rss_2.0Transport and Telecommunication Journal FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Transport and Telecommunication Journal and Telecommunication Journal 's Cover Concept of Dependency Game Tree Graphs as a Black Box in the Analysis of Automatic Transmissions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The methodology of graph theory has long had applications in mechanics. Graphs allow the simultaneous consideration and synthesis of the structure of a real system and the idealized structure of an equivalent model of a mechanical system. In particular, there are many applications of graph theory in the analysis of automatic transmissions. This paper presents continuing research on applications of game tree graphs in the analysis of automatic transmissions. Black box ideas for dependency graphs are presented. This makes it possible to automatically generate simplified models from given physical models of an automatic transmission and to determine the optimal number of teeth. The developed methodology allows also to perform real-time simulations. In a further stage, the methods of decision logic trees can be applied to analyze the functional diagrams of selected gears.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Dynamic Weighing to Improve Rail Freight Traffic Safety: A Case Study from the Czech Republic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Railway traffic safety is a decisive factor involved in any decision-making process in the railway transport, including the overall weight of cars, i.e., potential overloading. Overloaded rolling stock may cause many serious accidents. The presented article comprises two parts: the theoretical one explores the ways of progressive dynamic weighing of shipment. The practical part took place at Horní Dvořiště railway station, measuring the impact of the dynamic weighing on the decline in vehicular overloading.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Novel Method of Reducing the Allocated Bandwidth by Voip<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Old telecommunication systems are gradually being replaced by a new system that works over IP networks, which is known as voice over internet protocol (VoIP). VoIP has several merits (e.g., very cheap call rate), which make it increasingly popular in the telecommunication world. However, VoIP faces numerous impediments that decelerate its promotion. One of the top impediments is the wasted bandwidth caused by VoIP systems. Numerous methods have been proposed to handle this impediment, including packet aggregation methods. This paper proposes a novel aggregation method, called packet aggregation and carrier header (PA-CH), to reduce the amount of the large bandwidth caused by VoIP. As the name suggests, PA-CH saves in bandwidth by aggregating the packets in a header and using the redundant fields in the packet header to carry a portion of the packet voice data. The performance of the introduced PA-CH method was investigated based on three main metrics, namely, link capacity, allocated bandwidth reduction, and voice data shortening. Simulation results indicate that the proposed PA-CH method outperforms the comparison methods in three factors. For instance, the proposed method’s allocated bandwidth reduction ratio reaches 51% when the number of calls running concurrently reaches 100. Therefore, the proposed PA-CH method achieves its goal of reducing the wasted bandwidth caused by VoIP.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Factors Affecting the Growth of Demand on Carsharing Services Within Smart City<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The carsharing services have become the necessary component of the life of smart and sustainable city. They meet the numerous requirements put forward by these cities concepts and make life in urban environment cleaner, more comfortable and convenient and better organized. The goal of this research is to determine the factors facilitating the demand for the carsharing services, and on the basis of this analysis to consider the costs structure of these companies. The results are obtained via PLS-SEM analyses implementation in SmartPLS-3.3.7 software. The analysis revealed that such factors as Convenience, Additional Values and Economic (saving factors) have positive impact on growth of demand for carsharing services while New Way of Thinking is insignificant. However, the developed Costs function demonstrate that companies assume the costs of promoting “green” effect of carsharing as important ones. If they reduce these types of costs, it will have positive impact on their efficiency without decrease of demand.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Travellers’ Perception About Vehicular Emissions’ and its Impact on Pedestrian Travel Behaviour<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Vehicular emissions have many impacts on human health and travel behaviour. A lot of evidence on the health effects of vehicular emissions is available but very few studies have looked at the impacts on travel behaviour. The current study attempts to fill this research gap by analysing the factors that influence pedestrian travel behaviour concerning vehicle emissions based on travellers’ perceptions in the Indian context. For this, a stated preference questionnaire survey was conducted and a factor-based regression followed by a mediation analysis was used to analyse the responses. Results showed that a person’s perceived impacts about vehicular emissions had a greater impact on their travel behaviour. Public concern and environmental attitude lead to direct changes in travel behaviour whereas vehicle technology and negligent attitude had significant indirect effects. The present study findings are useful to the urban planning policymakers in reducing the impact of vehicular emissions on pedestrians by implementing strategies that lessen human exposure to transport emissions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Research of an Influence of a Traffic Flow Movement Intensity Change on the Possibility of Nonstop Passage of the Traffic Lights Objects<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There were examined the problems of passage of the regulated parts of a road. There were investigated the changes of a traffic movement intensity in Lutsk (Ukraine) during the spread of Covid-19 pandemic. The graphic dependences of the drivers’ actions estimation while passing the traffic lights objects on a chosen movement route at the beginning of quarantine measures, during the least movement intensity and at the increasing of movement intensity, were obtained. A method of increasing of a possibility of the traffic lights objects nonstop passage was offered.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Predicting Australia’s Domestic Airline Passenger Demand using an Anfis Approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The forecasting of future airline passenger demand is critical task for airline management. The objective of the present study was to develop an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for predicting Australia’s domestic airline passenger demand. The ANFIS model was trained, tested, and validated in the study. Sugeno fuzzy rules were used in the ANFIS structure and Gaussian membership function, and linear membership functions were also developed. The hybrid learning algorithm and the subtractive clustering partition method were used to generate the optimum ANFIS models. The results found that the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) for the overall data set of the ANFIS model was 3.25% demonstrating that the ANFIS model has high predictive capabilities. The ANFIS model could be used in other domestic air travel markets.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Feature Selection Method for Ml/Dl Classification of Network Attacks in Digital Forensics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The research is related to machine learning and deep learning (ML/DL) methods for clustering and classification that are compatible with anomaly detection (network attacks detection) in digital forensics. Research is conducted in the field of selecting subsets of features of a dataset useful for constructing a good predictor (classifier). In this study, a new feature selection method for a classifier based on the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) method is presented and tested. The proposed step-by-step algorithm for the iterative selection of these features makes it possible to obtain the minimum required list of features that are associated with attack events and can be used to detect them. For the classification, Artificial Neural Network (ANN) method is used. The accuracy of attack detection by the proposed method has been verified in numerical experiments.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00A Public Value-Based, Multilevel Evaluation Framework to Examine Public Bike-Sharing Systems. Implications for Cities’ Sustainable Transport Policies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article proposes a multilevel bike-sharing assessment framework based on the concept of public value. This approach makes it possible to combine customer satisfaction with the transport service system with determinants of demand for bicycle services in the form of value. The framework aims to evaluate the parameters of public bike systems (PBS) that determine user value, and that co-create user value, system value, and social and ecological value, to identify the characteristics of the bicycle that need improvement in order to meet users’ needs and optimize quality. The framework uses empirical verification through satisfaction surveys of PBS users in Lodz, Poland. The results of the study were subjected to factor analysis, which revealed four groups of factors that satisfy public bike users: (1) impact on the health, environment, mobility and traffic in the city, (2) reliability, and comfort, (3) intramodality, (4) price and technical availability.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Social Distance Evaluation in Transportation Systems and Other Public Spaces using Deep Learning<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This research put forward an efficacious real-time deep learning-based technique to automate the process of monitoring the social distancing in transportation systems (e.g., bus stops, railway stations, airport terminals, etc.) and other public spaces with the purpose to mitigate the impact of coronavirus pandemic. The proposed technique makes use of the YOLOv3 model to segregate humans from the background of each image of a surveillance video and the linear Kalman filter for tracking the humans’ motion even in case in which another object or person overlaps the trajectory of the person under analysis. The performance of the model in human detection is extremely high as demonstrated by the accuracy of the model that reaches values higher than 95%. The detection algorithm can be applied for alerting people to keep a safe distance from each other when they are in crowded places or in groups.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Mapping Undermined Role of Information and Communication Technologies in Floods<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper reports the undermined potential of broad range of (Information and communication technologies) ICTs that remained effective yet unnoticed in different flood-phases to exchange traffic, travel, and evacuation related information. The objective was to identify convenient ICTs that people found operational in life cycle of a flood. For the purpose, ICTs were tested in relation to 18 different variables based on personal capabilities, demographic, and vehicle-based information etc.</p> <p>Samples of 105 and 102 subjects were recruited from flood-prone communities of developing and developed case-studies respectively, through random sampling and analyzed through Multinomial Logistic Regression. Those categories of independent variables that showed p-value ≥ 0.05 were considered to model the results. The main findings showed that in developed countries TV, mobile phone subscriptions and international news channels were prominent source of information whilst in developing countries multiple messengers, Facebook and contributory websites were impactful for information dissemination. The results are useful for academia, engineers, and policy makers and for future work same variables can be tested for different disaster affected communities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Ammonia as Clean Shipping Fuel for the Baltic Sea Region<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The international shipping industry transports about 90 per cent of the global trade volume and is responsible for only two per cent of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. Consequently, the shipping sector is considered as an environmentally friendly transport mode. Nevertheless, global shipping can also improve its environmental footprint. So that in recent years clean shipping initiatives have been placed on the political agenda with the implementation of the Sulphur Emission Control Area (SECA) and Nitrogen Emission Control Area (ECA) regulations and the Global Cap. The next target of the International Maritime Organisation (IMO) in the sequel of the Paris Agreement of climate protection is dedicated to reduction of the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions by up to 50 % until the year 2050.</p> <p>The paper investigates and discusses the research questions to what extent ammonia can be used in Baltic Sea Region (BSR) to propel merchant vessels and how ammonia can fulfil future demands under technical, economic and infrastructural aspects to become the green fuel for the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) shipping industry. The study benchmarks the properties of ammonia as marine fuel against Marine Gas Oil (MGO) and Liquified Natural Gas (LNG). The research is based on secondary data analysis that is complemented by expert interviews and case studies, and the results are empirically validated by data that were collected during the EU projects “EnviSuM”, “GoLNG”, “CSHIPP” and “Connect2SmallPorts” that took place within the last four years in the BSR.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-18T00:00:00.000+00:00A New Method to Boost VoIP Performance Over IPv6 Networks<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The demands on virtual communication have increased noticeably during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. As an essential part of virtual communication, VoIP should be promoted to achieve the desired level of performance. One critical area investigated in VoIP is the bandwidth utilization (BWU) of the VoIP over IPv6 networks. Enhancing BWU will impact call capacity and quality; it increases call capacity and boosts call quality. Unfortunately, a considerable amount of bandwidth is wasted when running VoIP over IPv6 networks. This is due to the large size of the IPv6 header and the small size of the speech frame. This paper proposes a new method to handle the inefficient BWU when running VoIP over IPv6 networks. The proposed method combines multiplexing multiple VoIP packets in one IPv6 header and using the superfluous fields to carry a portion of the speech frame. Therefore, the proposed is called packet multiplexing and carrier fields (PMCF). Investigation of the PCMF method has been done using four metrics to measure the promotion in BWU, namely calls capacity, header size, bandwidth saving, and speech frame shortening metrics. With the four metrics, the PMCF method has outperformed the comparable methods. For instance, the call capacity has been promoted by up to 269% compared to the typical IPv6 method in the tested scenarios. Therefore, the PMCF method is a feasible solution to facilitate the BWU of VoIP when running VoIP over IPv6 networks.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Method of Improving Incomplete Spatial-Temporal Data in Inland Navigation, on the Basis of Industrial Camera Images – West Oder River Case Study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Main aim of the paper is to use a single non-metric camera to support the determination of the position of. Authors propose to use the existing infrastructure of CCTV cameras mounted on bridges and wharves to determine the position of inland waterway vessels. Image from cameras giving the pixel coordinates of moving object is transformed to the geodetic data domain using a modified projective transformation method. Novel approach is to use of Sequential Projection Transformation (SPT) which additionally uses virtual reference points. The transformation coefficients calculated using the virtual points are used to determine the position of the vessels and are also simultaneously used to calibrate the industrial camera. The method has been verified under real conditions, and the results obtained are average 30% more accurate compared to the traditionally used projective transformation using a small number of real points.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-18T00:00:00.000+00:00A Kalman Filter Based Hybrid Routing Protocol for Efficient Vehicle Connectivity and Traffic Management<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The geographic routing protocols in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are contemplated as most efficacious protocols. Though, such types of protocols communicate a huge quantity of data that influence the network connectivity negatively. Also, out of bound issue is the second major disadvantage of geographic routing protocols. To provide a solution to these impediments, a novel K-PGRP (Kalman filter-Predictive Geographic Routing Protocol) routing protocol is proposed in this paper. K-PGRP is an improvement to PGRP (Predictive Geographic Routing Protocol) routing protocol and wields Kalman filter as a prediction module in PGRP routing protocol in order to anticipate the neighbor location and to select the propitious neighbor for advancing packets in both urban and highway framework which leads to efficient connectivity in the network and improves road safety. K-PGRP is then compared with PGRP, GPSR (Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing) and GPCR (Greedy Perimeter Coordinator Routing) routing protocols in terms of throughput and packet delivery ratio metrics and outperformed all the simulation cases. The simulations were performed on MATLAB R2018a along with traffic simulator SUMO.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Occupancy Estimation at Bus Stops Through Wi-Fi Connectivity Assessment – A Study in Guayaquil City<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Guayaquil is one of the most congested cities on the American continent. Several users cannot access on-time transport service according to the demand requested at bus stops. This work presents a simulation of the Wi-Fi technology to determine the number of users present at a bus stop. The objective is to know an estimation of them in different time intervals throughout the day, which could be useful for several actions, e.g., to set up a better distribution of transportation schedules or to place the bus stops in more demanding sites by users. The methodology included simulation scenarios for user counting at the bus stops. The results depicted that Wi-Fi technology performed suitable even in high-level attenuation scenarios.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Reliable and Seamless Communications of Networked IAV in Container Terminal Using UAV Technology<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Managing container loading and unloading operations at a container terminal using Intelligent Autonomous Vehicle (IAV) is challenging, especially at intersections in the yard, which are often inevitable. For ensuring efficient and accident-free management of these intersections, the IAV must cooperate by exchanging messages. Due to signal obstruction at these intersections, indirect communication is established through an additional relay node to ensure reliable communication. This paper proposes distributed approach using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) connectivity to avoid collision and deadlock between IAV at intersections. Due to the obstacles formed by stacked containers blocking the radio transmissions, the proposed algorithm automatically switches the ongoing communication through the UAV to ensure successful communication at intersections. Thus, the idea of introducing UAV as communication relay in a container terminal is an interesting solution that we have adopted in this work. Simulation techniques are used to evaluate our proposal. The obtained results confirm that our UAV-based approach ensures reliable communication and automated intersections management in the yard while further ensuring the safety of IAV traffic.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Efficiency of Ship Operation in Transportation of Oversized and Heavy Cargo by Optimizing the Speed Mode Considering the Impact of Weather Conditions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Prior to commencing the voyage planning procedure, the entire navigation area on the forthcoming passage should be divided into several sections, depending on various factors, such as traffic density, restricted depths, availability of ship reporting systems, hydrometeorological conditions, high risk navigation areas in order to outline measures to ensure the safety of ship’s navigation. In addition, these factors have direct impact on the ship’s speed during the voyage. On the other hand, slow steaming can reduce fuel consumption on the same section of the route by 10-15%. Reducing the ship’s speed can significantly minimize its operating costs. However, when choosing economically feasible ship’s speed it should be kept in mind that reducing the speed can lead to a significant decrease in the number of voyages per year and, consequently, to the reduction of annual freight income. Therefore, a practically important and relevant problem is the necessity to find the speed of ship operation, which will provide a balance between economical fuel consumption and profits from ship operation. The classic approach to optimizing the speed mode of ships is based on the cubic dependence of fuel consumption on speed. Therefore, depending on the distance between ports, the duration of the voyage and the conditions for the time of arrival of the ship to the port, in the modern publications were proposed approaches to the optimization of the speed mode, based on the additional income or time-charter equivalent.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Competence of Bus Rapid Transit Systems Coupled with Transit Signal Priority at Signalized Junctions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the primary causes of poor public transport performance is delays at intersections. Among the efficient and sustainable solutions to boost mass transportation performance, Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) consists of infrastructures integrating dedicated bus lanes and smart operational service with different ITS technologies like Transit Signal Priority (TSP). This research studies the competence of buses operating on junctions of the BRT corridor where they have Signal Priority on the dedicated lane. The studied intersection is located around the center of the Addis Ababa BRT-B2 line, which is relatively gentle grade and characterized by the high traffic and pedestrian volume. Microscopic models were created for the chosen intersection, along with possible calibration and validation; moreover, a statistical comparison was performed to evaluate different scenarios with the goal of displaying the deployment benefits. To assess the performance of BRT buses and their overall influence on general traffic, scenarios with and without TSP were evaluated. PTV VISSIM and the VisVAP add-on simulation program were used to examine TSP alternatives. Incorporating TSP reduced the travel time by up to 4.78% in the priority direction, the average travel speed increased by 7.25%, and the queue length also reduced by a maximum of 6%, whereas in the non-priority direction, the queue length increased by a maximum of 2.5%. Moreover, the overall average passenger delay has reduced by an average amount of 15%. One of the simplest ways to improve transit performance could be signal priority strategies, which has a minor influence on the general traffic.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Crash Distribution Dataset: Development and Validation for the Undivided Rural Roads in Oromia, Ethiopia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Predicting the number of crashes that may occur as a result of specific highway features is critical in evaluating different treatment or design alternatives. Since different highway geometric characteristics can influence crash distribution datasets, Highway Safety Manual’s (HSM’s) predictive method encourages users to predict crashes based on their severity and collision type proportions. This study used crash data from rural two-way two-lane road segments in the Oromia region over seven years to develop Oromia’s fixed crash distribution dataset on Interactive Highway Safety Design Model (IHSDM) software. The crash distribution dataset has two parts; the crash severity proportions and the collision type percentages. The developed Oromia’s fixed crash distribution dataset was compared and validated against the default HSM crash configuration. As a result, the Crash Prediction Model (CPM) evaluation results confirmed that the developed crash severity proportion (the first part of the crash distribution dataset) estimates are more accurate and closer to the observed values. Furthermore, the findings show that crashes in the Oromia region are severer than in the states where the HSM crash configuration was developed. According to the second part of the crash distribution dataset evaluation (collision type percentage), the developed fixed crash distribution dataset outperforms the default HSM configuration in most collision type proportions, but not in all. For instance, from the ten collision type proportions developed, Right-Angle and sides-wipe collision proportions are predicted more precisely by the default HSM configuration. This points to the need for developing collision type proportion (the second part of the crash distribution dataset) as a function rather than a fixed configuration for a better result, based on the availability of complete crash data (i.e. crash location). In general, the study revealed that in order to exploit the full potential of HSM’s predictive approach, researchers must develop a jurisdiction crash distribution dataset using local crash data. The methodology demonstrated in this study to develop the jurisdiction’s crash distribution dataset has been validated as true thus, safety practitioners are encouraged to adopt it.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-18T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1