rss_2.0WSB Journal of Business and Finance FeedSciendo RSS Feed for WSB Journal of Business and Finance Journal of Business and Finance Feed Between Political Stability and Economic Growth: An Empirical Study From Nepal<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study examines the impact of the political stability index, including inflation rate and gross capital formation growth, on Nepal’s economic growth. This study uses secondary data from the World Bank, covering 27 annual data points from 1996 to 2022. Descriptive and exploratory research designs are used. Some statistical and essential econometric tools like graphs, descriptive statistics, correlation analysis, Johnsen co-integration test, vector error correction model, and Wald test are used in the study. The independent and dependent variables exhibit long-term cointegration. The preceding year’s political stability has a favorable influence on current economic expansion. One percent improvement in the previous year’s political stability index led to a 0.1896 percent increase in economic growth. One percent increase in inflation results in a 0.1884 percent decrease in economic growth in Nepal. Similarly, 84.96 percent of the variation in economic growth is influenced by factors such as past economic growth, political stability, inflation, and the expansion rate in gross capital accumulation over an extended period. The short-term economic growth of Nepal is influenced by factors such as the previous year’s economic growth, political stability index, and growth in gross capital formation. Nevertheless, the inflation rate does not statistically explain short-term economic progress. To develop sustainable economic growth in Nepal, it is crucial to undertake critical policy initiatives such as enhancing the political stability index, encouraging capital formation, and efficiently managing inflation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue to the sustainable development of the Portuguese economy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Currently, sustainable development of a country refers to targeted economic growth that does not harm the environment (or, better yet, is integrated into natural cycles or a circular economy) and also contributes to solving social problems. Thus, a balance is maintained between the territory’s economic, environmental, and social development, which has accelerated and continues to form its own set of tools for promoting sustainable development, most often integrated into global directions.</p> <p>The purpose of the study is to identify and analyze the main problems of sustainable development of the economy of Portugal as one of the EU countries, including those related to natural factors, labor resources, sociocultural characteristics, the development of modern technologies, infrastructure, economics, political and legislative features. The study used comparative descriptive and analytical methods, as well as an analysis of modern statistics, literature, and Internet resources. The paper identifies, classifies, and analyzes the most critical barriers and challenges for the country’s economy in the present and the future, as well as the possible consequences of these challenges.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue selection criteria for harmonious co-living: la Maison des Babayagas and beyond<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>With an ever-increasing pace of change, dwindling resources, and an aging population, modern societies face harsh questions regarding effective governance systems. Moreover, with lingering problems brought on by COVID and ongoing inflationary pressures, the situation for growing numbers of aging women who have outlived their partners and are living on their own is increasingly grim. In Canada, when the elderly cannot manage independently, even the least expensive full-care retirement home options can have a formidable cost, which can be a heavy burden for many. Therefore, it is of utmost importance for society to support independent living as long as possible.</p> <p>Independent living models are being developed with various constraints and often with profit in mind. However, we were interested in the most economically feasible and socially acceptable solution. One such development is <italic>La Maison des Babayagas</italic> in Paris, France. This innovative government-subsidized housing project has been developed for retired independent women who pay rent for small apartments according to their means. The residents live in independent units and support one another in an economic and social arrangement that promotes friendships, fights loneliness, and helps each maintain a healthy outlook.</p> <p>This research aimed to gather data to create an inventory questionnaire to select independent retired women in Canada to live together harmoniously in a housing project based on the successful model developed in Paris. The questionnaire is based on analyzing the Babayagas House charter and resident journals and an extensive review of related inventories and questionnaires. The criteria retained will be explained, and examples of the questions will be presented.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Sustainable HRM Case Study: Sustainable HRM in Light of Ministry of Culture, Qatar<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of the study is to assess the extent to which the HRM practices of the Qatari Ministry of Culture have been effectively integrating sustainability principles to improve both organizational performance and employee well-being. A mixed-methods approach was employed, which involved interviews with stakeholders, staff members, and HR managers, analyzing documents, administering questionnaires, and conducting interviews.</p> <p>The findings demonstrated that the Ministry of Culture recognized the significance of sustainability and implemented measures to foster work-life balance, enhance diversity and inclusion, provide opportunities for professional growth, and establish transparent governance and accountability procedures. These activities have positive impacts on the efficiency of the organization, as well as on employee engagement and satisfaction. The study emphasizes integrating sustainability principles into human resource management (HRM) practices and aligning HR strategy with sustainable development objectives.</p> <p>Furthermore, the study provides details regarding strategies and programs to improve sustainability in HRM. The study’s distinctiveness lay in its focus on the Ministry of Culture, thereby augmenting the existing body of research on sustainability in HRM. The objective is to encourage the implementation of similar strategies in other companies by educating decision-makers, HR professionals, and organizational executives about the benefits of sustainability initiatives.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue impact of cultural inclusion on human resource management practices<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Companies need and want to become more inclusive entities. Inclusion encompasses a variety of dimensions, including gender equality and unbiased treatment because of sexual orientation. Cultural inclusion, however, is often overlooked.</p> <p>Based on available research, this article analyses critical Polish management practices and appropriate attitudes of managers towards employees from other cultural backgrounds. It also advocates organizational initiatives to improve the situation, especially in the context of the wartime mass migration of Ukrainian citizens to Poland.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Functional Food Among Croatian Consumers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nutrition’s significance lies at the very core of human existence - from fostering good health and upholding individual well-being to indulging in the pleasures of food, its importance is undeniable. Reviewing the scientific literature, diverse definitions of functional food try to define its meaning precisely. The food is labeled “functional” when it fulfills basic nutritional needs and positively influences health, diminishing the risk of specific diseases and enhancing overall vitality. Considering that food expenses constitute a substantial portion of household budgets, a significant economic dimension exists when planning an individual’s diet. The assortment of functional foods is constantly evolving, prompting modern consumers to analyze their dietary choices more rigorously than ever before. This surge in interest has evoked the attention of researchers, manufacturers, and consumers. However, a comprehensive analysis of Croatia’s consumer behavior and functional foods must still be available. The present study builds upon the theory of planned behavior, a framework well-fitted for social research and exceptionally skilled at investigating the multiple factors pointing to consumer decisions. Drawing insights from empirical research conducted in Croatia, a robust correlation was established through linear regression between attitudes, subjective norms, concern for personal health, and the intent to purchase functional foods.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Marketing and the Challenges of Green Marketing Communication: Survey of Consumer Attitudes and Buying Behaviour for Sustainable Products in the Czech Republic<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Sustainability is a term that resonates throughout society in the broadest sense: from countries across continents, individual actors within communities or states – business entities, educational institutions and households, and public administrations. This is because the earth is highly likely to become unviable if we do not pursue sustainability. So many are aware of this and see sustainability as an important and no doubt long-term megatrend that affects us all. Businesses are not standing on the sidelines either, although it must be acknowledged that sustainability and economics do not always go hand in hand; however, projects with various practical sustainability benefits can be found. Unfortunately, sustainability is sometimes perceived as a topic that can be exploited in marketing in the form of “greenwashing.” This article addresses the challenges of green marketing communication, and examples from the Czech Republic are presented. Questionnaires were conducted to analyze and evaluate consumers’ attitudes and buying behavior toward sustainable products in the Czech Republic.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue, Entrepreneurship, and the “Švarc-system” from the Social Development Point of View<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Economic activity based on producing goods and services is essential for the development of any society. Individuals can carry out this economic activity in dependent activities (employment) or entrepreneurship (self-employment). A third way is the so-called „Švarc-system,” which is not legal in the Czech Republic. It is a situation where persons performing normal activities for the entrepreneur in a dependent relationship are not his employees but formally act as self-employment. There are currently discussions about the legalization of the system among politicians and experts. This article introduces how labor and tax law regulations influence attitudes toward economic activity and development. The research methods to achieve this aim include description, critical analysis, and synthesis. The findings described in this article are that the Švarc-system based on self-employment allows greater freedom for employers and employees and smaller payments to public budgets than forms of dependent activities. A high level of autonomy increases development in various areas and helps social development. The implication falls into practical rather than theoretical fields. Therefore, regulation in this area should be lowered to support further development. This article’s originality is that it reflects on the academic impacts of the legalization of the system from legal and economic points of view. These conclusions should help reflect on the regulation of legislation in this field.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue foreign direct investments, carbon (CO) emissions, and economic growth nexus: an empirical analysis for Turkey and European Union countries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Purpose - This study aims to investigate the empirical relationship between foreign direct investment, carbon emissions, and economic growth. Our study attempts to contribute to the existing literature on sustainable economic development.</p> <p>Methodology -The analysis was carried out using panel data analysis, covering Turkey and the 27 countries of the European Union from 2010 to 2020. Statistical data were obtained from the World Data Bank and the OECD Data Bank.</p> <p>Results - Hausman test analysis indicated that a fixed effects model should be selected. The model results show that foreign direct investment significantly affects economic growth, but carbon (CO<sub>2</sub>) emissions are also in a positive relationship. Foreign investment should be developed due to its impact on economic growth. However, the effects of CO<sub>2</sub> emissions should be limited, as it causes negative social and environmental externalities.</p> <p>Practical implications - with the development of foreign investment, appropriate environmental policies should be implemented by all countries in global cooperation. The article proposes some development policy solutions. These include, among others, promoting foreign direct investments that lead to more effective implementation of sustainable development goals and introducing market-based financial instruments to support such investments.</p> <p>Originality and value - the study covers not only EU countries but also Turkey; It uses statistical modeling based on ten years of data for 28 countries. Results can be used in sustainable development policies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue impact of website design on consumer decision making – evidence from North Macedonia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Today, almost one third of the world population are digital buyers. The hypothesis that more life moves online, the less damage to our environment is still unclear. E-commerce sites and the underlying supply chain can have both positive and negative impacts on the environment. Sustainable web design is an approach to designing websites that puts people and the planet first. It is a growing movement as organizations look for opportunities to reduce their influence on the environment. This research elaborates on determinants of consumer behavior that shape online purchase processes and affect the final consumer decision to buy. It discusses the importance of website design on consumer decision-making in e-commerce. Consumer decision-making and behavior during online shopping in the literature are measured by numerous models. One of the primary motivators for any online store to attract customers is the quality of website design. Website quality refers to the overall excellence, effectiveness, and usability of a website. It influences consumers’ perceptions of product quality and affects online purchase intentions (Sun, Chen, and Huang, 2014) and even continuation intentions (Chawla et al., 2015). Website quality as well positively affects online impulse buying behaviour (Akram 2018). The design of a website interface plays an important role in online purchasing, and customers are more likely to visit and buy from better-designed websites (Chiu and Yang, 2016). This paper proposes that website design quality is a multi-dimensional construct. To support the importance of the construct, a review of different studies is conducted elaborating on the impact of website design on consumer attitude and behavioral intention in North Macedonia. This study has theoretical and practical implications on the existing knowledge and provides managerial insights for e-vendors implying that to promote online shopping, they need to improve the quality features of the website and enhance users’ trust.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue as a driving force of the financial market in the light of digitalization?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article deals with the phenomenon of Robo-advisory used in the provision of investment services. It is appropriate to consider the use of this tool from a regulatory perspective, particularly given the widespread use of digital tools in financial markets and the growing interest of users in the digitization of services. Given the rapid development of digitalization, legislation may not always take into account the use of digital tools. Legislative changes may be delayed. The main objective of this article is to analyze Robo-advisory specifically from the perspective of EU regulation. The aim is to confirm or disprove the hypothesis. Based on the analysis, we are then able to look at using Robo-advisory from different perspectives, both practical and regulatory. The analysis also highlights the similarities and differences between traditional and alternative investment service provision.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Information and Communication Technologies for Increasing Resilience of Medical Facilities<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents an applied research and development project, Monitoring and tracing the movement and contacts of persons in medical facilities, financed by the Research and Development Support Agency of the Slovak Republic and currently carried out at the Faculty of Security Engineering of the University of Zilina in cooperation with companies from practice. The main contribution of the mentioned project lies in the development and design of a system for the identification and search of contacts of persons based on the monitoring of their movement in the object of the medical facility through the selected information technology. The system can also be implemented in other premises with a large number of people. The paper also deals with the issue of the resilience of medical facilities from the point of view of their inclusion among critical entities providing basic services that play an irreplaceable role in maintaining vital societal functions. It points to the necessity of using information and communication technology in the health sector.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Data Security Implementation in the Supply Chain Enterprises in Latvia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The importance of data security in the supply chain has increased in the last few years. The study identifies recent trends and shortcomings in data security, assessing enterprises operating in Latvia’s transport and storage industry. The research aims to study and identify the current trends in data security in the Transport and Storage industry to develop recommendations for improving data security in the supply chain. The research focuses on studying data security in the supply chain in Latvia. The theoretical literature review was used to learn the main aspects of the supply chain concept and the data security measures applied. Statistical and content analysis shows the industry’s primary data security trends and issues. The results of the research concluded that in Latvia, enterprises providing supply chain operations are focusing on something other than mandatory education about the data security of their employees; thus, they need to apply sophisticated measures to protect data through all supply chain processes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Business Sustainability by Connecting Business Continuity Management and Risk Management<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Business continuity management is a tool that provides a structured framework for building business sustainability with the ability to respond effectively, protecting the interests of key stakeholders as well as other key activities that create value for the business. It is the disruption of the enterprise’s key activities that can cause problems that enterprises may not be able to handle without proper help and can lead to bankruptcy. The action of various factors from the external as well as the internal environment can change the overall development of the enterprise depending on its reaction to the given change, at the same time, in connection with its initial readiness, ensured prevention of the enterprise. Maintaining business continuity is closely related to ensuring the smoothness of business processes. Business continuity management is a management process that identifies potential threats and their impact on the enterprise’s business operations. Therefore, the article aims to highlight the benefits of the implementation of business continuity management in enterprises, which would ensure the course and smoothness of business operations. At the same time, in combination with risk management, it is possible to reach a better understanding of the enterprise and its activities that ensure the running of the enterprise. The importance of business continuity management and risk management lies primarily in the enterprise’s readiness to face unexpected situations, while the appropriate selection of methods, techniques, and procedures can help to activate and create a sustainable enterprise system. By implementing business continuity management and risk management, it would be possible to achieve an improvement in the enterprise’s response to adverse situations but also in the overall course of the executed processes concerning the operation of the enterprise. Interruption of business operations can be caused by various factors, which have an impact mainly on the ability of the business to function even in difficult, unpredictable situations. Therefore, in this context, the main emphasis is placed on prevention, preparedness, and the ability of the enterprise to respond promptly to changes in the environment and the ability to transform its activities in its entire structure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue assessment in the enterprise management system<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The essence of the article is to present the results of research on the importance and benefits of risk assessment in the quality and occupational health and safety management systems of enterprises in Slovakia. Part of the goal is the evaluation of the most important risks in the quality and occupational health and safety management systems of enterprises in Slovakia. Basic scientific methods, as well as mathematical-statistical methods, were used to evaluate the data obtained from the survey to fulfill the set goal. The results show that enterprises are currently more concerned about the risks arising from the OSH management system than from the risks of the quality management system. The most serious risks considered by enterprises in the occupational health and safety management system are an increased number of accidents and in the quality management system customer dissatisfaction.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue audit function in the Croatian hospitality industry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Purpose – This study aims to examine the current state-of-the-art foundation, organization, role, processes, and functioning of internal audit (IA) within Croatian hotel companies in order to suggest improvements.</p> <p>Design/Methodology –qualitative research was conducted using a questionnaire distributed to Croatian hotel companies that quote their stocks on the capital markets, noted destinations, and internationally renowned hotel companies that operate in Croatia from March to May 2023. Based on the responses received, semi-structured interviews were conducted with internal auditors who are or have been employed by hotel companies in order to obtain more detailed information about the organization and performance of the internal audit function (IAF).</p> <p>Findings – The results showed that not many hotel companies in Croatia have organized IAF because it is not a legal obligation for the hospitality industry. The current stage of IAF in these companies is infrastructural or integrated, which shows possibilities for its improvement. The role of internal audit is not recognized because it is seen as a time-consuming activity and an additional expense for the hotel company, without awareness of its real purpose, opportunities to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of hotel operations, and other benefits of this function.</p> <p>Research limitations – the small sample of hotel companies that have IAF organized within and also a limited number of internal auditors that have experience, knowledge, and qualifications to work in the hospitality industry.</p> <p>The originality of the research – the first study regarding the organization of IAF in the hospitality industry.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Activation of Women and Flexible Forms of Employment, as Exemplified by Gig Economy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the article is to present the idea of Gig Economy as a flexible form of employment, which may serve as an opportunity to break the cycle of professional passivity among women in a macroeconomic scale. The author presents data on unemployment and access to employees on the labor market, and compares them with a relatively low level of professional activity among women. The article explores the issue of motivation to undertake professional activity, discusses the barriers to building a professional path by women, and indicates the potential influence of flexible forms of employment, based on the example of gig economy, on the improvement of the professional situation of women. Based on the available reports, secondary data and source literature the author identifies the basic social factors which impact the growth of professional activity among women, indicating the relationship between flexible forms of employment and the state of the labor market, expressed through the activeness of women.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Evaluation on Supply Chain Structure in the Tourism Industry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As the competition became intense and markets get globalized after 1990s, difficulties also increased created by delivering a product and a service to the correct place at the right time with the lowest cost. Enterprises understood that increasing the efficiency within an organization is not sufficient on its own against these increasing difficulties, instead, all supply chains should be competitive. Today, the supply chain became a preliminary condition for enterprises to remain competitive in the global race. Upon examining research performed regarding the supply chain, it is seen that a major part of the related literature focuses on generally the service industry and especially the manufacturing industry by making few references to the tourism industry. In this study which is based on the literature screening, the concept of the supply chain, its structures, and the benefits of creating supply chains moreover the concept of supply chains in the tourism industry, its structure and cooperation have been covered and the importance of supply chain in the tourism industry has been tried to be emphasized.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue increase in general government debt during the coronavirus crisis in the EU countries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic led to an increase in budget deficits. This resulted in significant growth in the general debt of many countries. The average debt in the European Union countries has exceeded 90% of GDP and is still growing. General government debt is one of the world’s most significant financial and economic problems today. The main objective of this work is to present the scale and reasons for the increase in general government debt in the European Union countries during the current crisis. In addition, attention was paid to the impact of debt on economic growth.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue New Approach to Sustainable Financial Stability and its Prospects<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In recent years attention has increasingly been drawn to factors that improve financial stability. The article systematizes the results of empirical scientific works which evaluate the influence of climate-related environmental factors, social factors, and factors related to the mechanisms of corporate governance (ESG) in terms of their contribution to financial stability. High ESG ratings, both within each group of factors and when they are taken as a whole, enhance the stability of the financial system. They do so both when viewed microprudentially, in reducing the aggregate individual risk of financial institutions, and when considered macroprudentially, in reducing their contribution to total systemic risk. However, there is noticeably more published work on the impact of environmental (climatic) factors and the role of corporate governance than on that social factors. At the end of this critical review of the relevant literature, possible directions for the development of this research are discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue