rss_2.0Medical Journal of Cell Biology FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Medical Journal of Cell Biology Journal of Cell Biology Feed Microbiota and its impact on the inflammation-dysplasia-cancer sequence<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The understanding and explanation of inflammation-dysplasia-cancer sequence is challenging. The gut microbiota is an important factor for the intestine wall. The changes in bacteria quality and/or quantity (dysbiosis) may begin the colon inflammation. This paper reviewed the gut microbiome risk factors which may lead to colon cancer.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue – a particular threat to women. A review of risk factors<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In Poland, cholelithiasis affects approximately 20% of the population and require approximately 45.000 cholecystectomies per year. Women, especially mature women, are more at risk of developing this condition. Hormonal and reproductive factors are the reason for higher incidence in women. In this publication, we review significant factors affecting this situation. The anatomical structure of the gallbladder may have a significant impact on the course of the cholecystectomy, and the occurrence of any intra- or post-operative complications. The pathomechanism of cholelithiasis is described, as well as the basic risk factors.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the fascia – cells and extracellular matrix<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Fascia continues to be a significant topic in numerous studies due to its unique functions that contribute to maintaining various bodily functions. The current article focuses on the crucial aspects of fascia and provides an essential collection of basics to understand the phenomenon of fascia. It describes the anatomical structure, with emphasis on the division into layers. Furthermore, the article explains how fascia affects muscle movement and transduction signals. In addition to the significant role of fascia, the article discusses its components, both cellular and non-cellular. Regarding cellular factors, various types of cells are distinguished and their role in mechanotransduction is explained. Non-cellular components maintain the structure of the fascia and provide scaffolding for the cells of the fascia. The problem of fascia classification is comprehensively considered, including the anatomical, histological, and cellular aspects of fascia. Finally, the article examines aspects of fascia disorders, particularly rheumatoid arthritis, as well as the correlation of structural abnormalities with lymphatic oedema. Not only does it address these abnormalities, but it also discusses the nature of myofascial pain origin and the currently widespread topic of acupuncture.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and cellular mechanism of the wound healing process in the oral mucosa<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Wound healing involves four stages: haemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodelling. Each wound should be considered separately because of the tissue’s different environment. The key to successful wound healing is cell signalling and synchronisation between cells and chemical transmitters, which gradient attracts immune cells and prevents pathogens from causing infection.</p> <p>Both skin and oral mucosa stages of the wound healing process are the same. Nonetheless, some differences affect the outcome of the healing. The most critical factors that impact the process are the time required for wound closure or immune response, the presence of saliva, the level of anti-inflammatory cytokines, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling. Compared to the skin, wounds in the oral mucosa heal much faster and without scarring. Saliva plays a crucial role in healing the oral mucosa – because of higher levels of tissue factor, it reduces the clotting time. Furthermore, it is rich in many growth factors stimulating wound healing. Mesenchymal stem cells are yet another valid matter regarding wound healing in oral mucosa. Outstanding properties of these cells exhibit potential to be applied for therapeutical purposes. Additionally, immune cells’ participation and response to tissue damage are more substantial and faster in the oral mucosa than in the skin.</p> <p>Wound healing is a complex process influenced by many factors, including hyperglycaemia in diabetes, smoking, alcohol, and levels of sex hormones. Some of them, such as smoking, impair all stages of healing, while others only have some elements.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue to: Analysis of fructose and mannose – regulatory peptides signaling pathway in porcine epithelial oviductal cells (OECs) primary cultured long-term in vitro of spike glycoprotein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of SARS-CoV-2 to mutation: in silico structural dynamics study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a microorganism that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Mutations affect evolutionary conservation of microorganisms. The fast pace evolutionary changes are currently affecting pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2. In this study, the structural fluctuations of the amino acid residues in the spike glycoprotein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (nsp12) of SARS-CoV-2 were investigated by in silico approach using structural flexibility dynamics to decipher susceptibility to mutation. The result of this study implicated key amino acid residues (with rmsf) which could be very susceptible to mutation, which include residues 50 (3.79 Å), 119 (4.56 Å), 120 (3.53 Å), 220 (3.84 Å), 265 (4.31 Å) of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (nsp12), as well as residues 477 (4.21 Å), 478 (4.82 Å), 479 (5.40 Å), 481 (5.94 Å), 560 (4.63 Å), 704 (4.02 Å), 848 (4.58 Å), 1144 (4.56 Å) and 1147 (4.61 Å) of spike glycoprotein. The SARS-CoV-2 mutations destabilized the overall protein structure in multiples of amino acid residues which could interfere with active site leading to insensitivity or resistance to the inhibitors. Mutation T478K of Spike glycoprotein showed the highest deviation in the structure. Overall, spike glycoprotein has the highest number of mutations, and these variants could increase the risk to human health if not mitigated in the population.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue to: The blood vessels development, morphogenesis and blood circulation are three ontologic groups highly up-regulated in porcine oocytes before in vitro maturation knowledge about cardiomyocytes maturation and endogenous myocardial regeneration. Background to apply this potential in humans with end-stage heart failure<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Heart failure (HF) is a clinical status defined as a final stage of many cardiac diseases featured by severely impaired systolic myocardial performance in a result of dramatic decline in a number of properly functioning cardiomyocytes. Currently, the available therapeutic options for HF patients are not applicable in all of them. Up to now, many strategies to increase a number of normal cardiomyocytes have been proposed. One of them, the most physiological one at glance, seems to be a stimulation of post-mitotic cardiomyocytes to proliferate/or cardiac stem cells to differentiate. In this review article, detailed background of such method of myocardial regeneration, including the physiological processes of cardiomyocyte transformation and maturation, is presented. Moreover, the latest directions of basic research devoted to develop sufficient and safe cardiomyocyte-based therapies of the end-stage HF individuals are discussed. Concluding, this direction of further research seems to be justified particularly in a view of human population aging, an increased prevalence of HF and higher expectations of improved efficiency of patients’ care.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue to: Expression changes in fatty acid metabolic process related genes in porcine oocytes during in vitro maturation of stem cell application in research and clinical practice – an update<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>There are multiple possible applications of stem cells in medicine, from cell-based therapies for degenerative and dystrophic conditions, through novel approaches in cancer treatment, to <italic>in vitro</italic> organ printing. However, there are still several challenges that need to be overcame before stem cells therapies can be successfully introduced worldwide on a large scale. These include sourcing of stem cells, preventing their aberrant progression and ethical concerns regarding their use in animals and humans. Among the multiple stem cell types present in the human organism from the period of embryonic development to adulthood, this review focuses on the three types that gain the most attention in relation to modern research: embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells and adult stem cells. There are a number of obstacles that need to be removed before these cells can be widely applied in clinical practice, including the choice of the perfect source of stem cells, full elucidation of the mechanisms of stem cell differentiation and plasticity, and minimization of adverse side effect potential. Nonetheless, the focus of the scientific community on the topic of stem cells remains unhindered, bringing hope that all of the possible concerns will be addressed in the future.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue to: Fatty acids related genes expression undergo substantial changes in porcine oviductal epithelial cells during long-term primary culture disrupting chemicals and their detection in an IVF laboratory<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The endocrine disruptors are chemicals with the capacity to influence physiological processes in the organism, most often through hormonal control. They are present in the environment and in the products of daily use. They are often found in food, released from plastic bottles for water, present in cosmetics or fertilizers. Latest research suggests that they can be released from plastics used in the IVF laboratories and can be even present in the manipulation and cultivation media used for isolation and fertilization of gametes and subsequent cultivation of embryos. Permanent and long-term utilization of these substances has adverse effects in human reproductive health, mainly by the means of interfering with synthesis and action mechanisms of reproductive hormones. Moreover, some endocrine disruptors show a range of adverse effects directly on the gametes or embryos cultured in the <italic>in vitro</italic> conditions. The article provides an overview on bisphenols detected in plastics and media commonly used in the IVF laboratory and considers their possible impact on effectiveness of the IVF methods in a human laboratory.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue gene markers involved in regulation of granulosa cells development and differentiation towards endodermal and epithelial tissues – a new insight into the stemness specificity of ovarian follicular cells<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Maintaining of female fertility is strictly dependent on proper hormonal regulation. Granulosa cells (GCs) are components of ovarian follicles, and they are important in paracrine regulation of the ovary. Preovulatory follicle GCs are responsible for production of estrogens to the ovary microenvironment and lead to the LH surge. Proper functioning of GCs is necessary to ensure appropriate conditions for oocyte development, maturation, ovulation and its release to the oviduct. Long-term <italic>in vitro</italic> culture of GCs show significant stem-like characteristics. Understanding the molecular processes underlying GCs differentiation towards different cell lineages may reveal other possible stem cell markers. A transcriptomic analysis of short-term primary <italic>in vitro</italic> cultured GCs, which were isolated from porcine preovulatory follicles was the major focus of the study. The ontological groups herby considered are associated with endodermal and epithelial tissues. Results were and compare to freshly isolated GC cells. 6 the most reduced expression: HSD17B1, DAPL1, NEBL, MAL2, DAB1, ITM2A were chosen for analysis. These genes have been response for processes associated with GCs development and differentiation towards endodermal and epithelial tissues, which make them important for further consideration.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of detection and isolation of trophoblast cells from trans-cervical specimens – a historical overview<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Trophoblast cells can be detected and isolated from the cervical epithelial cells obtained via various techniques of trans-cervical samples collection such as a mucus aspiration, endocervical lavage, or standard cervical brushing in the early first trimester, even from the 5 weeks’ gestation. Isolated fetal cells can be used in the early prediction of fetal sex, prenatal diagnostics of the most common aneuploidies, and any other genetic abnormalities. Nevertheless, the collection of trophoblastic cells has limited efficacy compared to currently used methods of detection of free fetal DNA in maternal circulation or other protocols of invasive prenatal diagnostics available at later stages of pregnancy. In the past years, trans-cervical cell samples were collected mainly in women before planned pregnancy termination. The early trophoblastic cells isolation from women in ongoing pregnancies opens new perspectives for further studies focused on the elucidation of pathophysiology of numerous pregnancy-related complications.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue stem cells and their secretome - candidates for safe and effective therapy for systemic lupus erythematosus<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>More than 80 diseases are currently classified as autoimmune, with a rising prevalence throughout the world. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is classified as a systemic autoimmune disorder, but the exact pathogenesis of SLE remains elusive. Currently available treatment strategies offer only the possibility for disease remission making it essential to develop more effective and safer strategies for treatment. Recently MSCs are gaining attention as attractive therapeutic tools for autoimmune disease treatment. Special focus should be given to MSCs originated from perinatal tissues such as Wharton's jelly, as they present unique immunomodulatory properties and remarkably low immunogenicity. MSCs exert their immunomodulatory effects via direct cell-to-cell communication as well as in a paracrine manner, creating possibility to apply secretome of MSCs as an individual therapeutic tool. Although the secretome of MSCs has not yet been utilized in SLE treatment, its efficacy has been suggested in other disorders, such as multiple sclerosis or Alzheimer's disease. Regular administration of paracrine factors derived from MSCs could potentially effect in significant reduction of SLE symptoms and in maintenance of disease remission.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue history of melanoma diagnostics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article provides a historical overview of melanoma, involving the knowledge of this neoplasm from antiquity to the present. Selected people who made key descriptions of the disease, its symptoms, and treatment methods were listed. The classification of melanoma, which is used in therapeutic management nowadays, is briefly discussed. Additionally, we describe circulating tumour cells and the selected diagnostic methods associated with their detection and characteristics. The aim of this article is to present a historical outline of melanoma, as well as its classification and the development of laboratory methods of its diagnosis. In addition, we have also provided a comparison of historical and current knowledge of this malignancy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of coagulase-positive staphylococcal cells that make it difficult to diagnose and treat mastitis in cows<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Coagulase-positive staphylococci are a group of bacteria that, among other things, cause inflammation of the udder in cows (mastitis). The identification of the species of staphylococcus causing the inflammation is crucial for the success of the treatment process due to the individual characteristics of the strains and even the characteristics of the bacterial population in the herd. However, through evolution, staphylococci have developed a number of processes that make species identification difficult. Knowledge of the actual cause of inflammation enables the selection of appropriate therapy, but despite advanced diagnostic techniques, erroneous results still occur. In this review, we present the current knowledge of mainly resistance mechanisms and how they affect the drug resistance of microorganisms. We also highlight the difficulties in the diagnosis and treatment of bovine mastitis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue rostral epidural rete mirabile of the llama as a place of retrograde transport of various substances – anatomical basics<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study was to analyse the structure of the rostral epidural rete mirabile in the llama. Some specimens were prepared by injecting stained chemically cured acrylic into the bilateral common carotid arteries. After about 1 month received vascular corrosion casts on the bone scaffold. Some specimens made using red and blue latex introduced into the bilateral common carotid arteries and the bilateral external jugular vein. The rostral epidural rete mirabile is a well-developed, bilateral structure composed of numerous arteries, which are multiply anastomosed with each other. The cranial section of the rete is asymmetrical. Its lateral part is much better developed, because there are rostral branches to the rostral epidural rete mirabile at this point. The arterial vessels are not accompanied by homonymous veins. However, the arteries of the rostral epidural rete mirabile are accompanied by venous vessels of the cavernous sinus. That rete plays an important role in selective brain cooling, the conservation of body water, and retrograde transport of neurotransmitters. CO, GnRH, beta-endorphin, progesterone, testosterone, oxytocin, LHRH and dopamine diffuse from the venous blood of the cavernous sinus to the arterial blood of the rostral epidural rete mirabile.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue significance of and genes expression in resistance to cytotoxic drugs in ovarian cancer cell lines<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Resistance to chemotherapy is the main obstacle in contemporary ovarian cancer treatment. The aim of this study was the evaluation of expression of <italic>HERC5</italic>, <italic>IFIH1</italic>, <italic>SAMD4</italic>, <italic>MCTP1</italic> and <italic>SEMA3A</italic> mRNA and assessment their role in resistance to cisplatin, paclitaxel, doxorubicin and topotecan in seven ovarian cancer cell lines. MTT assay was used in resistance assessment. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure the expression levels of the genes. We observed different levels of resistance among cell lines. The resistance was not related to the expression of drug transporters genes. The expression of <italic>HERC5</italic> and <italic>IFIH1</italic> genes was upregulated, and the expression of <italic>SEMA3A</italic> gene was downregulated. Expression of <italic>SAMD4</italic> was upregulated in PEA1, PEA2, and PEO23 cell lines, and expression of <italic>MCTP1</italic> was downregulated in A2780, PEA2, and PEO23 cell lines. Upregulation of <italic>HERC5</italic>, <italic>IFIH1</italic>, and <italic>SAMD4</italic> and downregulation of <italic>SEMA3A</italic> and <italic>MCTP1</italic> in TOP-resistant ovarian cancer cell lines may suggest some role of those genes in topotecan resistance development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of embryo transfer in cows - risk factors including in vivo derived and in vitro produced embryos<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer is a biotech method with more than 50 years of history and an established position in cattle breeding. This procedure is beneficial in many ways, but it also carries a risk of failure. The study presents the overview of the most important risk factors that may affect conception rates in the course of embryo transfer, including the factors associated with the embryo sourcing (embryo production method, embryo quality, development stage and breed, embryo storage method), embryo transfer procedure (synchrony/asynchrony, embryo transfer difficulty, the time of the transcervical insemination gun passage, depth of embryo deposition, localization and structure of the corpus luteum relative to the follicle and both individual characteristics of donors and recipients (level of concentration of progesterone, the state of health of the udder, lactation level, body condition score and age) and some environmental factors.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue