rss_2.0Technical Transactions FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Technical Transactions Transactions Feed of the feasibility of determining the volume fraction and characteristics of the size, shape and distribution of γ’ phase precipitates in nickel-based superalloys<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This overview presents a comprehensive exploration of the research methods employed for the precise assessment of volume fraction and the detailed characterisation of the size, shape and distribution of γ’ phase precipitates within Ni-based superalloys. These advanced materials exhibit exceptional mechanical properties due to the presence of γ’ precipitates. The accurate quantification of precipitate parameters is crucial for understanding material behaviour and for the optimisation of alloy design. In this overview, a spectrum of techniques, including microscopy (SEM, TEM), diffraction (XRD), spectroscopy (EDS, EELS) and advanced imaging (3D-APT, STEM-HAADF, FIB-SEM) is discussed. Strengths, limitations and potential synergies among these methods are highlighted, offering researchers a comprehensive toolbox to advance their investigations of γ’ phase precipitates in Ni-based superalloys.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and functional aspects of BIPV – an architectural outlook<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The growing interest in the application of photovoltaics in construction results in solutions based on the concept of integration with the architecture of the building. This means that the challenge lies not only in the technical integration itself but in accordance with the concept of building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), integration results in closer ties with architecture.</p> <p>The following article aims to determine the current possibilities with regard to the integration of PV technology with the building (narrowed down to the use of PV cells and PV modules) and, consequently, the role of BIPV in modern architecture in terms of aesthetics and functionality, including the relationship of the building with the environment. The paper offers an architectural perspective on the problem while omitting detailed technological issues.</p> <p>To illustrate the considerations, carefully selected design examples (including those developed by the author) are used, which enable these possibilities to be defined across a broad spectrum.</p> <p>Research prompts the conclusion that the development of biPv strengthens the relationship between Pv technology and architecture, both in terms of aesthetics and utility. This relationship is synergistic and stimulates the parallel development of Pv technology as architectural solutions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the inoculation procedure for high-quality cast iron with flake graphite, intended for large-size casting (bottom or distance plates and counterweights) – produced in Krakodlew Foundry S.A.<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article presents the first part of the research on the production of large-size castings, such as bottom plates and counterweights produced in the Krakodlew S.A. foundry. Castings of this type are not complicated in terms of construction but must meet certain requirements, namely to be able to withstand the effects of high temperature and associated stresses, or to have specific dimensions and weight in the case of counterweights. In both cases, the most common method of forming castings is horizontal moulding. However, this requires a lot of time for machining the finished castings. Forming heavy castings in a vertical orientation, although much more problematic, can mean that the amount of time required for machining may be reduced. The research presents the effect of overheating temperature on the effects of inoculation with the Zircinoc inoculant, in which it was shown that increasing the temperature by fifty degrees increased the amount of eutectic grains by around 11–15%.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue tests of paint coatings used for masking armaments and military equipment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents an analysis of the operational properties of paint coatings for use in military technology in the field of masking. The assessment of the properties was performed on the basis of measurements of the surface geometric structure and adhesion using the peel method. The measurements of specular gloss, colour in the range of 400-700 nm and reflectance in the range of 350-1200 nm were made in relation to the requirements of the Polish Defence Standard NO-80-A200. Coating systems are characterised by their low roughness and good adhesion. Due to their operational properties, the developed coating systems can be used on armaments and military equipment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Solina-Myczkowce pumped storage power plant<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents simulation results of a developed model of PSP Solina. The model was designed and executed in the Matlab – Simulink interface. A modular approach was used to clearly distinguish characteristic elements of the model. Simulations of the model performance were carried out for a period of 365 days. The results were presented graphically. To simplify, the form of criteria defining on/off moments and defining the turbine/pump turbine operating mode was adopted. All constraints arising from the physical parameters and limitations of the cascade objects as well as those arising from the provisions of the current water management instructions for the Solina-Myczkowce cascade were taken into account. The model is a flexible proposal with which to develop and test decision-making mechanisms in the context of energy generation/consumption in operation. Due to the high potential and short on/off times of the turbine sets, the Solina EW plays an important role in the National Electricity System. An important role in the control process of the facility is played by the forecast of both power demand and contingencies. The analyses are supported by many charts and commentary.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue modelling of layered rocks using a numerical homogenisation technique and an artificial neural network<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A method of creating a constitutive model of layered rocks based on an artificial neural network (ANN) is reported in this work. The ANN gives an implicit constitutive function ∑<italic><sup>n</sup></italic><sup>+1</sup>=F(∑<italic><sup>n</sup></italic>,Δ<bold>E</bold> ), relating the new state of homogenized stresses ∑<italic><sup>n</sup></italic><sup>+1</sup> with the old state ∑<italic><sup>n</sup></italic> and with the increment of homogenized strains Δ<bold>E</bold>. The first step is to repeatedly run a strain- controlled homogenisation on an uni-dimensional finite element model of a periodic cell with elastic-plastic models (Drucker-Prager) of the components. Paths are created in (∑, <bold>E</bold>) space, from which, a set of patterns is formed to train the ANN. A description of how to prepare this data and a discussion on ANN training issues are presented. Finally, the procedure based on trained ANN is put into a finite-element code (ZSoil.PC) as a user-delivered constitutive function. The approach is verified by comparing the results of the developed model basing on ANN with a direct (single-scale) analysis, which showed acceptable accuracy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue properties of textured diamond-like carbon coatings<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents selected mechanical and tribological properties of DLC coatings (diamond-like carbon coatings) and the results of an applied texture to improve these properties under specific circumstances. It presents the results of the selection of parameters for the laser-texturing process of DLC coatings using a picosecond laser with a wavelength of 343 nm.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue influence of carbide reinforcement on the properties of sintered aluminium alloy matrix composites<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Based on the commercial aluminium alloy powder blend (Alumix 431D) metal matrix composites reinforced with particles of SiC as well as TiC were produced by conventional powder metallurgy technology and the effect of the type and amounts of reinforced particles on the selected properties and microstructure of sintered composites were investigated. In particular, the densification behaviour, the wear resistance and the corrosion resistance in 3.5% NaCl solution were identified. It was stated that both the type and the weight fraction of carbide used as particulate reinforcement have a great impact on the properties of aluminium alloy matrix composites. It was shown that the introduction of titanium carbide has a more favourable effect on the properties of sintered Alumix 431D matrix composites in comparison to silicon carbide and the optimum content of TiC in composite is 4 wt. % due to the highest hardness, wear resistance (wear rate of 2.865·10<sup>−3</sup> mm<sup>3</sup>/m) and simultaneously the best corrosion resistance (corrosion rate of 0.005 mm/year).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue market square in Katowice – a place which no longer exists – an evolution of the spatial structure<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study attempts to explain why the space in the centre of Katowice is formally called “The Market Square” even though the square itself no longer exists. Some archival documents and existing studies are analysed. The evolution of the market square in Katowice is presented against the background of historical and economic transformations, putting an emphasis on depicting valuable and interesting architecture that was irretrievably lost and replaced with entirely new urban fabric. Moreover, the article aims to show that the region of Upper Silesia does not only constitute industrial plants but also, created by the mixture of cultures and nationalities, other types of architecture, that was irretrievably lost. It was found out that the market is not actually the main square.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue concept of a mechanical system for measuring the one-way speed of light<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The work presents the concept of a device for the measurement of the one-way speed of light. The minimum parameters of this device have also been determined based on the Special Theory of Ether without transverse contraction. The Special Theory of Ether is a relativistic theory of kinemat-ics with a universal frame of reference in which light propagates and is an alternative explanation for the null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment. An experiment based on the proposed device can be one of the ways to falsify the Special Theory of Relativity and Special Theory of Ether.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue a pumped storage power plant on the example of the Porąbka Żar power plant<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article presents the idea and mathematical model of a pumped storage power plant. PSPS Porąbka Żar was selected as the real object for modelling. Due to the specificity of the operation of an intervention-regulatory and scheduled nature related to the coverage of power demand in the power system, the possibility of different modes of operation was taken into account in the model. PorąbkaŻar power plant is a pearl of hydro-engineering on the global stage. It is the first underground and the second largest pumped storage power plant in Poland. It is located in Międzybrodzie Bialskie, in the Silesian province. The short distance between the upper reservoir of the power station, located on Mt. Żar, and the lower reservoir of the międzybrodzkie lake, the high average head of the power station of 432 m above sea level, create great opportunities for accessibility and interference in the operation of the power station. It is equipped with four reversible Francis turbine sets, which operate simultaneously with a total capacity of 500 MW in the generator mode and 542 MW in the pumping mode. Due to its high potential and short turn-on and turn-off times of the turbine sets, it plays an important role in the national power system. The mathematical model was made in Matlab -Simulink software. An important role in the control process of the facility is played by the forecast of both power demand and contingencies. The forecasting model is equipped with elements of artificial intelligence. In addition, the article shows the possibility of supplementing an operating power plant with hybrid elements. The analysis is supported by commentary and a number of charts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of a mobile device frame structure – practical aspects<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents a strength analysis of a steel container frame fastened to a Jelcz 8x8 chassis with four ISO 1161 corners. As part of the work, optimisation of the structure was performed using the numerical finite element method (FEM) and experimental tests with the use of strain gauges. The results of simulations and tests are summarised in appropriate tables and in the form of the distribution of stress contour lines using the Huber-Mises hypothesis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue application of neural networks for the life-cycle analysis of road and rail rolling stock during the operational phase<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this article is to assess the possibility of using neural networks to analyse the life cycle of rolling stock in the operational phase by selecting the number of rolling stock sets and rail using the example of public transport in the Szczecin agglomeration. The research was conducted in September 2019 and June 2020. It included the number of tram and bus rolling stock sets on individual public transport lines based on data from the Central Public Transport Management System in the Szczecin agglomeration. The research, which was based on comparative analyses of individual types of rolling stock and their technical and economic data, took into account the life-cycle assessment criteria associated with the operation of vehicles in relation to the number of rolling stock sets. The use of neural networks on the example of the city of Szczecin for the purpose of life-cycle analysis, can make a significant contribution to creating a decision model for the improvement of public transport in cities with various types of public transport vehicles.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and doors of residential buildings in Eastern Galicia in the late nineteenth century – first third of the twentieth century: typology, decorative features, manufacturers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In accordance with the findings obtained from field studies, the portals and doors in the structure of the entrance spaces of residential buildings in Eastern Galicia (the part of former Galicia and Lodomeria) in the late nineteenth century to the first third of the twentieth century were analysed. The doors were classified according to principles of location, decorative solution and placement of artistic decoration. Leading manufacturers whose products decorated the entrance spaces of residential buildings in Eastern Galicia in the late nineteenth century to the first third of the twentieth century were identified. The relationship between the artistic design of the entry doors and other kinds of art in the decor of the entrance spaces of residential buildings in Eastern Galicia in the late nineteenth century to the first third of the twentieth century was established. Modern restored samples in residential buildings of the specified period in the indicated area were found.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of irregularity in examples of Polish multi-family architecture constructed in 2011–2021 and nominated for the Mies van der Rohe award<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article is devoted to the analysis of contemporary Polish multi-family architecture in the context of aesthetic irregularity. The research was limited to constructions from 2011–2021 and nominated for the Mies van der Rohe award as the objects with the greatest potential impact on shaping further trends. In  their research, the authors focused on searching for the features of irregularities, which, in their opinion, have become a distinguishing feature of  contemporary architectural aesthetics. The analyses in this study refer to three planes of the aesthetic dimension of architecture, namely the form, facade composition and material.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Museum. Museum of the Future?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The following article discusses examples of museums that implement virtual reality in presentations of exhibits and museum objects. Trends that shape contemporary museums are discussed. The aim of the article is to familiarise the reader with the possibilities of modern applications in museum exhibition presentations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue fiber reinforced polymer and tensegrity structures in search of model architectural and engineering solutions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current era of nanomaterials brings advancements in science and technology. This creates new solutions and possibili-ties in the creation of novel spatial structures. This study leads through the presentation of iconic architectural objects creat-ed with the use of high strength composite materials and tensegrity structure. Then presents the design process, numerical simulations of the three-way tensegrity grid prototype module. Static stress simulations were done within the simulation engine of the Fusion 360 software. Moreover, 1:1 scale prototype was developed. It could be used as a modular construction slab of a novel architectural design. One of the key characteristic features of high strength composite materials, high strength-to-weight ratio, combined with tensegrity structures allows to develop lightweight and hence very durable spatial structures. This gives tensegrity structures a very low dead load value as compared to traditional reinforced concrete struc-tures. Thanks to the application of high strength and hence lightweight materials, the dead load of the prototype is only 0,18 kN/m<sup>2</sup>.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue as a set of instruments for shaping a friendly and safe living environment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the basic human needs is the need for security. As a primary objective, it has both a direct and an indirect impact on architecture. The elimination of threats and protection against them is the basis for shaping contemporary architecture.</p> <p>Since the beginning of history, man has sought refuge from animals and nature. This covers everything from the basic feats of providing warmth and shelter from rain and animals to creating an environment in which one can develop their personal needs and preferences. This article presents aspects of security in architecture. It is related to human needs. The classification of stress factors in urbanised space is also presented. In addition, the analysis of spatial systems in architecture and the ways of marking the space are described. Based on the conducted analyses, conclusions are drawn concerning the methods of ensuring human safety in the built environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue lighting systems and the method of implementing dynamically adjustable on-demand strategies – conclusions from research<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Street lighting is an important aspect of the operation of not just every city or municipality but also the operation of the roads and highways in every country. The search for energy-saving solutions has become a ubiquitous number-one topic and leads to the need for lighting management systems to make lighting more efficient and economical from a financial and environmental point of view. There are many important needs of cities and municipalities strictly connected with the type of roads and areas in cities and their surroundings. Highways, country roads, main city roads, parks, cycling paths and residential areas all have different requirements with regard to efficient lighting management. Lighting and power schedules, adaptive lighting schemes based on the density of road usage, dynamically adjustable on-demand lighting which lights up the way ahead of moving objects (vehicles or pedestrians). All of the above are important and can help in the achievement of the main goal, which is efficient energy usage properly managed for the given situation and which will ensure safety and comfortable lighting for all kinds of roads. This paper is focused on dynamically adjustable on-demand lighting, it proposes a solution capable of achieving optimal lighting management for cities and surrounding areas.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue audit of refrigerated shelving<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article describes how an energy audit of equipment and the resulting design changes can have a major impact on reducing the electricity consumption of refrigeration equipment. The legal basis introduced by legislation forcing work on the improvement of refrigeration unit is provided. Eight points detail and describe the changes applied to the construction of cooling units. Additionally, a list of the refrigerants which are used is presented, along with the essential parameters of their work. The following analysis includes a description of the research performed along with the measured and calculated results for individual optimisations. The basic parameters that were used for comparison are: daily electricity consumption [kWh/24 h] and the temperature of the packages placed in the device [°C]. Finally, the percentage differences in energy consumption for each modernisation are summarised in a tabular form. The device used for the tests was the VARNA refrigerated rack, model 900, manufactured by P.P.H.U. JUKA Sp. z o.o. sp. k.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue