rss_2.0Acta Veterinaria FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Veterinaria Veterinaria Feed Yield, Hematological and Electrolyte Parameters in Primiparous Dairy Cows After Laparotomic Omentopexy and One-Step Laparoscopic Abomasopexy Treatments of Left Displaced Abomasum<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to evaluate the effects of two different treatment options for the correction of left displaced abomasum (LDA) on milk yield, hematological, electrolyte parameters, lactate and cortisol concentrations in primiparous cows. Twenty four Holstein cows were randomly assigned into three groups: cows treated with one-step laparoscopic abomasopexy (LPS, n=8), cows treated by left paralumbar omentopexy (LPT, n=8) and healthy cows (CON, n=8), matched by parity and days in milk. Blood samples were collected before (D0) and after (D0’) surgery, and 1 (D1), 3 (D3), 10 (D3) and 30 (D30) days following surgery. LPS and LPT cows at D0 as well as LPT cows at 30 d following surgery had lower milk yield than CON cows (P&lt;0.05), while the service period was higher in LPT than in CON (P&lt;0.05). WBC was lower at D0 as well as Hb and Ht at D0 and D0’ in CON group than those of LPS and LPT (P&lt;0.05). Hyponatremia, hypochloremia and hypokalemia at D0 and D0’ were observed in LPS and LPT. In addition, LPT cows had lower Na and Cl at D1 and D3 and lower K at D1 than CON (P&lt;0.05). Impaired hydration in LPS and LPT cows was accompanied by higher concentrations of lactate at D0, D0’, D1 and D3 (P&lt;0.01) and cortisol at D0 and D0’ (P&lt;0.01) compared with CON group, while LPT had higher cortisol at D0’ than LPS (P&lt;0.05). These results indicated that LPS has the potential to improve the convalescence period of LDA in primiparous cows.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Lumpy Skin Virus DNA in Blood-Feeding Flies During Outbreaks in Russia in 2018-2019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this study we report the testing of blood-feeding and synanthropic flies captured near animals affected by lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV) in Russia during the outbreaks in the Kurgan region in 2018 and Saratov region in 2019. The insects of interest were the stable fly <italic>Stomoxys calcitrans</italic>, <italic>Tabanidae</italic> horse flies, <italic>Culicoides</italic> midges and the house fly <italic>Musca domestica</italic> examined as individuals or pools. The obtained findings demonstrate that viral DNA was found in pools of <italic>S.calcitrans</italic> and <italic>M. domestica</italic> and in the head and abdomen of stable flies. This is the first report of LSDV DNA detection in <italic>Tabanidae</italic> flies from the field. The presented data are envisaged to help further guide the search for putative vectors of LSDV in different climatic regions and interpret laboratory-controlled experiments on vector-borne transmission of LSDV.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Findings in Cats Tested for Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukaemia Virus (FeLV)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the clinicopathological changes in a population of cats tested for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV), in an Italian Veterinary University Hospital, in the period between January 2002 and May 2016. During the period of 14 years, 1834 cats were tested, and of these 241/1834 (13.1%) were positive for FIV antibodies and 92/1834 (5%) cats were positive for FeLV antigen. These data confirm the presence of a high prevalence of these viruses on Italian territory. To the authors’ knowledge, this study describes findings that have never been evaluated before, such as iron status in retrovirus-infected cats and urinalysis in FeLV-positive cats. In this study, FIV-positive cats were more likely to have higher serum protein concentration and lower albumin-globulin ratio than other groups of cats. Lower urine specific gravity and higher urine protein to creatinine ratio were also detected for FIV-positive cats when compared with negative and healthy cats. FeLV-positive cats were more likely to have cytopenia, decreased haemoglobin, haematocrit and RBC compared with other groups of cats. The data obtained underline the importance of considering retroviral infections in the presence of a broad spectrum of risk factors and laboratory anomalies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Lymphoma in a SMP30 Knock-Out C57BL/6 Mouse<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>70-weeks-old female C57BL6 senescence marker protein 30 knock out mice exhibited anorexia, lethargy and enlarged abdomen because of an intraperitoneal mass. On necropsy, the mouse revealed a large brown-whitish mass located on the mesentery. The mass also exhibited systemic metastasis and spread over in various organs. On microscopic findings, the neoplastic masses were mainly composed of neoplastic round cells characterized by severe anisokaryosis, narrow cytoplasm, round nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and numerous mitotic figures (13-15 in a 400X field). Consequently, the present case was diagnosed as a metastatic lymphoma arising from a mesenteric lymph node, the tumor spread to other organs such as the intestine, kidney and thoracic cavity. According to previous studies, SMP30 plays an important role in inhibiting cancer in both human and mouse. Taken together, it seems that the present case can be used as a valuable asset for evaluating the potential risks of SMP30 depletion in developing lymphoma.