rss_2.0Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Architecture, Civil Engineering, Environment, Civil Engineering, Environment Feed of Single Lane Parallel-Type Entrance Ramp Terminal Using Vehicle Dynamics Model for Freeways<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Providing an appropriate length of highway entrance ramps is an important feature that should be considered in freeway design. The recommended minimum acceleration lane length in the Green Book of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) is currently used for designing entrance ramp terminals. However, in some cases, traffic congestion and crashes are observed when heavy trucks enter freeways, which indicates they could not accelerate enough and did not reach the merge speed at the end of the acceleration lane. Therefore, several scenarios were simulated using a dynamic simulation model (TruckSim) for heavy vehicles with weight to power ratios of 61, 67, 86, and 108 (kg/kW) and grades of zero, ±3, and ±5%. Subsequently, a linear regression model was presented to calculate acceleration lane lengths. The results showed that the acceleration rate of heavy vehicles is not adequate, especially in upgrades. For example, at +5% upgrades, heavy trucks cannot accelerate to the merge speed mentioned in the AASHTO. Conversely, the acceleration rate of heavy vehicles increased in downgrades; therefore, some heavy vehicles were able to achieve merge speed along the proposed length of AASHTO.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Analysis of the Impact of the Use of Personal Protective Equipment on the Face in the Process of Pollutants Spreading Emitted During Breathing<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study presents the results of a numerical analysis of the effectiveness of the use of personal protective equipment of various designs on the spread of pollutants marked with CO2 emitted during human breathing. In the study of 3D geometry the upper part of the human torso and head was developed. The simulated person was supplied with different personal protective equipment covering the human face (PPE). Two types of face shields worn at a different distance from the face and one fabric face mask was analysed. The reference geometry with no personal protective equipment was also analysed. Transient calculation with full breathing model including breath-in and breath-out and species transport were simulated. The results showed that different PPE generates different airflow patterns in the vicinity of the human face. The most efficient in reducing infection risk is by wearing a face mask or face shields at a small distance from the face, as they most effectively reduce CO<sub>2</sub> concentration in the surrounding air. However, they also increase the re-inhalation risk of high CO<sub>2</sub> concentration which affects human well-being.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Current State of Photovoltaic Panel Mounting Systems and Related Concerns in Northern Cyprus<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The efficiency of energy resources and the research and development of electricity generation technologies from renewable energy sources are becoming increasingly important as the use of renewable energy has increased. Northern Cyprus has undertaken attempts to boost the use of renewable energy sources and reduce its reliance on petroleum-based products, similar to many other countries, and as a result, Solar energy utilization has recently grown in this country. This article assesses the current state of PV panel mounting systems and related concerns in Northern Cyprus. In this regard, extensive and reliable data were collected from five distinct sources including authorities, ministries, stakeholders, and inspections. The current state of PV panel mounting systems was evaluated based on data analysis, and the main weaknesses, major concerns, and critical problems were identified. Ultimately, two fundamental recommendations were made to overcome the identified problems. First, developing stringent guidelines to properly use renewable energy sources while minimizing side effects and unwanted losses, second, considering quality control and strict supervision to inspect the implementation of standards.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Planning of the Coastal Zone Based on Depressed Economic Areas (on the Example of Odessa)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article is devoted to the recreational use of the depressed economic territories of coastal cities, using the example of the city of Odessa. As the part of the study, the depressed economic areas of Odessa, located on the Black Sea coast, formed as a result of various factors: economic, technological, etc. were identified and analyzed. Based on the study of international experience redevelopment of abandoned areas, and to identify “recreational potential” of the city of Odessa, the landscape and recreational function have been selected, which will lead to the increase of green areas in the structure of an urban environment and the improvement of sanitary and hygienic conditions in residential and coastal areas. The principles, models and methods of functional planning organization of landscape and recreational formations in coastal depressed areas were formulated. This made it possible to use degraded urban areas effectively to create an ecologically clean, comfortable environment for a recreation of the population and the development of domestic tourism.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Robot Technology (Drone) Trends: A Review in the Building and Construction Industry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>With the emergence of Industry 4.0, the use of robotic technologies is among today’s trends. The innovations that this revolution brought to robotic construction in the fields of communication, control, and software also improve flying robot technology. In the study, the place and importance of drone technology, which is one of the flying robot technologies at the intersection of Industry 4.0 and AEC (architecture, engineering, and construction) industry, in architecture is defined. The research aims to analyze the digital fabrication studies with drone technology in the field of architecture by reviewing the literature and to reveal how these applications are followed. Studies with drones, which are the technology of the future, are presented by creating a timeline. Drone studies in the building and construction industry were classified according to drone type, gripper and software features and comparative analyses were made. As a result, it is desired to show the development of drone technology in architecture, examine how it is used, and create a reference study in the light of existing examples for its use in future applications.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Urban Architectural Environment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper is aimed at defining a multi-comfortable urban architectural environment and strategies for achieving it during the restoration-reconstructive transformations of historical city centers. The definition of the “multi-comfortable urban architectural environment” is given. Its ten criteria are highlighted and recommendations are given for its achieverment. A model of a multi-comfortable historical urban environment has been developed, where its image (beauty) – function (interest) – infrastructure (convenience) – “urban performance” (activity), criteria for multi-comfort and key strategies suitable for improving each of the four components are interconnected. The developed model, the highlighted criteria for determining the multi-comfortable urban environment, and the proposed recommendations will be useful in the development of complex projects of restoration-reconstructive transformations of historical cities, as well as in the new design in them. It has been determined that a multi-comfortable urban architectural environment, where a person is in the main, should be the result of any restoration-reconstructive transformations of historical city centers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Replacement: The Influence of Pounder Diameter and Ground Conditions on Shape and Diameter of the Columns<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Dynamic replacement (DR) is a ground improvement technique that has been used now for almost 50 years. During the formation of a DR column a crater is created which is then filled with a coarse material and compacted again. The length, diameter and shape of such a column cannot be observed directly, which makes the design and execution more troublesome. In the article presented are the dimensions and shapes of 18 columns from eight different test fields. They were formed by means of pounders of various masses (9 or 11.5 Mg) and dimensions (1.00 or 1.05 m in diameter, 1.8 or 2.0 m in height). Based on the observations and measurements, it was concluded that the shape and diameter of a DR column is influenced by the parameters of the soft soil that is supposed to be improved (its thickness, physical state and location in the profile), as well as by the diameter of the pounder. It was revealed that, as the length of the columns increased, the column shapes changed from: a cylinder, through a truncated cone, a barrel to an asymmetric barrel. The diameters of all of the columns were 1.4–2.8 times larger than the diameters of the used pounders and the largest values were noted along the depth of the weakest layer. The presented results may be useful to the profession. When the thickness of the weak soil, its type and state are known and the technological parameters are similar to the ones presented in this paper, it is possible to predict the shape and diameter of the columns depending on the diameter of the pounder.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) for the Domain of Silesian Voivodeship and Upper Silesia Metropolitan Region<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents the analysis of the statistical errors of the meteorological parameters predicted by the WRF (Weather Research and Forecasting) model. The model is used for forecasting air pollution in the Silesian Voivodeship with an accuracy of about 70-80%. Thus, the main idea of the research was assessing to what extent the error in the forecast of meteorological parameters affects the error of the air quality forecast, which can be evaluated using the system InfoSMOG – MED for the inhabitants of the Silesian Voivodeship at <ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xmlns:xlink="" xlink:href="https://www.slaskiesmogstop">www.slaskiesmogstop</ext-link>. It was also investigated how the reduction of the mesh size of the forecast of meteorological parameters affects the error of the forecast of these parameters, which was necessary for the next project SMART. The research was carried out for 3 computational domains: Poland, Silesian Voivodeship and Upper Silesia Metropolitan Region, each with a different grid resolution. The predicted temperature and wind speed data were compared with the measured data from the Polish synoptic stations and the stations of the METAR airports meteorological shield located in the respective domains. In addition, the error of the predicted parameters was investigated in the grid where the climatological station is located in the Śląskie Planetarium in Chorzów.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Environmental Acupuncture for Improving the Sustainability of Dense City Areas – Polish Experiences from the SALUTE4CE Project<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The idea of urban environmental acupuncture postulates, that in areas with no space available for green spaces, sustainability and climate resistance can be improved by small green spots in key locations. The project SALUTE4CE established pilot environmental acupuncture strategies in Central-European cities. The author was responsible for elaborating an Action Plan for the functional area of Chorzów, Ruda Śląska and Świętochłowice, Poland. The project aimed at finding spots with potential outcomes in terms of sustainability, reducing urban heat islands and improving comfort and quality of spaces, with nature based solutions: from planting climate resistant vegetation and restoring biodiversity, through improving local retention, to green roofs or vertical walls. The concept assumes, that acting in many small places can bring synergic effects and contribute to urban regeneration. Four pilot spots have been constructed so far, and other interventions shall be realized in the coming years. So far the project results have been disseminated in project documents and reports. This paper aims at a summary of project experiences and perspectives in regard to participating Polish cities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Definition of Restoration Strategies with H-BIM Applications. The Case Study of Vittorio Giorgini's “Casa Esagono” in Baratti, Italy<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This contribution is focused on the “Casa Esagono” realized in 1957 by Vittorio Giorgini in Baratti (LI), Italy. The research objective is to lay the foundations for a restoration plan of this experimental wooden architecture, which is now in precarious conditions due to its location near the sea, and whose constructive features, has always raised great questions about the technical feasibility of a full restoration. The paper describes the workflow for the implementation of the H-BIM model, aimed to organise all the data deriving from the historical and on-site research, and the restoration programme. The historical analysis about the house and the architect was the basis for the geometric survey and the analysis of building materials. All building components were subjected to visual analysis aimed to identify deterioration forms. The proposed conservation approach aims to maintain as much of the original elements as possible, while increasing their durability. H-BIM revealed to be the ideal tool to manage the entire restoration process, whose ultimate goal is to celebrate Giorgini's work, to exploit the potential of the house as a cultural attraction.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Documentation of the Historical City of Cagliari (Italy)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The documentation of the urban historical heritage is the preliminary step to identify the correct strategies for its protection and enhancement. To achieve this aim it is necessary to acquire a graphic documentation at the different scales of detail required by a multi-layered system as the historical landscape; this complexity can now be explored integrating traditional and digital survey methods and representation methodologies. Traditional methods, in particular, are characterized by a direct contact with places; this condition guarantee a deepest perception and a total immersion in the landscape integrating and giving quality to the considerable amount of data offered by recent technologies; this approach has been applied in the survey of the historical city of Cagliari in which the medieval districts of <italic>Marina</italic>, <italic>Stampace</italic>, <italic>Villanova</italic> and <italic>Castello</italic> retain a great part of the modern walled system built since the fourteenth century until the first half of the nineteenth century and a lot of interesting buildings designed for civil, public and religious use.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Double Skin Façade (DSF) and Electrochromic Glass in Buildings in Tropical Climate<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>One method in terms of architectural technology used to minimize the negative impact of overheating is to design a building with double skin façade and integrating it with electrochromic glass. The purpose of this research is to reveal whether the use of a double skin façade and the application of electrochromic glass would be preferable for buildings in tropical climates, in terms of obtaining aesthetic points while not having to sacrifice thermal comfort nor committing energy waste at the same time. The data in this research is obtained with qualitative – descriptive comparative method, which is applied for room temperature measurement with a computer simulation software, based on pre-existing theories, reference standards and material specifications from existing manufacturers. The results of this study conclude that the application of double skin façade in a building does make a significant contribution to achieving thermal and lighting comfort. Both profiles of space reduction with the use of electrochromic glass in buildings in tropical climates are able to reach ideal temperatures in comparison to when ordinary glass material is applied. And third, it is proven that the double skin façade technology and applying electrochromic glass on a building can provide significant energy efficiency for long-term projects.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Modelling of Thermal Comfort in the Passenger Coach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents the results of numerical simulations of thermal comfort in a passenger coach. The numerical model with people's presence was developed and appropriate boundary conditions were prepared. The ANSYS CFX program was used for the simulations. The calculations were carried out for summer and winter conditions. The predicted mean vote (PMV), predicted percentage dissatisfied (PPD) and draft rate (DR) were calculated to assess the thermal comfort of passengers. The requirements of railway standards in terms of passenger comfort assessment were also verified. Based on the simulation results, it was found that the thermal comfort conditions of the passengers in the coach were not fully satisfactory, especially in summer.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Assessment on Influence of Adjacently Placed Strip Footings at Different Embedment Level<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The footings laid in close proximity imposes a definite change in the behaviour of the adjacent footing, subsequently changing the behaviour of the nearby footings. The present study emphasises the behaviour of the nearby strip footings embedded at a different level by adopting the commercially available finite element analysis program, ABAQUS. The load-settlement behaviour, ultimate bearing capacity (<italic>UBC</italic>), and the failure patterns of adjacent strip footings are assessed by considering the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion. The <italic>UBC</italic> is of the nearby footings (left and right) are estimated and represented in terms of interference factors (<italic>ξ<sub>L</sub>/ξ<sub>R</sub></italic>) defined as the <italic>UBC</italic> of a footing in the presence of adjacent footing to that of same considered for equivalent isolated footing. The results reveal that a significant influence of the adjacent footing is experienced when the spacing between the footings (<italic>S/B</italic>) is lesser, and they behave as the single footing of greater width at <italic>S/B</italic> = 0.25 irrespective of the level of embedment depth. Furthermore, the influence of interference increases with the increase in the embedment depth of adjacent footing. It is found that the <italic>ξ<sub>L</sub></italic> is significantly more for a lower level of embedment depth, and the same increases with an increase in the embedment depth of the right footing but on the contrary <italic>ξ<sub>R</sub></italic> decreases. The increase in the peak interference factor, <italic>ξ<sub>L-max</sub></italic> for <italic>D<sub>L</sub>/B</italic> = 0.5 is 2.1% and 4.2% when <italic>D<sub>R</sub>/B</italic> = 0.75 and <italic>D<sub>R</sub>/B</italic> = 1.0, respectively.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue for Health and Well-Being. The Housing Needs of Future Seniors<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents the results of the research made on a sample of 2,000 of young respondents surveyed in the scope of their housing needs, including their expectations as to the place of residence, form of residence and size of their living space. The methodology assumed for the presentation of results of quantitative variables included such statistical measures as the arithmetic mean, standard deviation or quantity. Whereas, the quantitative variables have been presented via quantity and percentages. To assess the percentage difference between the analysed parameters, the author has used Pearson's chi-squared test, chi-squared test and others. Comparative analyses drawn up on the basis of the data show the tendencies in the housing preferences among young people, both in the short and long time perspective. The research was intended to diagnose the housing needs of young people and to juxtapose their expectations with the tendencies. It can effectively help architects create solutions that properly meet the factual needs of the residents as well as improve the quality of designed housing for the future senior residents.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Riverside Built Environment Versus Success Indicators of Functional Performance<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper focuses on the downtown built environment (downtown waterfronts) and also on individual architectural objects which have an important function in such a space. The quality of the built environment affects its surroundings not only in a physical but also in a social way. To find the most appropriate ways of preventing the occurrence of the built environment pathologies in downtown areas, the study used the diagnostic technique of functional performance understood, among other things, as the ability to satisfy the stakeholders' needs and the impact of stakeholders' actions on their living environment. During the research, a comparative platform was found for the functional performance, the imperative of sustainable development and the ecosystem services of rivers and reservoirs. The investigations resulted in the creation of success indicators illustrated by examples of six voivodeship capital cities in Poland which have the strongest connection with the downtown built environment in waterfront areas, namely: Gdańsk, Szczecin, Warszawa (Warsaw), Kraków (Cracow), Wrocław and Poznań.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Criterion of Access to the Sky View in Residential Environment Architectural Designing<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Standards specifying the requirements for daylight in shaping the interiors of residential buildings do not cover issues related to visual perception and the role of light as a carrier of images of the outside world. The general recommendations in this regard, given in the 2018 European Lighting Standard can hardly be considered an unambiguous, precise normative regulation. According to the author, the inalienable element of the view through the window is the image of the sky, which is the basic reference in human perception of the space of the external environment. The aim of the research is to identify the main determinants for ensuring access to the sky view from apartments in housing estates with high intensity of development. The analyzes are based on the author's simple graphical research methods capable of simulating the visual perception of images of the external environment space through a window. The key parameter in the analyzes is the vertical viewing angle, called the sky view entry angle. Its minimum value set at 7.5°C is of fundamental importance in shaping the geometric relations between neighbouring buildings. The research results oblige, in the context of the paradigm of sustainable housing development, to recognize the criterion of access to the sky view from residential interiors as a mandatory design guideline.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Use of Residual Municipal Solid Waste as an Alternative Fuel<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The relevance of the work is determined by the war of the Russian Federation in Ukraine and the decision of the leading countries of the world, the EU and Ukraine to abandon energy dependence on energy from the Russian Federation. An analysis is provided of the main directions for reducing the European Union's dependence on Russian natural gas by a third by the end of 2022, in particular, the development of the Waste-to-Energy market in the EU and other leading countries of the world. The main ways are presented and computational investigations of the possibility of substitution of certain amounts of natural gas with artificial fuel from residual MSW are carried out.</p> <p>Based on the performed calculations, the authors formulated proposals for the feasibility of constructing facilities for energy use of residual MSW in different regions of Ukraine, as well as connecting them to the systems of centralized heating in Ukraine. The paper proves the necessity of building Waste-to-Energy power plants in the largest, large and big cities of the country. The ecological expediency of recovery of residual waste is shown.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Train Stations. Katowice-Zwardoń-Žilina-Rajec<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The subject of the paper is train station. The research deal with those train stations that either no longer serve their purpose or are now abandoned. By abandoned train stations, the author of the paper means rail buildings that do not provide passengers with the necessities of cash desk and a waiting room or toilet. Stations that have abandoned their original purpose. Such stations were analysed on the only railway line connecting Poland and Slovakia operating on a daily basis. Mentioned line is connecting cities Katowice – Zwardoń – Žilina – Rajec. Much of this railway architecture is abandoned and unused. The work described in the paper aims to create a database of abandoned train stations based on authors own research and points to a large number of abandoned train stations that have potential for their future development. The data was collected by means of various methods described in the paper and was valid as of 31.12.2021. The situation today may differ.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Water Purification Using Pitcher Filters<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Due to the high risk of exposure to various contaminants in drinking water, pitcher filtration is rapidly growing in popularity worldwide as a cheap and easy method to remove pollutants from drinking water. On the other hand, an evaluation of the real-time performance of pitchers is not possible for usual consumers. This study presents the performance of pitcher filtration in the removal of copper, chlorine, and chloroform from tap drinking water. Pitchers were packed with Aquaphor cartridges JS500, A5, and B25. Experiments were performed with model solutions, which were prepared from hard drinking water (7.5 mval/L, pH=7) spiked with copper, hypochlorite sodium, and chloroform. It was found that pitcher filtration is a very effective method for the removal of pollutants such as heavy metals, chlorine, and disinfectants byproducts. The concentration of copper, chlorine, and chloroform in filtrates did not exceed the maximum admissible values. Cartridges JS500, A5, and B25 reduced chlorine at a comparable level – almost 100%. During the whole experimental period, removal of chloroform was slightly better for JS500 (100%) and A5 (100%) cartridges than for B25 (91.4–97.7%).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue