rss_2.0Visegrad Journal on Bioeconomy and Sustainable Development FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Visegrad Journal on Bioeconomy and Sustainable Development Journal on Bioeconomy and Sustainable Development 's Cover Changes in the Common Agricultural Policy Bring a Respectful Approach to Environment in EU Countries?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Under the 2014–2020 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), the existence of two pillars is maintained and the link between them is strengthened. Regulation (EU) No. 1307/2013 provides a new system of direct payments. The system consisting of the decoupling of agricultural aid from production (partial decoupling) and the provision of general income support, which came into force in 2003, is being transformed into a system in which single farm payments are replaced by a seven-component system of multi-purpose payments: basic payment per hectare, greening component, additional payment to young farmers, redistributive payment, additional income support in areas with natural handicaps, coupled support, voluntary simplified scheme for small farmers. There are three measures related to greening payments: crop diversification: the farmer must grow at least two different crops; preservation of existing permanent grasslands; the creation of an area of ecological interest corresponding to at least 5% of the arable land of a holding over 15 hectares (excluding permanent grassland and perennial crops). The new CAP aims to increase agriculture‘s contribution to the EU‘s environmental and climate objectives, provide more focused support for smaller farmers and allow Member States greater flexibility to adapt measures to local conditions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Elaboration of the Marketing Communication of the Middle-Sized Company<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main goal of this paper is elaboration of the current marketing strategy of the middle-sized company in Slovakia producing and selling animal products focusing mainly on the online marketing communication as a crucial part of overall marketing communication of the company. For the purpose of this research are used data from the questionnaire survey that took part in the February of 2021 by almost 500 respondents. Results of this questionnaire survey are statistically evaluated, so that we are able to answer our research questions. The output of this paper is evaluation of the importance of social media of the selected company, along with understanding the views of customers. In the conclusion of this paper, we propose some changes to improve the marketing communication of the company.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of the Environmental Corporate Social Responsibility of Hungarian Small and Mediumsized Enterprises in the Era of Coronavirus<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Environmental protection is a very important segment of our lives. If we do not pay enough attention to it there will be serious problems in the near future. The goal of this study was to present current practices and approaches to environmental aspects of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the case of some Hungarian small and medium-sized enterprises. During the research a questionnaire survey was conducted. Based on the results, the coronavirus crisis had a significant impact on the environmental activity of Hungarian small and medium-sized enterprises. Small and medium-sized enterprises have been hit hardest by the 1<sup>st</sup> and 2<sup>nd</sup> wave of the coronavirus crisis. According to the surveyed data, there is a strong correlation between the coronavirus crisis and the environmental targets. Due to the financial difficulties, Hungarian enterprises had to reduce their budget for supporting environmental protection.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effects of Modern Technology on Job’s Security in Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The impact of modern technology around the globe on both humans and other physical environments cannot be overstated. Technology has widely affected general ways of life and events. The level of technology has continued spreading to many developing nations, which is not only affecting human lives but has a great impact on employment and business activities as well. This situation is analysed from two perspectives in this paper; concerning the negative and positive effects. The study gives a short overview on how work was done before and after the advent of digital technology, and with the help of collecting problems resulting from modern technology, it suggests possible ways of minimisation the negative effects of the technology, especially in developing nations struggling to adapt to new changes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Understanding and Promoting the ‘Leaving No One Behind’ Ambition Regarding the Sustainable Development Agenda: A Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>With the adoption of the 2015–2030 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the United Nations (UN) Member States pledged to ensure that no one would be left behind. This article highlights the essentials (meaning, importance, history, framework, pillars, related key studies, and role of key actors) in respect of the ‘Leaving No One Behind’ (LNOB) pledge. The review shows that the LNOB pledge has three-pronged strategic development imperatives: (i) to end poverty in all its forms, (ii) to stop the discrimination and inequality that have resulted in unequal outcomes for the disadvantaged population, and (iii) to reach the furthest behind first. The framework for achieving the ambition is anchored on implementing the SDGs, ‘empowering the left-behind by ensuring their meaningful participation in decision-making; and enforcing equity-focused policies, and interventions with a dedicated budget to support rights-holders and duty-bearers to address the deprivations of the people left behind. The UN, Governments, Businesses, Civil Society Organisations and other actors should collaborate to translate the mantra into reality by addressing the pervasive societal issues of poverty, inequality, and discrimination. Germane to achieving the LNOB ambition are reliable disaggregated people-centered data, research, and stakeholder/actor commitment to the pledge.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of the Centre-Periphery Relations – Focus on the Competitiveness of Hungarian Districts<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Spatial economic analysis, including research on regional development and competitiveness, has long been a high priority area in the social sciences, both domestically and globally. Several dominant international models relate changes in regional competitiveness to the volume of investment, physical capital and improvements in the income situation of citizens. This suggests that the promotion and implementation of investment has the greatest impact on regional development, as it generates technological innovation and innovation in order to raise the skills of the available labour force, employ human resources at higher wages and thus raise living standards. On the basis of these findings, our study examines the level of development of the domestic LAU1 districts on the basis of their complex (social, economic and infrastructural) level of development, their income situation and their economic competitiveness.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Experiences of Participants in on-the-Job Trainings in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One of the most important fringe benefits for employers is education. Employees who have been trained are more attached to the company and their esteem increases. The survey interviewed 371 employees of enterprises participating in the GINOP (Economic Development and Innovation Operational Programme of Hungary) 6.1.5-17 “Support for on-the-job training for large enterprises” and GINOP-6.1.6-17 “Support for on-the-job training for micro, small and medium-sized enterprises”. The interviewees had different positions and educational qualifications. It could be shown that those who had been trained were able to use the new skills, some of them leading to an increase in income. The biggest risk of on-the-job training is that the workforce trained by the company is seduced by a competing company, resulting in a huge loss for the company.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Consequences of Covid-19 for Kosovo’s Implementation to V4<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article aims to provide a micro- and macro-level of a problem definition focused on Coronavirus crisis impacts on the tourism industry in the V4 countries and the eventual Kosovo integration into the V4 as a part of the Western Balkan 6 (WB6) and Eastern Partnership (EaP) enlargement V4<sup>+</sup>. The analysis of the primary data and the search for results are based on the Delphi method providing a better explanation of economic, social and market integration processes which fully exploit the opportunities of the content analysis provided by the quantitative and qualitative secondary data. The article offers key guiding criteria for deepening the economic integration into the V4 Group, emphasizing key aspects such as the economic and regional convergence, and the incorporation of diverse social strata into the economic growth process. The article highlights the benefits derived from the full membership of the actual V4 Group in the European Community as well as identifies its powerful strength and stable frame for promoting growth and prosperity. The critical view of the political and economic integration process emphasizes the risks derived from the deepness of divergence across countries and regions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Local Employment Development and Sustainable Labour Market in Northern Hungary Since the Regime Change<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The peripheral regions of Hungary, such as the Northern Hungarian region and its settlements, are facing a variety of problems and challenges, and in addition to economic difficulties, demographic and labour market challenges also demand increased attention and solutions. Since the change of regime, the region has been facing economic and labour market difficulties. The current labour market faces a combination of labour shortages, automation and robotisation, rapidly changing conditions and high unemployment. In most peripheral regions, the availability of labour resources to meet the needs of the primary labour market is very limited and local labour markets are completely depleted. The unemployed lack skills and experience. The aim of the study is to provide an overview of labour market developments in the Northern Hungarian region since the change of regime and to describe successful local developments. Addressing the situation requires local, municipal-level solutions, which is a real challenge, as there is no single recipe. Local development can and should be built on a toolbox of local development, as solutions based on local resources, local ‘heroes’, local control and local ideas can be successful. The paper describes such successful local development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Collaborative Destination Management of V4 Countries and Germany During the Covid-19 Pandemic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Tourism destinations need to develop a coordinated approach to the development of new tourism options. One possibility is to strengthen domestic tourism in the own country and to support local hotels and restaurants. However, rebuilding the destination requires a coordinated approach; for instance, collaborations with cross-border regions. Collaborative destination management is an approach to work with partner countries to jointly address the challenges of pandemics by establishing different types of tourism. Recommendations for action are identified from the PESTLE and SWOT analysis to ensure successful collaborative destination management of V4 countries and Germany during the Covid-19 pandemic. These analyses were performed because of brainstorming and the Delphi method with 4 experts from several fields of this study. Therefore, a strategy based on the TOWS Matrix reflects what a new collaborative destination management approach could look like during the current crisis for the Euroregions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Objective and Subjective Study of the Dynamic Development of the City of Gyöngyös (Hungary)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cities play a key role in EU regional policy, and to this end the Leipzig Charter called for the development of Integrated Urban Development Strategies (IVS) emphasizing an integrated approach in the 2007–2013 budget period, which was replaced in the period 2014–2020 by Integrated Settlement Development Strategies (ITS). We can find many experiments in the methodological elaboration of the measurement of regional and municipality development in the Hungarian and international literature. However, due to the complexity of the topic, no more widely accepted procedure has emerged, however, there is a common consensus that development is treated as a complex phenomenon. In the present study, we attempted to examine the development of the city of Gyöngyös through a complex system of indicators for the period 2010–2018. In addition, an important part of our research is to supplement the results obtained with statistical data and, if possible, to compare them to the subjective judgment of the residents. Our main goal was to answer how the changes of the indicator groups in the indicator system and their totality are perceived by the residents.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Generational Differences in Adult Education Methodology – The Point of View of the Instructors<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The methodology of adult learning has changed significantly. Today, it is no longer possible to consider it a homogeneous group of trainees with a significant age difference. Different methods and tools are available to acquire knowledge. Digital technology, changes in time management, and changes in the way information is processed require new methods in adult learning. The acquisition of knowledge is necessary to enable workers to contribute to the digitization of the operating characteristics of production equipment and machinery in the context of Industry 4.0 and, on the other hand, to enable the combination of robotic and human skills to be launched in the 21<sup>st</sup> century through Industry 5.0. In our research, we examine the perspectives of adult education institutions, adult education professionals, and the people involved in adult education to ameliorate the use of digital technology in adult education as effectively as possible. We looked at the readiness and openness of institutions and trainers and the digital competencies and expectations of adult learning users of different generations. With our research, we got to know the situation of adult education enterprises operating in Hungary, in the Békés County, the needs and learning habits of different generations, and determined the directions of digital competence development in adult education.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effect of Innovation on Small and Medium Enterprises: A Bibliometric Analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Innovation plays great role in organizational competitiveness and sustainable business processes and it should be a key success policy for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) all over the world. To this effect, the purpose of this study is to present a comprehensive understanding of the scientific studies made on the field of innovation and its effect on small and medium enterprises performance. A bibliometric study was used to analyze articles published between 1976 and 2020 and create an illustrative map of innovation in small and medium enterprises; a sample of papers gathered through Web of Science Core Collection database. Accordingly, there were found 2219 documents which were published in 332 sources. VOS viewer was employed to portray network analysis of, authorship, keywords visualization, citations, and countries dealing with the subject. SCIMAT software was also used to do longitudinal thematic analysis. Even though many countries, universities, research institutes, funding agencies, and authors contributed for the growth of this field of study, almost all are from developed nations. This study is one amongst the very few studies made using bibliometric analysis in this field. Moreover, the thematic network diagram reveals two other new themes in the subject, which are taken as knowledge seed, and have high potential for a future study.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of Tax Policy on the Business Economy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Taxation and tax policy are relatively much-discussed topics within every society, and this has been so in the past, it is today, and it will be in the future. This is mainly due to the fact that no person or company is too fond of having to pay a certain part from their funds to the state in the form of taxes. Each state chooses its own tax policy and its own tax system so that the specified tax policy does not impede economy and economic development, but on the contrary, supports the business and economic growth. After the accession of the Slovak Republic to the European Union, Slovakia had to accept a certain state of tax regulations and rules that was valid in the European Union. This was mainly in order to use the common European market. The Slovak Republic has created its tax system in accordance with the rules of the European Union and has been trying to find a compromise between the amount of taxes necessary for the fulfilment of the state budget and the amount of taxes that would be most acceptable for the business sector and for people. Within the tax system, the Slovak Republic divides taxes into direct and indirect taxes, direct taxes imposed on labour, income and property, and taxes on consumption by indirect taxes. Recently, the prevailing opinion is that taxation should gradually shift from direct taxes to indirect taxes, to motivate people and businesses to achieve the best possible results, and subsequently raise the necessary funds based on the increased consumption. Recently, both in Slovakia and in the European Union, new excise taxes have been increasingly introduced. Traditional excise taxes such as taxes on mineral oils and fuels, tobacco and alcoholic beverages are complemented by energy, environmental, and electronic taxes. Slovakia and the European Union want to reduce the burden on the environment through these taxes on the one hand, and on the other hand, they must respond to the new challenges of globalization, information, and communication.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00The Examination of Food Waste Behaviour in Hungarian Households<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Our current existence on the Earth raises a number of contradictions such as our relation to food. According to the FAO, a third of the food produced does not reach consumers; according to calculations by the World Resources Institute, even if we reduced losses by a quarter, 795 million people would have enough food to feed. This controversial situation gives topicality to the topic, which will only grow as the Earth’s population grows by about 80 million people a year and our resources for nourishment are finite. In our research we focused on households within the topic area of food waste generated in the supply chain. This focus of research is considered a difficult one because results could be found only with data logging and this method has several limitations which could distort the results. In our research, 20 households in Kaposvár were asked to log the amount of their food waste for 14 days. We set up five hypotheses before our research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Distribution of Adult Education Participants in Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present study presents adult education institutions and participants in adult education at the national level, highlighting the Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County. It shows the decrease in the number of tasks and the change in the types of maintainers, the decreasing trend of the number of privately maintained institutions and the number of students. Thanks to public interventions, private-run institutions have completely shrunk in the last 7 years due to support for training. Private institutions receive little or no state support for the teaching of the professions listed in the National Training Register, which means that students can only study in private schools for a fee. This decision resulted in the dissolution of most privately maintained institutions, their merging into local Vocational Training Centres or church institutions. The main goal of the research was to get a realistic picture of the causes of institutional change.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of Renewable Energy Investments from Public Financial Institutions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Renewable energy sources have become a compelling investment proposition, and investment into renewable power has grown in the recent years. Scale up renewable energy investment is critical to accelerate the global energy transformation and reap its many benefits, while achieving climate and development targets. Public finance institutions provide public money to support public and private sector projects as well as policies and programmes that serve the public good with economic, environmental, or social benefits. Several such institutions have been established and resourced with the aim of supporting renewable energy investments such as: international financial institutions, development finance institutions, local financial institutions, export credit agencies, and climate finance institutions. The main aim of this paper was to analyze the investments provided by this type of institutions in the renewable energy sector in the world with a specific focus on European Union member states in 2009–2016.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Directions for Ensuring the Equivalence of Exchange in Agri-Food Chains in Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article examines the issues of intersectoral price relations in agri-food chains in Ukraine. It is proved that the imbalance of relations between different spheres of the agro-industrial complex due to price disparity causes the withdrawal of financial resources from one industry to another, without creating conditions for expanded reproduction. The factors influencing prices in agri-food chains are systematized: inflation, disparity, currency fluctuations, sales channels, etc. It is confirmed that the subjects of entrepreneurial activity of the agricultural sector of economy operated in conditions of price disparity during 2000–2019, which led to a relatively low value of their profitability. At the level of a participant in the chain of food industry entities, the price index for food industry products has been exceeded over the agricultural level, but there is a very low level of profitability – 1.4% in 2019. Analytically proved existence of a disparity between retail prices for food and agricultural products provides a profitability of wholesale and retail trade at 15.8–23.3%. Violation of the equivalence of exchange in supply chains at the level of wholesale and retail trade leads to the entry of agricultural enterprises into vertically integrated associations of the holding type. It is substantiated that ensuring the equivalence of exchange in agri-food chains requires the introduction of a set of value-added tools in the agricultural sector of antitrust regulation, market infrastructure development, rural cooperation and integration, and support for the development of small producers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Food Security in the Era of Sustainable Organic Farming: A Comparison Between the Visegrad Group and India<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The agriculture industry has undergone many developments that embraced automation, agro-chemical fertilizers, genetically modified organisms etc that brought exponential growth in productivity post industrial revolution. This growth resolved the food availability issues on a global scale, but rapid climate change has brought about a shift in production practices to more sustainable organic farming techniques from the conventional methods. The climate change effects and increase in greenhouse gas emissions adversely affected the overall agricultural output. The widespread perception is that adoption of organic farming can reduce the harmful greenhouse emissions and be less damaging to the environment, although expecting the same level of productivity as conventional farming is challenging. This gradual shift can cause future food security problems such as availability and affordability of food in developing countries. This article compares and analyses such trend in the Visegrad group (V4) and India. The comparison between a group of developed nations and a developing nation is of exploratory interest because V4 countries are regarded as high-income countries and they are leaders in organic cultivation practices since the 1980s, whereas India as a developing country has seen substantial conversion of agriculture land area from conventional to organic farming in the past decade.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of the Biogas Production Potential within the Slovak Spirits Industry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Slovak spirits industry has a stable position within the alcoholic beverages industry in the Slovak Republic. However, its production process causes significant environmental stress on nature. The industry can use roughly only 10% of the raw materials. This means a significant amount of waste is produced during the distillation process. We investigated the biogas production potential within the Slovak distilleries producing spirits for final consumption when we compared the production of spirits between the years 2010 and 2019. Biogas production potential is calculated as an ideal situation when all spent wash from spirits producing distilleries is used for biogas production. The potential energy gain is also calculated in kWh based on the already available research in the field of biogas production. We conducted that the total biogas potential of the Slovak spirits industry could reach 15,886,053 kWh in terms of electricity and 22,946,177 kWh in terms of heat energy if we calculate energy potential according to the spirits production in the year 2019. The total combined energy potential generated during the reuse of waste from distilleries could reach 38,832,230 kWh. The biogas production in these facilities has also a positive side effect. If distilleries use the heat energy for the distillation process, the amount of greenhouse emissions will also be declining.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1