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Virus Type 2 (GI.2) Circulation in North Africa<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Rabbit hemorrhagic disease (RHD) is a highly contagious viral disease that causes fatal acute hepatitis in domestic and wild lagomorphs. It has taken on major economic importance in countries like Morocco. In addition to the classical virus (RHDV), a novel emerged genotype (RHDV2) is circulating, especially in the north shore of the Mediterranean basin since 2010. Many small animal farmers reported clinical cases from several rabbitries in Agadir (Morocco) despite systematic vaccination against the RHDV. The main objective was to characterize the current RHDV strains circulating in the studied area to help to choose an adequate vaccine. For that, we extracted viral RNA from rabbit livers, carried out the PCR analyses, and we sequenced the viral structural capsid protein (VP60) of the RHDV. The phylogenetic analysis results allowed us to state that the novel genotype (RHDV2) is circulating in the studied geographical area, and to characterize the isolated sequences. As a conclusion, we recommend updating RHD epidemiological relating data and reviewing the vaccine protocols by both targeting RHDV (GI.1) and RHDV2 (GI.2) in any future preventive program.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Use of Doppler Ultrasonography in the Examination of Testicles in Dogs<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Doppler ultrasonography is method suitable for observing and measuring the blood supply of many organs. Its principle is the change in the frequency of wave blood that moves with respect to the source of the wave (probe). In a testicular examination, the use of Doppler can also be very useful for detecting abnormalities or pathological conditions. The aim is just to characterize the flow in <italic>arteria testicularis</italic> in clinically healthy dogs aged 1-5 years. Twelve dogs were included in the study, of which 6 were rough collies weighing approximately 23 kg and 6 were standard dachshunds weighing approximately 9 kg. The pulsatility index (PI) and resistance index (RI) of <italic>a.testicularis</italic>, as well as the dimensions of the testicles - height and depth, were assessed by ultrasonographic examination using the ALOKA ProSound Alpha 6 ultrasonographic device (Hitachi-Aloka, Japan). The statistical evaluation of the results shows that the differences between the averages of both measurements of PI and RI indices are highly significant, so the weight of the individual had a high effect on the measured values of PI and RI indices. The depth of the testicles was also directly related to the increasing values of PI and RI indices and to the weight of the dogs, in contrast to their height, which did not show any statistical significance in this respect. The measured values and findings may in the future also serve as a basis for determining reference values in testicular ultrasonography according to the weight of dogs, which may be beneficial in clinical status assessment, diagnosis of various pathological conditions, or predicting spermatogenesis and fertility of the individuals.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Bone Strength in an Animal Model (Rabbit) After Fracture and During the Period of Fixation with a Titanium Micro Plate<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The period of bone healing after trauma goes through certain physiological processes. In situations where a bone fracture occurs, our intention is to surgically position in an appropriate morpho-anatomical position. For osteosynthesis we used vipla wire and micro plates with corresponding screws.</p> <p>The aim of our research was to evaluate the optimal time for the removal of the osteosynthetic material, fracture site biomechanical stability, and measurement of the callus thickness.</p> <p>For this research ten 4 months old rabbits with right leg femur fracture were used. Osteosynthesis was done with titanium micro plates, corresponding screws and vipla wire. Experimental animals were observed through the post-operative period at the first and seventh postoperative day and there on at 2, 4, 6, 9, 12 weeks. Further additional fixation was needed in one of the rabbits in the second week.</p> <p>The postoperative period provided us information about the optimal moment for the removal of titanium micro plates. It showed that over a period of six weeks, the bone had almost all normal biomechanical properties. Significantly greater strength and rigidity of the recovered femur were obtained after 12 weeks. Micro plates that were removed after 4, 6 or 9 weeks, did not need furhter fixation and therefore fixation was not applied, compared to those placed during the 12 weeks. X Ray evaluation provided us with follow up results of fracture healing.</p> <p>The results suggest that it is acceptable to remove titanium micro plates after a period of healing, that is, after the formation of the callus and bridging of the fracture gap and diastasis with newly formed bone.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Concentration in the Serum of Dogs Naturally Infected with Spp. – Association with the Stage of the Disease, Therapy, and Clinical Pathology Data<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Progressive tissue injury in canine leishmaniosis (CL) is related to the deposition of immune complexes, which induces vasculitis and leads to endothelial dysfunction. Homocysteine (Hcy) increase may worsen endothelial dysfunction, but data concerning its concentration in different CL stages and links to the acute phase response and oxidative stress are missing. We compared Hcy levels between dogs with mild (N=24) and moderate CL without treatment (N=17) and treated with anti-<italic>Leishmania</italic> drugs and vitamin B supplements (N=9). Dogs with moderate CL, regardless of therapy administration, had more distinct clinical signs, lower erythron values, and a higher level of acute-phase proteins (APPs), IgG against <italic>Leishmania</italic> spp., urea and creatinine, than dogs with mild CL. Hcy values did not differ between stages, but treated dogs had the lowest levels of Hcy. An inverse relationship existed between Hcy and the CL stage, therapy, levels of IgG, and clinical pathology data. The only positive relationship existed between Hcy and the erythron state. The disease stage and therapeutic intervention were not related to the oxidative stress level, except in the case of paraoxonase-1/Hcy ratio, indicating favorable conditions for antioxidative defense in treated dogs. In conclusion, changes in Hcy levels indicated its possible involvement with endothelial dysfunction and inverse relationship to tissue injury evaluated by APPs. Finally, Hcy might be an early marker of favorable conditions for endothelium recovery in CL.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Distributions of Foot and Mouth Disease Between 2010-2019 in Turkey<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most contagious diseases of livestock with a significant economic impact affecting most countries in the world over the years. In Turkey, FMD is endemic, but there have not been national studies conducted to analyze spatiotemporal pattern of FMD yet. This study was carried out to identify the spatial and temporal distribution of FMD outbreaks in Turkey from January 2010 to December 2019, to guide the eradication following development of control programs against the disease. Thematic maps were produced to determine FMD sensitive regions and Box-Jenkins time series approach was used to analyze the temporal pattern of FMD. Between these dates, 6698 outbreaks and 246341 cases were reported in Turkey, FMD was recorded multiple times in 96.3% of the provinces (n = 78), and the average incidence of FMD outbreaks at the provincial level was calculated as 8.27/province year. As result of the spatial pattern of FMD, East and Central Anatolia were determined as the regions where the disease was observed intensely. The time series plot of the data showed a general not very regular trend although there was a downward trend with irregular variations. Although, there was no seasonal effect detected by the decomposition of time series, seasonal peaks in the outbreaks were observed, in the spring (n = 2087, 31.16%). In conclusion, the evaluation of spatial and temporal pattern based on FMD outbreaks that are common in Turkey will contribute to eradication of the disease.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Coxofemoral Luxation in Cats Treated with Hip-Toggle Stabilization Using the Mini Tightrope® Fixation System<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of 21 cats that underwent coxofemoral toggle stabilization using the Mini TightRope® Fixation System (mTR®). Data were compiled from client-owned cats with traumatic hip luxation. Each cat underwent the same protocol including orthopedic assessment, preoperative radiographic evaluation, surgical procedure, postoperative management and clinical re-examination at 14 days, 8 weeks and 12 months following surgery. Age, body weight, implants and osteoarthritis progression were recorded. A lameness score 0-4 was assigned to each cat. Pain upon hip extension was not quantified but as pain reaction or no pain reaction. Major complications and osteoarthritic (OA) changes were recorded. Osteoarthritic changes were classified on a 0-4 scale. Twenty-one cats were included in the study. Coxofemoral luxations were stabilized using a mTR®. At 8 weeks, weight bearing was considered normal (grade 0) in all cats and no pain reaction was elicited during hip extension. One year after surgery, orthopedic examination was within the normal limits and according to the owners, all animals exhibited a normal physical activity. No complications were recorded. Evidence of slight OA changes were observed in 5 out of 21 cats. The final outcome was considered excellent in 16/21 patients and good in 5/21 cats. The application of the mTR® system can be considered a suitable surgical treatment in cats affected by traumatic hip luxation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Lumpy Skin Disease: Emergence in Asian Part of Eurasia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an infectious disease mostly of cattle. The typical clinical picture is usually characterized by the appearance of multiple nodules on the skin and internal organs. They can cover the entire body of the animal in the course of severe illness. This disease causes serious economic damage despite the fact that mortality of cattle with LSD is often low. Now LSD is a serious danger for cattle in the Asian part of Russia (part of the territory of the Russian Federation geographically belonging to Asia) and the Southeast Asia. Initially LSD was an endemic disease in many Sub-Saharan African countries, then it spread to Asia and Europe. In order to prevent the spread of the lumpy skin disease virus (LSDV), strict quarantine is introduced, vector control is carried out and various other LSD control measures are implemented. An effective vaccination campaign is required to significantly reduce the morbidity. However, the risk of spreading this transboundary disease to neighboring LSDV virus-free countries and regions of Asia, remains high enough. This article contains a summary of the available information about the spread of LSD in Asian part of Eurasia for the period of 1984 - February 2022. We are also discussing the latest available findings on the epidemiology of LSD and the methods currently used for the prevention and control of the LSDV.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue, Pathological and Molecular Findings in Caprine Arthritis – Encephalitis Virus Infection in Damascus Goats<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus Infection was presented with <italic>clinical</italic>, <italic>pathological, and molecular findings</italic> in dairy goats from a breeding unit in Turkey. According to history, 50 of 700 goats and kids showed the clinical signs including anorexia, mastitis, swelling of the joints, lameness, dyspnea and head pressing in the past 2 months. Fifteen and 6 animals were examined clinically and pathologically, respectively. Clinical examination revealed depression, weakness, pneumonia, ataxia and paresis in 15 goats. Histological lesions were composed by a varying degree of interstitial pneumonia, nonsuppurative leukoencephalomyelitis, interstitial nephritis and interstitial myocarditis. Immunohistochemical examinations showed the presence of viral antigen in tubular epithelium, in glial cells and macrophages.</p> <p>In conclusion, this is the first report documenting pathological and molecular changes of Caprine Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus Infection in Turkey in goats.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Dimethylarginine is a Promising Biomarker for the Early Detection of Age-Related Kidney Dysfunction in Zoo Felids<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Chronic renal failure is one of the leading causes of death in African lions, cheetahs, and tigers. Conventional methods to measure renal dysfunction include measuring serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) measurement is a reliable predictor of renal dysfunction in the domestic cat because SDMA serum levels increase early when the kidneys are damaged. Serum SDMA levels were assessed and correlated with creatinine as well as BUN from healthy captive Bengal tigers and lions at the Everland Zoo in Korea. Serum SDMA concentrations were increasingly associated with increased age in lions. However, SDMA concentrations were higher in some young Bengal tigers than in older ones, which may allow for earlier renal dysfunction detection in these young cats than would be BUN and creatinine alone. In Bengal tigers, the correlation between the SDMA and BUN was slightly higher than that between SDMA and creatinine. In lions, SDMA correlated better with creatinine than with BUN concentration. These results show that serum SDMA concentration can be used as a biomarker for age-associated renal dysfunction. SDMA measurement may be an essential preventive management method in zoos.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Two Protocols of Resynchronization of Estrus and Ovulation in High-Producing Dairy Cows at Peak Lactation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The reproductive efficiency of the cows was monitored after two resynchronization protocols: Ovsynch (OVS) and Double Ovsynch (DOS). The research initially included 70 HF cows who entered the first synchronization protocol – Presynch. Cows that did not conceive after the first synchronization were divided into two groups and introduced to two resynchronization protocols. In the first group of cows (n=35), the DOS protocol began with the application of GnRH on day 22 after the Presynch TAI (Timed Artificial Insemination), and seven days later pregnancy check-up was done and PGF<sub>2α</sub> was applied only to non-pregnant cows (n=23), which remained in the study. In the second group of cows, the OVS protocol started on day 32 after Presynch TAI only in non-pregnant animals (n=20). Progesterone (P4) concentration was determined at the time of application of GnRH1, PGF<sub>2α</sub> and GnRH2 in both groups of cows, and then 30 days after Resynch TAI, ultrasound pregnancy diagnosis was done. A higher percentage of pregnant cows were recorded in the OVS group compared to the DOS group (45% and 35%, respectively). The concentration of P4 in the serum of cows in the DOS group during the first measurement (GnRH1) was significantly higher than the value in cows that did not conceive (p&lt;0.05), while in the third measurement (GnRH2) the average concentration of P4 in conceiving cows was significantly lower (p&lt;0.001) compared to cows that did not coincive. The open days period was significantly longer in pregnant cows that were resynchronized using the DOS protocol compared to cows from the OVS protocol. In conclusion, the OVS protocol of estrus resynchronization in dairy cows proved to be more successful than the DOS protocol. However, considering the advantages the OVS, it is needed to determine which day of the sexual cycle is the best to start resynchronization.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Adenoma Associated with Chronic Mastitis in a Wild Boar ()<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Mammary gland tumor is rare and only a few cases have been reported in wild animals. Moreover, most etiologies of the known cases in veterinary medicine are related to age, diet, obesity, and excessive sex hormones in domestic animals while few etiologies are reported in wild animals. An unknown-aged female wild boar was presented to the Department of Veterinary Pathology, Kyungpook National University with a well-demarcated, and firm-to-elastic mammary gland mass. The cut-surface of the mass was pink-reddish, and homogeneous. Microscopically, the mass was mainly composed of well-differentiated neoplastic glandular epithelial cells characterized by a single-layer, columnar to cuboidal shapes, and small and central nuclei and nucleoli. Any evidence of invasiveness or metastases of the neoplastic cells were not observed. Interestingly, infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells such as plasma cells and macrophages was observed along with a large quantity of gram-negative and positive bacterial colonies in the mammary glands. Moreover, accompanied fibrosis of stroma was observed, as well. Based on the gross and microscopic findings, the present case was diagnosed as mammary simple adenoma caused by chronic mastitis progressing to fibrotic condition. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study describing the histopathological aspects of mammary gland tumors associated with chronic mastitis accompanied by fibrosis in wild animals.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Plant-Based Natural Supplement Imмunostart Herb on Honey Bee Colony Performance<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Winter is the season that poses the greatest challenges for honey bee colonies. Therefore, the main approach in beekeeping practice is aimed mainly at providing sufficient quality food supplies for bee colonies in early autumn. We conducted the present study to test the influence of the natural plant extract IMМUNOSTART HERB on population strength, stored pollen area, capped worker brood area, and honey yield. The experimental groups were supplied with IMМUNOSTART HERB 4 times at 7-day intervals, whereas sugar syrup was given to the control groups. The obtained results showed that the applied supplemental diet affected all investigated biological parameters, with the most noticeable effect after the second application. In all measurements, the honey bee colony parameters in the treated groups showed higher values in comparison to the control groups. These results highlight the potential of herbal supplements to effectively improve bee colonies’ development during the period of scarce bee forage, as well as to provide suitable conditions for successful overwintering.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of a Two-Step Centrifugation Protocol for Bovine Platelet-Rich Plasma<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Platelet-rich plasma ( PRP), an autologous platelet concentrated in plasma, is a source of diverse growth factors and is extensively utilized to promote tissue healing. Most of the clinical and laboratory investigations in veterinary medicine have focused on horses and dogs. Consequently, the types and detailed conditions of the PRP preparation method are based on those species. However, in bovine medicine, only a few studies have investigated the species-specific characteristics of bovine platelets. The aim of this study was to optimize the conditions of a two-step centrifugation method for bovine PRP. Whole blood samples were obtained from eight healthy lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Eight running conditions for the first and second centrifugations each were evaluated based on the platelet recovery rate, the concentration of growth factors, and the adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced aggregation response, which reflects the premature platelet activation caused by the centrifugation process. The results of this study showed that for the first and second centrifugations, 900×g for 10 minutes and 1250×g for 15 minutes, respectively, were the most suitable conditions for the platelet recovery rate, and the concentration of growth factors was highest under these conditions without significant activation of premature platelet aggregation. Thus, we established an optimal two-step centrifugation protocol for bovine PRP that should provide a better understanding of bovine platelets.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Imaging Features of Male Pseudohermaphroditism in a Feral Cat<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A one-year-old European shorthair feral cat with signs of heat was presented at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria University. After the physical exam, histology, hormonal analysis, ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) studies were performed. Examination of the external genitalia revealed the absence of one of the testes in the scrotal sac and the presence of a structure whose appearance could suggest an enlarged penis-like clitoris with small spines. The ultrasound study showed compatible images with the left ovary and intra-abdominal testis and tubular structures, which closely resembled the uterine horns. Similar structures were confirmed in the CT study. Exploratory celiotomy revealed the presence of the uterus and undescended testis attached to the uterine horn. Histological examination revealed immature testicular tissue in both gonads and the presence of Persistent Müllerian Duct (PMD). Though a karyotype was not performed, it was presumed to be the standard 38 XY found in pseudohermaphrodites. To date, this type of disorder of sexual development (DSD) has been scarcely reported in cats. Further studies are on the way to knowing the genetic mechanism of this disease.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Supplementation Helps Honey Bee Colonies in Combat Infections by Enhancing their Hygienic Behaviour<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The hygienic behavior in honey bees is a complex polygenic trait that serves as a natural defense mechanism against bacterial and fungal brood diseases and <italic>Varroa destructor</italic> mites infesting brood cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a dietary amino acids and vitamins supplement “BEEWELL AminoPlus” on hygienic behavior of <italic>Apis mellifera</italic> colonies combating microsporidial and viral infections. The experiment was performed during a one-year period on 40 colonies alloted to five groups: one supplemented and infected with <italic>Nosema ceranae</italic> and four viruses (Deformed wing virus - DWV, Acute bee paralysis virus - ABPV, Chronic bee paralysis virus - CBPV and Sacbrood virus – SBV), three not supplemented, but infected with <italic>N. ceranae</italic> and/ or viruses, and one negative control group. Beside the l isted pathogens, honey bee trypanosomatids were also monitored in all groups.</p> <p>The supplement “BEEWELL AminoPlus” induced a significant and consistent increase of the hygienic behavior in spite of the negative effects of <italic>N. ceranae</italic> and viral infections. <italic>N. ceranae</italic> and viruses significantly and consistently decreased hygienic behavior, but also threatened the survival of bee colonies. The tested supplement showed anti-<italic>Nosema</italic> effect, since the <italic>N. ceranae</italic> infection level significantly and consistently declined only in the supplemented group. Among infected groups, only the supplemented one remained <italic>Lotmaria passim</italic>-free throughout the study. In conclusion, diet supplementation enhances hygienic behavior of honey bee colonies and helps them fight the most common infections of honey bees.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Diazepam on Hematological and Histological Parameters in Rats / and Unbiased Stereological Investigation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Diazepam-based drugs are widely used today in human treatment. Diazepam may be a primary drug aimed at treating neurological diseases or an associated drug in the treatment of other diseases in the purpose of symptomatic therapy. The sedative effect of diazepam characterizes it as a drug that people usually use on their own and without a doctor’s supervision. Directly, but also through influencing the nervous system, diazepam disrupts proper functioning of all body organs. The purpose of this paper was to examine the effects of diazepam on blood and cytohistological parameters of rats in an <italic>in vivo</italic> experiment. Mallory-Azan and immunochistochemical staining methods BLX-CX and Survivin tissues of liver, kidney and spleen of rats were used to achieve the set goal. Cytometric analysis of rats detected cells in apoptosis and measurements of stereological parameters were made using a system according to Cavalier’s principle. Results of analysis of hematological and histological parameters indicate a detrimental effect of diazepam on blood parameters, as well as on structure and functioning of the liver, kidneys and spleen of rats. This paper is a foundation for further detailed scientific research with the aim of elucidating all harmful effects that diazepam has on all organs in the body of rats. This data could serve as a starting point for future studies in clinical pharmacology on therapeutic protocols for usage of diazepam-based sedatives.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue