a comparative and interpretive analysis of logical argumentation based on analysis and synthesis. The main aim of this research was to develop a method to evaluate the spatial dimension of a smart city. In order to achieve this, a four-step process was formulated: Step 1. Extracting elements of urban form and the Smart City as a concept. Step 2. Examining the possible correlations between each component of a Smart City and urban form elements. Step 3. Creating a Smart City urban form evaluation tool. Step 4. Testing the tool on existing smart cities: the Songdo IBD in South Korea, and Aspern Seestadt in Vienna, Austria. The final outcome is a proposed tool for measuring and evaluating urban form which may be applied to future smart city projects.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue evolution of the form and function of the window as a detail influencing historical architecture<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Using the concept of the window, which is the interface between the interpenetrating interior and the exterior of a building, the article shows window joinery as an independent architectural detail with aesthetic value expressed in an artistic form. The author discusses the changing function of the wall opening and emphasises its timeless role: bringing light and air into the building. Analysing successively the design assumptions of creators from antiquity to modernism, the article illustrates the integrity of windows and the façade of buildings, which influence the visual perception of the development in a broader cultural, artistic and historical context.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue lighting of housing estate parking spaces as a source of light pollution<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This publication is devoted to the problem of lighting in parking spaces in a housing estate. Both aspects related to the safety of their users and the potential impact on the natural environment through the phenomenon of light pollution are discussed. Parking spaces are classified in terms of their purpose and lighting. It was found that half of them are insufficiently illuminated, often by light sources originally intended to illuminate green areas or streets. As a result, the illuminance of their surface is much lower than the value specified by standards for this type of public space. It was found that this form of outdoor lighting does not directly make a noticeable contribution to the artificial sky glow, which is the main form of light pollution. However, isolated cases of excessive lighting in parking spaces have been recorded. In this case, the light reflected from the pavement or the street makes a significant contribution to artificial sky glow. It is suggested to replace the lighting in parking spaces with dedicated sets of LED or MH luminaires, which would minimise the impact of this lighting on the environment while ensuring the proper lighting of both the surface and the vehicles parked on them.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue aspects of the design of special monolithic carbide milling cutters for austenitic steels<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In many machining applications, the appropriate selection of cutting tools in relation to the type of material being machined, the machining parameters and the required shape and dimensional accuracy is of particular importance. This especially applies to operations requiring the use of specific tools, i.e. tools that are not included in the standard offer but are tailor-made according to the individual needs of the customer. The article focuses on the machining problems of selected austenitic grades of stainless steel and the selection of technologies (i.e. machining parameters and strategies and tool geometry) concerning the design and use of special monolithic carbide milling cutters. The possibilities of manufacturing elements from austenitic steels with high shape and dimensional accuracy and high surface layer quality are limited. Due to their high ductility, the tendency to create growths on the cutting edge and the high compression strength coefficient, these materials pose a serious technological challenge. The analysis of phenomena presented in the article forms the basis for developing guidelines for designing the machining process using special monolithic carbide cutters dedicated for specific applications.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the architecture of an orphanage for orphaned children in the context of the reform of residential institutions (deinstitutionalisation concept)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>On the basis of the analysis of more than a hundred projects that have been completed over the past four decades, the process of the transformation of the architecture of orphanages in the context of the deinstitutionalisation strategy was analysed. The analysis was based on a specially developed method of comparing environmental and peculiarities of fostering. The main goal of this method was to establish a connection between the effective methods of raising children and architectural form. In accordance with the structure of the plan, three types of orphanage have been identified – single, branched and dispersed.</p> <p>As a result of the analysis, three factors were identified that contribute to the preservation of outdated methods of organising the architectural space of an alternative care institution for children. A number of design solutions have been identified that have significant potential for strengthening deinstitutionalized, child-centred educational practices that correspond to the best interests of the child.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Space: The Contemporary Housing Environment as a Place for the Family<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper discusses housing areas from the perspective of meeting the living needs of families. In recent decades, significant changes have been observed in Poland both in terms of the formation of new housing complexes and in social expectations regarding living conditions. The new housing complexes differ significantly from the traditional, typical ones with distinctive architecture and low-standard common spaces, commonly referred to as panel block housing estates. Previous research on housing environment quality generally points to the need to create developments that provide the highest possible quality of life. These studies focused on the problems of one particular group of residents, such as children, seniors or people with disabilities. However, families, which make up a significant portion of the population and are important users, have not been adequately addressed in urban planning studies to date. Therefore, this problem merits investigation and existing research methods or urban development concepts that can be used to evaluate residential areas should be identified as should factors and spatio-functional characteristics of residential areas that can influence the creation of high-quality space for families. This study, based on a literature review, evaluated two selected development models in terms of providing optimal living conditions for families. It was found that current proposals may be useful in determining features of family-dedicated space, yet they display a range of deficiencies that should be addressed. The study’s conclusions can be used as a basis for further investigation and as recommendations in the context of planning and urban policymaking.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue spaces design tendencies after the covid-19 pandemic in comparison with well Building Standard evaluation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated digitisation processes, improved remote communication systems and revolutionised office work systems. It is highly probable that all of these changes will convert office areas and office management in the near future. Remote work has brought employers attention to their employees’ health and wellbeing, as they have been proven to be the main driving force in their companies. Additionally, there is a growing interest in certifying buildings according to the principles of the WELL Building Standard, a system that focuses on evaluating those design and organisational aspects that have a direct impact on the wellbeing of building users. This publication is intended as a review, and the aim of this article is to analyse if following WELL certification rules can help to design a modern office that suits a post-pandemic society.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue areas in public space ‒ factor activizing urban waterfronts<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The problem described in this study concerns the processes accompanying the revitalisation of waterfronts in urban public areas. This article has been an attempt to analyse the latest waterfront transformations and to extend the knowledge on shaping of public green spaces in riverbank areas.</p> <p>The purpose of the study was to analyse and introduce the typology of urban green areas located along the waterfronts, concentrated around continuous walking or cycling routes. Another assumption of the author was to indicate the factors determining the vitality and activisation of these areas.</p> <p>The applied research methodology was based on factors shaping the coastal space, which the author presented as a group named “waterfront linearity”. Moreover, his paper examines the latest waterfront revitalisation undertaken in Rouen, Bordeaux, Lyon.</p> <p>The conclusions found in this paper constitute an important element of research studies devoted to the ways of shaping green areas in the immediate vicinity of rivers as well as studies in the area of environmental psychology.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the inoculation procedure for high-quality cast iron with flake graphite, intended for large-size casting (bottom or distance plates and counterweights) – produced in Krakodlew Foundry S.A.<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article presents the first part of the research on the production of large-size castings, such as bottom plates and counterweights produced in the Krakodlew S.A. foundry. Castings of this type are not complicated in terms of construction but must meet certain requirements, namely to be able to withstand the effects of high temperature and associated stresses, or to have specific dimensions and weight in the case of counterweights. In both cases, the most common method of forming castings is horizontal moulding. However, this requires a lot of time for machining the finished castings. Forming heavy castings in a vertical orientation, although much more problematic, can mean that the amount of time required for machining may be reduced. The research presents the effect of overheating temperature on the effects of inoculation with the Zircinoc inoculant, in which it was shown that increasing the temperature by fifty degrees increased the amount of eutectic grains by around 11–15%.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the feasibility of determining the volume fraction and characteristics of the size, shape and distribution of γ’ phase precipitates in nickel-based superalloys<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This overview presents a comprehensive exploration of the research methods employed for the precise assessment of volume fraction and the detailed characterisation of the size, shape and distribution of γ’ phase precipitates within Ni-based superalloys. These advanced materials exhibit exceptional mechanical properties due to the presence of γ’ precipitates. The accurate quantification of precipitate parameters is crucial for understanding material behaviour and for the optimisation of alloy design. In this overview, a spectrum of techniques, including microscopy (SEM, TEM), diffraction (XRD), spectroscopy (EDS, EELS) and advanced imaging (3D-APT, STEM-HAADF, FIB-SEM) is discussed. Strengths, limitations and potential synergies among these methods are highlighted, offering researchers a comprehensive toolbox to advance their investigations of γ’ phase precipitates in Ni-based superalloys.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and functional aspects of BIPV – an architectural outlook<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The growing interest in the application of photovoltaics in construction results in solutions based on the concept of integration with the architecture of the building. This means that the challenge lies not only in the technical integration itself but in accordance with the concept of building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), integration results in closer ties with architecture.</p> <p>The following article aims to determine the current possibilities with regard to the integration of PV technology with the building (narrowed down to the use of PV cells and PV modules) and, consequently, the role of BIPV in modern architecture in terms of aesthetics and functionality, including the relationship of the building with the environment. The paper offers an architectural perspective on the problem while omitting detailed technological issues.</p> <p>To illustrate the considerations, carefully selected design examples (including those developed by the author) are used, which enable these possibilities to be defined across a broad spectrum.</p> <p>Research prompts the conclusion that the development of biPv strengthens the relationship between Pv technology and architecture, both in terms of aesthetics and utility. This relationship is synergistic and stimulates the parallel development of Pv technology as architectural solutions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue tests of paint coatings used for masking armaments and military equipment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents an analysis of the operational properties of paint coatings for use in military technology in the field of masking. The assessment of the properties was performed on the basis of measurements of the surface geometric structure and adhesion using the peel method. The measurements of specular gloss, colour in the range of 400-700 nm and reflectance in the range of 350-1200 nm were made in relation to the requirements of the Polish Defence Standard NO-80-A200. Coating systems are characterised by their low roughness and good adhesion. Due to their operational properties, the developed coating systems can be used on armaments and military equipment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Solina-Myczkowce pumped storage power plant<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents simulation results of a developed model of PSP Solina. The model was designed and executed in the Matlab – Simulink interface. A modular approach was used to clearly distinguish characteristic elements of the model. Simulations of the model performance were carried out for a period of 365 days. The results were presented graphically. To simplify, the form of criteria defining on/off moments and defining the turbine/pump turbine operating mode was adopted. All constraints arising from the physical parameters and limitations of the cascade objects as well as those arising from the provisions of the current water management instructions for the Solina-Myczkowce cascade were taken into account. The model is a flexible proposal with which to develop and test decision-making mechanisms in the context of energy generation/consumption in operation. Due to the high potential and short on/off times of the turbine sets, the Solina EW plays an important role in the National Electricity System. An important role in the control process of the facility is played by the forecast of both power demand and contingencies. The analyses are supported by many charts and commentary.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue modelling of layered rocks using a numerical homogenisation technique and an artificial neural network<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A method of creating a constitutive model of layered rocks based on an artificial neural network (ANN) is reported in this work. The ANN gives an implicit constitutive function ∑<italic><sup>n</sup></italic><sup>+1</sup>=F(∑<italic><sup>n</sup></italic>,Δ<bold>E</bold> ), relating the new state of homogenized stresses ∑<italic><sup>n</sup></italic><sup>+1</sup> with the old state ∑<italic><sup>n</sup></italic> and with the increment of homogenized strains Δ<bold>E</bold>. The first step is to repeatedly run a strain- controlled homogenisation on an uni-dimensional finite element model of a periodic cell with elastic-plastic models (Drucker-Prager) of the components. Paths are created in (∑, <bold>E</bold>) space, from which, a set of patterns is formed to train the ANN. A description of how to prepare this data and a discussion on ANN training issues are presented. Finally, the procedure based on trained ANN is put into a finite-element code (ZSoil.PC) as a user-delivered constitutive function. The approach is verified by comparing the results of the developed model basing on ANN with a direct (single-scale) analysis, which showed acceptable accuracy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue properties of textured diamond-like carbon coatings<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents selected mechanical and tribological properties of DLC coatings (diamond-like carbon coatings) and the results of an applied texture to improve these properties under specific circumstances. It presents the results of the selection of parameters for the laser-texturing process of DLC coatings using a picosecond laser with a wavelength of 343 nm.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue influence of carbide reinforcement on the properties of sintered aluminium alloy matrix composites<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Based on the commercial aluminium alloy powder blend (Alumix 431D) metal matrix composites reinforced with particles of SiC as well as TiC were produced by conventional powder metallurgy technology and the effect of the type and amounts of reinforced particles on the selected properties and microstructure of sintered composites were investigated. In particular, the densification behaviour, the wear resistance and the corrosion resistance in 3.5% NaCl solution were identified. It was stated that both the type and the weight fraction of carbide used as particulate reinforcement have a great impact on the properties of aluminium alloy matrix composites. It was shown that the introduction of titanium carbide has a more favourable effect on the properties of sintered Alumix 431D matrix composites in comparison to silicon carbide and the optimum content of TiC in composite is 4 wt. % due to the highest hardness, wear resistance (wear rate of 2.865·10<sup>−3</sup> mm<sup>3</sup>/m) and simultaneously the best corrosion resistance (corrosion rate of 0.005 mm/year).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue market square in Katowice – a place which no longer exists – an evolution of the spatial structure<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study attempts to explain why the space in the centre of Katowice is formally called “The Market Square” even though the square itself no longer exists. Some archival documents and existing studies are analysed. The evolution of the market square in Katowice is presented against the background of historical and economic transformations, putting an emphasis on depicting valuable and interesting architecture that was irretrievably lost and replaced with entirely new urban fabric. Moreover, the article aims to show that the region of Upper Silesia does not only constitute industrial plants but also, created by the mixture of cultures and nationalities, other types of architecture, that was irretrievably lost. It was found out that the market is not actually the main square.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue