rss_2.0Transport and Telecommunication Journal FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Transport and Telecommunication Journal and Telecommunication Journal Feed Road Traffic Video Congestion Classification Based on the Multi-Head Self-Attention Vision Transformer Model<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Due to rapid population growth, traffic congestion has become one of the major issues in urban areas. The utilization of technology may help to address this issue. This paper proposes a new Multi-head Self-attention Vision Transformer (MSViT) based macroscopic approach, for road traffic congestion classification. To evaluate this approach, we use the UCSD (University of California San Diego) dataset that includes different weather conditions (clear, overcast and rainy) and different traffic scenarios (light, medium and heavy). The classification accuracy reached a high level of 99.76% with this dataset and 99.37% when night-mode frames are added to it. The proposed MSViT based method outperforms the state-of-the-art macroscopic and microscopic methods that have been evaluated using the same UCSD dataset, which makes it an efficient solution for traffic congestion prediction.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Automated Bascule Bridge and Collision Avoidance with Water Traffic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The development of movable bridges is a modern technological advancement that requires the integration of multi-disciplinary concepts such as control, automation, and design. In order to demonstrate how a collision avoidance system works, this research offers the design of an automated double-leaf bascule bridge with a pulley-rope moving mechanism and Pratt truss. The bridge is created where a settled railway or roadway intersection of a navigable stream cannot attain a steep profile. The design took into account the length, height, and width of the bridge as well as automatic ship identification and scaffold leaf movement activity for ship crossing. For the safe passage of cars on the bridge and for stopping vehicles during bridge movement, the system includes a collision avoidance control system and an automated road barrier system. After sensor adjustment, the model bridge’s performance under test produced results that were adequate, with a success rate of 100%.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Dissemination Among Vehicles To Aid In Rendering Quick Emergency Services<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Road traffic in metropolitan cities is increasing at enormous rates resulting in congestion. Vehicles rendering emergency services like ambulances, fire engines, law enforcement vehicles, etc., act as lifelines and should be looked into with the highest priorities on the road. Such emergency vehicles (EmVs / EVs) are seen stuck many times in traffic, especially during peak hours of the day. The vehicles that block the EmVs on the road are unaware of the arrival of the same. Hence this work proposes a system that uses a central server that receives the location of the EmV and shares it with the civilian vehicles around. This is achieved through pinpointed accuracy systems like the Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS), Global Positioning System (GPS), and Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM), etc., The objective here is to help the EmVs reach their target location earlier thus saving lives.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue A Novel Technique to Reduce the Voip Packet Payload Length<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The adoption of the Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) system is growing due to several factors, including its meagre rate and the numerous contours that can be joined with VoIP systems. However, the wasteful utilisation of the computer network is an inevitable problem that limits the rapid growth of VoIP systems. The essential explanation behind this wasteful utilisation of the computer network bandwidth (BW) is the considerable preamble length of the VoIP packet. In this study, we invent a technique that addresses the considerable preamble length of the VoIP packet. The designed technique is known as the manikin voice frame (MVF). The primary idea of the MVF technique is to utilise the VoIP packet preamble tuples that are not essential to the voice calls, particularly client-to-client calls (voice calls between only two users). Specifically, these tuples will be utilised for reserving the data of the VoIP packet. In certain instances, this will make the VoIP packet data manikin or even make it empty. The performance assessment of the introduced MVF technique demonstrated that the utilisation of the computer network BW has enhanced by 33%. Along these lines, the MVF technique indicates potential progress in resolving the inefficient usage of the computer network BW.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue International Transport Route Infrastructure Assessment Using Simulation Modelling<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Trans-Caspian International Transport Route (TITR) is one of the main transport corridors between China and Europe. It passes through the territory of Kazakhstan, as well as the countries of the South Caucasus, Turkey, and Iran, and contributes to the full realisation of transit and export opportunities of these countries. Each country participating in the development of TITR is implementing projects to increase the capacity of its transit infrastructure, but the potential of this route has not yet been fully realised. The reason for this is both high tariffs for sea and rail transport and insufficiently short transport times, which are dependent on the parameters and methods of using the infrastructure. This paper is devoted to the study of the TITR railway infrastructure located in Kazakhstan. The developed simulation model allows estimating the impact of infrastructure parameters of the railway track on the movement time of a container train from the PRC border to the ports of Aktau and Kuryk on the Caspian Sea coast.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Macro-Environmental Factors Affecting Innovative Last-Mile Delivery Solutions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper aims to provide a PESTLE (Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Legal and Environmental) analysis of current trends and changes in the urban goods transport market. The goal is to assess the macro-environmental factors that are affecting innovative solutions for last-mile delivery, and to use this analysis to support decision making and planning for horizontal schemes of collaboration and policy interventions that may be necessary for introducing these solutions successfully and becoming more competitive in practice. By carefully prioritizing these factors, relevant stakeholders can make informed decisions and take effective actions to improve the competitiveness of their operations in the urban goods transport industry.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue MMW Generation Using PM-DPMZM for Full Duplex 32×10 Gbps RoF-WDM System<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents a study of a 32×10 Gbps Radio over Fiber and Wavelength Division Multiplexing (RoF-WDM) full-duplex system that uses Phase Modulators and a Dual-Port Mach-Zehnder Modulator (PMs-DPMZM) for bidirectional data transfer. The system employs Millimeter-Wave (MMW) signaling over optical fiber and focuses on selecting a technology that provides high transmission capacity per wavelength, improved spectral efficiency, and resistance against optical transmission impairments. The proposed method was validated using simulation results to confirm the efficiency of the proposed system in generating a 40 GHz signal and efficiently detecting and modulating the RF signals. The results demonstrate that the system exhibits strong resistance against dispersion, non-linear effects, and noise, delivering satisfactory performance for distances of up to 220 km. By analyzing the input power, the paper establishes a relationship between input power and signal quality, revealing that an optimal power of 0 dBm leads to an improved Quality Factor (QF) and reduced transmission errors. Furthermore, the evaluation of received optical power indicates the power level required to maintain an acceptable error rate, approximately -20.9690 dBm for downstream data transfer and -20.7245 dBm for upstream data transfer at the BER limit. The simulation performance also demonstrates the transmission efficiency achieved through a high Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD) coefficient of up to 0.8. The analytical calculations conducted in this work provide valuable insights for optimizing and enhancing the performance of RoF-WDM networks.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Flow Characteristics and Heat Transfer Variabilities in Multiple Turbine Blade Cooling Channels<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the realm of gas turbine engine technology, turbine blades are persistently subjected to extreme thermal conditions due to prolonged exposure to high-temperature gases. Given this operating environment, devising effective cooling strategies is paramount for ensuring the turbine’s safety and longevity. Despite the critical nature of this issue, existing literature scarcely addresses cooling channels that incorporate factors like variable cross-sectional attributes and rotational effects. In this study, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and numerical methodologies were employed to analyze the flow mechanism and performance of three distinct cooling channels characterized by variable cross-sectional features. The results indicate a marginal thermal performance improvement of up to 3% for U-shaped cooling channels, specifically at a Reynolds number of 20,000, in comparison to Net cooling channels. Conversely, jet impingement channels outperform U-shaped channels by an impressive margin of over 11%. Additionally, at a Reynolds number of 60,000, jet impingement cooling channels manifest a significant upsurge of nearly 25% in the ratio between average Nusselt number, and the reference Nusselt number when compared with U-shaped and Net cooling channels.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue’ Reaction Time and Mental Workload: A Driving Simulation Study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Drivers play a significant role in causing serious accidents, which underscores the need for further investigating the human element in order to improve road safety. Given the predominance of the information processing approach in driver’s behavior research field, an important psychological construct, Mental Workload (MWL), has been introduced to study the behavior of drivers. The objective of this paper is to investigate the impact of increased MWL on driver behavior and specifically the changes in driver’s Reaction Time (RT) under increased MWL. The experiment conducted in the driving simulator of the Hellenic Institute of Transport which is part of the Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, with the participation of 56 subjects from all age groups. For the simulation of the increased MWL conditions during driving, a secondary task was employed. To this end, the MIT AgeLab Delayed Digit Recall Task in the 1-back version was adapted for the needs of the present research. The driving scenario included 4 unexpected events, which further increase driver’s MWL. Driving performance was observed and relative parameters were measured as RT on the unexpected events, accidents occurred, and maneuvers performed. Appropriate statistical analysis was performed to examine the difference in the drivers’ RT in the unexpected events. Results demonstrated that higher MWL increased drivers’ RT in the majority of the participants. Furthermore, results also indicated a number of participants that probably employed adaptive control behaviors to counterbalance the increased MWL. Overall, variance on MWL proved to play an important role on driver performance, and thus further research on its consequences on driving performance, and the factors that influence its variance during driving, is imperative.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Algerian Company’s Delivery Fleet with Agent_Based Model in Anylogic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The utilization of simulation <italic>modelling</italic> in supply chain management has proven to be a valuable tool for logistics service providers, enabling them to optimize their operations and meet customer demands efficiently. AnyLogic, with its diverse capabilities in discrete event simulation, system dynamics, and agent-based simulation, stands out as a powerful software solution for tackling complex supply chain challenges. This paper significantly contributes by demonstrating the practical implementation of AnyLogic in the <italic>modelling</italic> and simulation of agro-food product distribution network, particularly vegetable oils from the Cevital group. Additionally, the study integrates an optimization experiment to ascertain the optimal number of vehicles required to meet a specific customer demand while ensuring a high level of fleet utilization. The obtained results are very encouraging and demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of our approach.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Aviation Technical Support as a Service<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The concept of Aviation Technical Support as a Service (ATSaaS) has emerged as a new and innovative approach in the aviation industry, aiming to provide comprehensive technical support services to small airlines. The paper explores the development and implementation of this model, combining state-of-the-art digitalization methods and advanced technologies to address the unique challenges faced by small airlines. The research focuses on the customization and scalability of the service model, considering the diverse needs and requirements of small airlines in terms of aircraft maintenance and technical operations. By leveraging advanced digitalization methods, such as artificial intelligence, machine learning, and data analytics, the model aims to optimize decision-making processes, enhance operational efficiency, and improve overall safety and reliability. The article highlights the research novelty in terms of integrating advanced digitalization methods, developing a customizable and scalable service model, and optimizing performance metrics. It explores the practical significance of the ATSaaS model by providing guidance for small airlines to access high-quality technical support services, make informed decisions, and achieve business growth and profitability. Through a comprehensive literature review, the article examines the existing models of aviation technical support services and identifies the gaps that the ATSaaS model aims to address. The study also emphasizes the importance of collaboration between the service provider and the airline, promoting a collaborative ecosystem that fosters effective communication, information sharing, and mutual benefits.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Broadband Microstrip Antenna Device for 5G Wireless Communication Systems<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper proposes a new method for finding the optimal design of complementary split ring resonator cells for a microstrip antenna, which makes it possible to purposefully optimize the parameters of resonator cells, which significantly improve the electrical characteristics of the antenna. This antenna is designed for cellular communication 5G. The proposed method combines a regression model using a deep network based on fully connected neural layers with a search based on the conditional optimization algorithm COBYLA to find the optimal design parameters of resonator cells. This approach fully automates the process of creating microstrip antennas with resonator cells based on metamaterials and makes it possible to find the parameters of complementary split ring resonator cells that provide the optimal operating mode as a whole and gives the maximum level of antenna radiation while maintaining the bandwidth. The small size of complementary split ring resonator cells opens up the possibility of using this peculiar configuration to create compact and efficient microstrip antennas.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Road Works in Poland: A View from a Dashboard Cam<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Correct signage belongs to critical factors affecting road traffic safety. During a naturalistic driving study in Poland major mistakes associated with signage were noticed and analysed: road works were announced and speed limits were reduced from 120 km/h to 70−80 km/h, but no road construction could be found. Measurements of drivers’ speed showed their complete disregard of the limitations: average speed of light vehicles remained at 113 km/h and lorries at 88 km/h. Assessment of the encountered 683 road signs revealed 12.5% of them to be inadequate (10.9% falsely informed drivers). Evaluation of contrast ratio of road markings (their replacement was the claimed reason for road work) showed low values both before and after re-placement (Weber contrast 0.6). It is hypothesised that erroneous road signage and its contradiction with the visible road features are contributing to the permanent disobedience of traffic rules in Poland and are decreasing road safety.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Approach for Personalized Travel Recommendations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the evolving domain of urban mobility systems, the integration of technology with user-centric strategies is pivotal. This research stands on the foundational concept of Mobility-as-a-Service, a user-centric intelligent mobility management distribution system that seeks to prioritize human needs over mere technological infrastructure. The study delves deep into the wealth of data available through mobile sensing technologies, highlighting the unprecedented understanding it offers into human mobility patterns, thus facilitating personalized route recommendations.</p> <p>The literature categorizes the study area into three interlinked categories: point-of-interest (POI) recommendation, travel planning, and trajectory modelling. In a significant stride, this research introduces a comprehensive understanding of hu-man mobility data and proposes a novel framework designed to tender personalized recommendations to travel planner users. The innovative framework employs a graph-based approach rooted in the Sussex-Huawei Locomotion dataset, leveraging an adaptation of Bellman-Ford’s algorithm. This modification considers factors such as perceived fatigue, frequency of trips to specific locations, and proximity to POIs, promising a path routed in past user experiences and preferences.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Noise Immunity Telecommunication Systems According to the Criterion Energy Efficiency<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Methods for improving the characteristics of the reliability message transmission in multiservice telecommunication networks in the provision of multimedia services are analyzed. The noise immunity reception, effective methods modulation, paths transmission systems, indicators of information, frequency and energy efficiency of the system, methods of processing and receiving messages are considered. The problems of optimizing signal-code constructions according to the criterion of energy efficiency of a telecommunications system are studied. A new approach to the construction of methods for calculating the indicators of noise immunity of receiving messages is proposed, taking into account signal-code structures. The developed calculation method takes into account effective types of modulation, demodulator synthesis algorithms, signal processing methods, bandwidth, signal-to-noise ratio and energy efficiency indicators. On the basis of the calculation method, important analytical expressions were obtained that evaluate the characteristics of the noise immunity reception, taking into account the indicators energy efficiency, throughput per sample, the conditions for the indicators of the signal-to-noise ratio and the probability erroneous reception discrete signals.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Voyage Costs in Maritime Supply Chains: A Holistic Approach Towards Logistics Service Improvement and Supply Chain Finance<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The multi-objective optimization for voyage planning, which aims to balance time, fuel utilization, and all other relevant service costs, is noticeably absent in the scientific literature. The reason behind this gap is closely linked to the involvement of a large number of participants with conflicting interests in the process. This complexity explains why modelling an optimization tool for maritime logistics services appears challenging. Although new technologies such as blockchains and smart contracts have helped reduce the number of participants and address some complexities, they cannot fully resolve the fragmentation observed in maritime transport.</p> <p>To address the need for optimized voyage management for vessels, this study takes a holistic approach to voyage costs within the maritime supply chain, similar to how a single company would approach it. The study combines a case study from the container shipping industry, expert interviews, project results, and secondary empirical data research to develop a financial model for optimizing voyage costs. The research opens up opportunities for improving logistics services and developing new business models in the field of supply chain finance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Practical Application of Hybrid Decision-Making Model for Selection of Third-Party Logistics Service Providers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this study a problematic of logistics service provider selection is discussed. Traditional decision-making techniques are functionally limited and must be adjusted. Modern approach must be based on contemporary tools and information. The aim of this study is to develop a modern, industry-oriented decision-making model for selection of strategic logistics service providers. Main tasks of this study include: to perform critical analysis and comparison of multiple-criteria decision-making methods; to adapt decision-making framework for specific needs of selection of third-party logistics service providers; to collect and analyze industry data related to procurement projects; to develop modern decision-making model for selection of logistics service providers; to perform practical application of developed decision-making model based on collected industry data. The key novelties of this study are developed methodology for collection of industry data for decision-making process, developed hybrid decision-making model for selection of third-party logistics service provider, as well as application of the model. As the result, there is developed decision-making model for selection of 3PL service providers that includes 6 steps.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Distribution Approaches for Efficient Urban Logistics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Urban logistics plays a crucial role in modern society by covering all the flows of goods and services in the transportation world. This study aims to compare different delivery distribution scenarios using the aggregation of stops by grouping entities, for instance, the postal code approach (PCA) and the volume-based approach (VBA), to indicate the most effective one in simplifying urban logistic operations. These two scenarios illustrate two aggregation criteria: geographical, which groups stops with those closest ones, and non-geographical, which tends to cluster stops with similar stops. Used stops came from a real-world dataset acquired from urban logistics operator in the East of Rome. This study uses an optimizing algorithm called Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) and Google Matrix API to calculate the shortest path and travel time. A comparison of those two approaches has been made to illustrate the similarities and differences in CO<sub>2</sub> emissions, travel length, travel time, and unloading time. Although PCA is influenced by demand level, results show that PCA leads to a shorter travel time, shorter travel length, and less emissions produced. Furthermore, VBA is a more heterogenous distribution while PCA contains more homogeneity. The outcome could have the potential for companies and researchers interested in urban logistics due to the proposal of a new way of making distributions, real-world data usage, and comparing different scenarios.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Scenarios of Pedestrian Behavior in a Computer Simulator of Security Monitoring System: A Practitioner’s Perspective<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The subject of this paper is the AvatarTraffic simulator – a computer system capable of modelling in real time environments such as subway stations or airport halls populated with tens or hundreds of moving figures, which, in addition to pedestrian traffic typical for this type of objects, can perform predefined sequences of events and actions formulated as a simulation scenario. Thanks to the integration with a real monitoring system, the simulator, in addition to providing data streams (including video) generated by the virtual scene, is also able to dynamically respond to actions taken by the system’s staff. Using the Unity simulation engine as the implementation platform, a number of practical problems had to be solved during the development, two of which are the subject of this article: a) supervising and correcting the work of AI algorithms used in Unity to simulate the pedestrian movement of avatars, and b) a textual description of the scenario of events taking place on the stage in a way editable for experts planning tests of the monitoring system. Some more challenging cases of people movement are discussed (including creating queues and passing through doors) and the paper presents original algorithms correcting the work of the Unity’s built-in methods in the situations when the coordinated behaviour of people groups is required. Because of the specifics of the simulator environment the scenario needed to be expressed in a JSON text file, and the article presents the implemented mechanisms of its compilation directly to the C# runtime environment and discusses the original command language which was created to model sequences of events and actions making up the scenario.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Systematic Overview of Decision-Making on Public Transport Systems Using Bibliometric Analysis on Vosviewer<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>From the perspectives of users, operators, and the community, decision making for public transportation is regarded as one of the most crucial characteristics to assess quality, ease and preferable. Studies on the decision-making for public transportation have been published. Comprehensive and quantitative investigations are lacking, nevertheless. Additionally, the Scopus database contains very few assessments of public transport integration. The current evaluation was carried out to provide scholars and practitioners with the most recent updates of papers on public transport and decision-making over the last 18 years (between 2005 and 2023), to allay their worries and address their inquiries about better public transport systems. The purpose of this bibliometric analysis and the overview is to encourage future research and collaboration by illuminating the idea of transport decision making studies, highlighting the paucity of relevant works, and providing a summary of the most productive nations, journals, and institutions in the field. A bibliometric analysis of the publications on public transportation and decision-making obtained from the Scopus database was carried out using the VOSviewer software. This allowed researchers to trace the historical and annual records of publications related to decision making covering the top countries, institutions, journals, most frequently used keywords, authors, citation network analysis, and most cited publications. The analysis’s findings identify the indications and interesting issues spots as well as the publications’ remarkable annual rise in decision-making on public transportation systems.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue