rss_2.0Wroclaw Review of Law, Administration & Economics FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Wroclaw Review of Law, Administration & Economics Review of Law, Administration & Economics Feed EU Accession to the Istanbul Convention: The Argument From the ‘common Accord’ Practice<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main purpose of this article is to analyse the Council’s practice of ‘common accord’ as the argument behind the tardiness of accession to the Istanbul Convention by the European Union. It presents how political and legal factors condition the accession of the Istanbul Convention by the European Union. In light of the Court of Justice Opinion 1/19, there are no legal obstacles to the accession; therefore, the tardiness of ratification arose from the political context, which consists of the EU’s constitutional crisis, populists in power, and liberal decision-makers succumbing to them. Based on the sociological assumption, the case study confirms the existence of the practice of ‘common accord’ as an effect of the conditions mentioned above. Nevertheless, the social need to access the Istanbul Convention is urgent.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Legislation and Health Policy against the Background of Achievement of the Assumptions and Objectives of the Measles Eradication Programme in the European Region<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The measles elimination programme in the European region set up by the World Health Organization was a response to the real risk of a measles epidemic in Europe. The ideas of the programme were to be integrated into national regulations to effectively counteract this threat. The end of the programme in 2020 opens the door for discussion on the further need to refine legislative and organisational solutions for measles prevention. This is even more justified as new measles outbreaks have been observed in the European region since 2018.</p> <p>Poland was one of the countries in the European region to take legislative action to protect public health after 2008. However, it was only the COVID-19 pandemic that led to numerous amendments to the national legal order. This raises the question of the effectiveness and quality of national regulations against measles. This article analyses selected national regulations in relation to the objectives of the measles elimination programme in the European region. The assessment shows the need for further improvement of national legislation, as well as the need to extend the measles elimination programme in the European region to coordinate national efforts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Report on the Fourth Wroclaw Conference on Competitiveness and Sustainability: “Global Challenges, Innovative Approaches, and Civic Action” and Education as a Part of Public Administration in the Perspective of a Smart Organisation – Selected Attributes<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The study is aimed at emphasising the selected aspects of smart education with regard to the school perceived as an intelligent knowledge-based organisation challenged by state-of-the-art civilisational and technological educational solutions. The study focuses on school and education with respect to the structure and function of public administration perceived as an intelligent organisation. School and educational services will determine and influence future generations of public administration staff. Their brainpower as well intellectual resources (knowledge, skills and experience) will serve the welfare of the society. Highly intelligent administration may win the respect for the organisation itself and for its services rendered to the society.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Integration<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article is devoted to smart integration taking place on the Polish–German borderland and, more precisely, the border between the Lower Silesian Voivodeship and the Saxony Länder, which, according to the author, is the result of an evolution of forms of transfrontier cooperation of territorial self-government units. It will analyse the conditions for the emergence of forms of cooperation in the transfrontier area and their evolution in European experiences to date and, after 1990, also with the involvement of Polish territorial self-governments.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Administration– Really? Why Not? Introduction<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In an increasingly smarter world, where increasingly more areas of social life are encompassed by “smart solutions”, public administration cannot remain on the outside or in opposition to this process. The scholars of the Section of the Public Administration System at the Institute of Administrative Sciences of Faculty of Law, Administration and Economics at the University of Wrocław, have decided to devote a collective publication to the matter of smart administration. The articles comprising this volume present a rich array of topics related to the issue of smart administration, as each of the authors has chosen a different area of administrative activity.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Fiscal Administration as One of the Conditions of Smart Administration in Poland<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Public administration is constantly changing, with the objective of keeping up with the social, economic and technological developments of the modern world. It is opening up to modern technologies, introducing ever newer innovations and attempting to satisfy the needs of the citizens. It is no longer seen to such a large extent as an archaic structure that is blind to reforms and modernization; as a result of which, it can start to be perceived as a smart organization. New instruments are being introduced in many areas of administration, one of them being the fiscal administration. The changes related to the ability to communicate electronically with the tax authorities, submit electronic tax returns or pay stamp duty electronically are certainly aspects that have a positive impact on the whole image of administration, enabling it to be referred to as ‘smart’. The paper provides an overview on the fiscal administration system in Poland and e-services provided thereby.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue ‘smart’ is Public Administration in the Eyes of European Students? - Examining Behaviour Models in the Public Administration<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Following study focussed on the perception of the public administration by the international students in the context of implementation of the concept of smart administration. New administrative reality requires that public administration should not only adapt to new conditions, but should also introduce complex plans of change, which in consequence should lead to the creation of a new type of smart administration, which adequately answers the needs and expectations of contemporary and future citizens.</p><p>Smart administration should be understood as an effective, well managed organisation with reasonably simplified structure and conduct oriented primarily towards serenity, comfort and well-being of the recipient of its service. Important feature is easy, two-way communication, which is a gateway for active participation of citizens in public affairs in both local and nationwide level.</p><p>For the purpose of this study, various dispositions expressed towards public administration were classified into the three categories of behaviour models. Models of behaviour in public administration presented in the paper are meritoric-despotism behaviour, efficient-democratic behaviour and anarchist-informal behaviour and were created for this study on the basis of approaches already present in the field.</p><p>Main objective of the paper is to provide preliminary analysis of how the international students perceive changes in the behaviour models in public administration and what is the role of smart administration in this. This paper is based on the data collected during the interviews, conducted face to face, with four students from different part of Europe and who are following exchange programmes. Questions concerned the experience in contact with public administration, its role, performance and how should it be changed. Research results showed that regarding behaviour changes in public administration, interlocutors speak in favour of a centralised model of public administration rather than decentralised, which is interesting in the context of smart administration, because this mean that there is still a common perception that the base of classic approach to public administration should be maintained even if modified by new concepts.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue City: From Concept To Implementation<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This article presents four interpretations of the term smart city, which are not competitive with each other, but even so, municipal authorities knowingly choose the so-called strong preference, as well as shows the conditions for implementing Smart City Projects, which is treated as one of the mechanisms of implementing the idea of the smart city. We also draw attention in the article to the logic of preferences, which is rooted in every decision-making process of municipal authorities, which were forced to make constant choices in conditions of conflicting expectations of stakeholders.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Agreement For Cross-Border Cooperation Between Local Authorities<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The cross-border cooperation of local authorities, taken up based on the administrative law of each of the states, is marked by both integrating factors that refer to the similarities of the applicable system of law and separating factors arising from the principle of territoriality of administrative law. The frame agreement is a smart solution (a smart tool) of cross-border cooperation, because it enables cooperating territorial self-government units to conduct a unique operation of ‘recompensing’ separating factors with integrating factors.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Practices in Public Administration to End Homelessness: the Example of Scandinavian Countries<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Homelessness is a phenomenon for which the scale is growing at an alarming rate in Europe. It leads to the exclusion of people affected by it, to the denying of human dignity, and it constitutes a threat to human health and life. It is a multidimensional phenomenon in its substance and causes that lead to it. Therefore, it is necessary for the European states to take steps to prevent and reduce its scale. This requires thoughtful, sometimes innovative activities that bring with them a serious financial outlay for their implementation. It also concerns Poland, where the basic form of assistance to the homeless people is still a shelter, which is far from the level of assistance provided to the homeless people in the countries of Western Europe, especially in countries such as Finland, Denmark or Norway. The aim of the article is a theoretical overview of the notion of smart practices in public administration to end homelessness in selected Scandinavian countries and its state affair in Poland, using relevant scientific literature. The article provides the reader with information about the homelessness strategies implemented in Finland, Denmark and Norway, and refers them to the Polish conditions.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Smart Administration<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Smart public administration (hereinafter: smart administration) is understood primarily as the application of modern technologies that increase its effectiveness. However, not only modern techniques and innovative communication solutions define this concept. They should be considered in a broader sense because smart administration has many dimensions. The article presents just such an approach and discusses five dimensions of smart administration (technological, political, legal, subjective and structural).</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Essentials of Georgia's Economic Transformation<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of this article is to examine Georgia's economic transformation and try to answer the question: Why Georgia is not able to have a stable and high economic growth? In this article, it will be an attempt to answer this question by taking into account the weak private sector in Georgia, as one of the main burdens of economic growth. The article attempts to analyse the economic transformation in Georgia. The reasons for its failure and consequences, also to estimate its possible impact on the nowadays economic situation in Georgia. The latter will be examined from the perspective of Institutional Theory. The article will try to answer the above-mentioned question and problems, taking into account the institutional changes in Georgia. The article explains the unsuccessful path of transformation and tries to connect its results to the current economic situation in Georgia.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue To Deal With Unjust Laws: Justifiability Of Civil Disobedience<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The issue of active protests against the injustice of the law aimed at bringing about a change in that conduct is of great relevance for members of the world society. There is no escape from admitting the fact that even the most perfect political system may and will from time to time produce unjust laws. What is as yet unclear is the principles of justification in favour of a civil disobedient who commits an open breach of that laws. The present article defines the features that make an act of civil disobedience something more than a simple breach of a law. The purpose of this article is to justify civil disobedience as a unique political category, which makes social choice and legal change possible.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Role of Consumers’ Behaviour in Applying Green Marketing: An Economic Analysis of the Non-alcoholic Beverages Industry in Kosova<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Green marketing in Kosova evolved as a means for enterprises to adjust to increased market competitiveness. The objective of the study was to identify how consumers’ environmentally friendly behaviour drove the demand for new eco-value market offerings. Concurrently, the study aimed to prove how domestic producers of non-alcoholic beverages used their capabilities to deliver new eco-value market offerings. The research is based on a survey conducted in Kosova. Analysis focused on statistical correlation testing of consumers’ green marketing awareness, behaviour toward the environment, information search, trust in advertising and labels displaying health benefits of beverages and attitudes towards a willingness to pay more for organic non-alcoholic beverages compared with non-organic ones. Significant findings were the positive influence of family and media in shaping consumers’ environmentally friendly behaviour and, in contrast, consumers’ mistrust in the marketing activities of producers as a consequence of misleading advertising.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue the Internet Forget? – Rhe Eight to be Forgotten in the EU Law and its Actual Impact on the Internet. Comparison of the Approaches Towards the Notion and Assessment of its Effectiveness<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The main aim of the article is to provide analysis on the notion of the right to be forgotten developed by the CJEU in the ruling Google v. AEPD &amp; Gonzalez and by the General Data Protection Regulation within the context of the processing of personal data on the Internet. The analysis provides the comparison of approach towards the notion between European and American jurisprudence and doctrine, in order to demonstrate the scale of difficulty in applying the concept in practice.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Analysis of Field Preferences of an Educational System<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>It is the labour market that decides about the popularity of a field of studies. The area where the highest number of job offers appears is reflected in the offers of universities. However, it is very often mentioned in many media that future students decide to choose social and humane studies whose market chances are evaluated on a relatively low level.</p><p>In the past 10 years, because of the decrease in the birth rate, the number of Polish students at various universities declined to about 700,000 people. In these years, it was observed that the number of studying men and women declined (to almost 30%). The lowest decrease in the number of students was observed at technical universities because of the fact that, at that time, the number of female students increased there. The group of female students constitutes the one that has increased in numbers in the past 10 years.</p><p>The authors of this article, using a multidimensional comparative analysis method, conducted a research on studying field preferences of female students, which is a dominant group of people studying at Polish universities.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue review by Nina N. Baranowska Linkage Between Labour Standards and International Trade: How to Offset the Global Inequality?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>From a historical point of view, the linkage between core labour standards and global trade has been recurrent for 200 years. Supporters of such a correlation argue that countries that do not respect the International Labour Organization (ILO) core labour standards gain competitive advantage that can result in a ‘race to the bottom’ phenomenon. Critics claim that protectionism and false humanitarianism is hidden behind this concept. Despite a long debate on this subject, there is still significant divergence in power between developed and developing countries. A response to the plight of many workers is still needed. Thus, the author will focus on some attempts to resolve existing problems, mainly: whether labour standards should be left to the ILO, included in the World Trade Organization (WTO) agenda or both forces should be combined; whether the inclusion of a social clause in trade agreements could improve the situation of workers; whether the imposition of trade sanctions on countries that do not adhere to the core labour standards could ensure the extension of fundamental rights of workers on their citizens. The author will also comment on the concept of a global labour and trade framework agreement (GLTFA), that is, the proposal based on international framework agreements and ILO tripartite system.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Customary International Law in the Works of the United Nations International Law Commission