rss_2.0Advances in Materials Science FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Advances in Materials Science in Materials Science Feed Effects of ArC Voltage and Shielding Gas Type on the Microstructure of Wire ArC Additively Manufactured 2209 Duplex Stainless Steel<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Duplex stainless steels (DSSs) are widely used due to their corrosion resistance. Austenite and ferrite determine the excellent properties. Ferrite provides strength and good corrosion resistance, while austenite provides toughness and weldability. During our research, samples were produced with ER 2209 duplex steel wire using wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM). Two different 17 V and 19 V arc voltages were used during the production. Two shielding gases were used for each voltage: M12-ArC-2.5 and M12-ArHeC-20/2. The research aimed to determine the ferrite ratio as a function of the welding parameters. The ferrite (or austenite) content must be between 30% and 70% for duplex stainless steel welds, according to the ISO 17781 standard. Based on our research, it can be stated that the austenite ratio increases as the voltage increases, thus failing to fulfill the standard's requirements. The helium content reduced the ferrite ratio even when the 17 V voltage was used due to the gas's higher ionization potential. During the metallographic examination, our welded samples met the standard requirements for the austenite content for 17 V arc voltage and M12-ArC-2.5 shielding gas. The ferrite content in the entire sample cross-section fell between 30-42% during feritscope and image analysis measurements. These welding parameters can be recommended for industrial applications.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Experimental Analysis of the Forging of a Bimetallic Crosshead<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The automobile sector has been making increasing efforts to reduce the weight of automobiles, aiming at mitigating pollutant gas emissions. The use of innovative concepts, such as bimetallic components, has become attractive because it makes it possible to increase the strength-to-weight ratio of the components. In this study, the hot forging of a bimetallic crosshead is investigated. In the process, a billet with a cylindrical core of the magnesium alloy AZ61 is enclosed with a hollow cylinder of the aluminum alloy AA 6351 and forged at 400°C. The objective is to reconcile the low density of Mg alloys with the high corrosion resistance of Al alloys. In parallel, a finite element analysis of the process was carried out.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Microcrystalline Cellulose Dispersion Method on the Structure and Properties of Rigid Polyurethane Foam Composites<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper investigates the reinforcement of rigid polyurethane foams with microcrystalline cellulose to improve their mechanical and thermal properties. In this work, microcrystalline cellulose was added to polyol and was dispersed using two methods: calendering and ultrasounds. As a result of the study, it was found that the addition of micro cellulose to the polyol mixture used for the synthesis of polyurethane foam changes the properties of the final product. A crucial aspect is how it is added to the mixture. When adding microcrystalline cellulose particles, better results were obtained for particles dispersed using ultrasound. The most beneficial changes were obtained for the sample with 2php cellulose. The most significant reduction in average pore size was shown, which has a beneficial effect on the insulating properties of polyurethane foam. In addition, an increase in mechanical properties was also noted. Both properties are highly desirable in many applications.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Properties of Titanium Grade 1 After Laser Shock Wave Treatment<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the presented work the impact of a laser shock wave on the mechanical properties of a Titanium Grade 1 was investigated. Based on a series of experimental studies related to the impact of the laser shock wave on the tested material, the impact of the given treatment on the structure and mechanical properties was assessed. The influence of the environment on the distribution of plasma temperature and pressure in the material during the implementation of the laser shock wave was analyzed. The effect of the laser treatment on the structure and micromechanical properties was initially estimated on the basis of the analysis of experimental results in the form of static strength test of samples after laser treatment. A slight increase in material strength was detected with a minimal decrease in ductility. In order to comprehensively understand the observed phenomenon, a number of fractographic tests were performed, especially the analysis of the porosity of the fracture surfaces. A decrease in the porosity of the material after impact laser treatment was observed as a result of local plastic deformation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Polymer/Carbonaceous Nano-Reinforcement Nanocomposites—Opportunities for Space Sector<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Carbonaceous or nanocarbon nano-reinforcement nanocomposites have been found as emergent candidates for aerospace industry. Consequently, the multifunctional nanocomposites have been fabricated using marvelous nanocarbon nanostructures like graphene, carbon nanotube, fullerene, carbon black, etc. Manufacturing techniques have also been engrossed for the formation of high performance engineering nanocomposites having fine strength, heat stability, flame resistance, and other space desired features. These practices include solution, in situ, and melt procedures, on top of specific space structural design techniques, for the formation of aerospace structures. The aerospace related material property enhancements using various carbonaceous nano-reinforcements depends upon the type of nanocarbon, dimensionality, as well as inherent features of these nanostructures (in addition to the choice of manufacturing methods). Furthermore, carbon nano-reinforcements have been filled, besides carbon fibers, in the epoxy matrices. Nanocarbon coated carbon fibers have been filled in epoxy resins to form the high performance nanomaterials for space structures. The engineering features of these materials have been experiential appropriate for the aerospace structures. Further research on these nanomaterials may be a key towards future opportunities in the aero systems. Additionally, the explorations on structure-property relationships of the carbonaceous nanocomposites have been found indispensable for the development of advanced aerospace structures.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Corrosion Properties of Friction Stir Welded and Tungsten Inert Gas Welded Phosphor Bronze<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study investigated the mechanical and corrosion properties of Friction Stir Welded (FSW) and Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) welded phosphor bronze (CuSn4) joints. Corrosion tests were conducted on the welded joints, and the percentage of weight loss due to corrosion was measured at different time intervals. Results revealed that the percentage of weight loss due to corrosion of the TIG joint increased with time, whereas the percentage of weight loss due to corrosion of the FSW welded joint remained constant. This could be attributed to recrystallisation that happened in the solid-state welding, which reduced corrosion in the FSW welded joint. In addition, tensile tests were conducted to evaluate the strength of the joints. FSW with a spindle speed of 1300 rpm, weld speed of 0.06mm/sec, plunge depth of 0.25mm, pin profile of pentagon, and flat shoulder profile was found to produce good results. TIG welding with a welding speed of 1.75mm/sec, a gas flow rate of 7.5 cm<sup>3</sup>/min and an amperage of 120A also produced good results. The tensile strength of FSW was found to be approximately 1.6 times higher than that of TIG welding.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Substituting White Cement with Ceramic Waste Powders (CWP) on the Performance of a Mortar Based on Crushed Sand<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The enormous quantities of ceramic waste lead us to its use in the construction field to solve both an environmental and an economic problem. The present study aims to recycle ceramic waste powders (CWP) to produce mortars. To this end, five crushed sand (CS) based mortar mixes with prismatic dimensions of 4x4x16 cm³ were prepared by partially replacing 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% white cement with CWP. Tests were carried out to assess bulk density, compressive strength, and ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV). The results obtained showed that increasing the proportion of ceramic waste powder (CWP) in mortar mixes led to a decrease in bulk density, compressive strength, and UPV in the different mortars. In addition, linear correlations were observed between the different variables studied.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Friendly Synthesis of Silver Oxide Nanoparticles from Borassus Flabellifer Fiber and Its Antibacterial Activity Against Representative Micro Organisms<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present study reports an easy eco-friendly, cost efficient, and rapid method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using palm sprouts as reducing cum capping agent. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles was successfully performed using palm sprouts plant extract via a simple and cheaper eco-friendly method. Palm sprouts extract reduces silver nitrate to silver nanoparticles. The resulting materials were analyzed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. FT-IR spectrum confirms the presence of various functional groups in the active biomolecules, it acts as a capping agent for the nanoparticles. The morphology of this sample was analyzed through SEM and the presence of silver was confirmed accordingly. The green synthesized Ag NPs exhibited an excellent antibacterial activity against E. coli and P. aeruginosa and B. subtilis and S. aureus besides imparting efficient antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria as well.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Analysis of Fracture Behavior of Functionally Graded Materials using 3D-XFEM<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents the numerical evaluation of mixed stress intensity factors (SIFs) and non-singular terms of William's series (T-stress) of functionally graded materials (FGMs) using three-dimensional extended finite element method (3D-XFEM). Four-point bending specimen with crack perpendicular to material gradation have been used in this investigation in order to study the effect of some parameters (crack position, crack size, specimen thickness) on the failure of FGMs materials. The fracture parameters (K<sub>I</sub> K<sub>II</sub>, phase angle ψ and T-stress) obtained by the present simulation are compared with available experimental and numerical results. An excellent correlation was found of the 3D-XFEM simulations with those available in the literature. From the numerical results, a fitting procedure is performed in order to propose an analytical formulation and subsequently are validated against the 3D-XFEM results.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Grinding Ball Lifespan and Efficiency Through Hardenability Modelling and Optimization<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Grinding balls are spherical or cylindrical components used in grinding and milling operations to reduce the size of particles and achieve a finer product. They are made of high chromium white cast iron (HCWCI) and used in a variety of industrial processes. The efficiency of the grinding process is heavily influenced by the properties of the grinding balls, including their composition, size, and hardness. As such, there is ongoing research and development to improve the performance and durability of grinding balls, with the aim of countering the extreme conditions of wear and impact that cause a reduction in their lifespan. This study involved austenitizing balls with diameters of 50 mm and 70 mm at temperatures of 950°C and 1050°C, followed by quenching using both oil and compressed air. By exploiting the experimental HRC hardness results obtained in this work, the study aims to find a mathematical model relating the response (hardenability) to the main effects (austenitization temperature, quenching medium, and diameter balls) and their interactions. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to establish the statistical significance parameters and an optimization of response by the best sub-models method and by the desirability function is realized in the second part of this work. It seems that the austenitization temperature and the size of the balls have a stronger impact on the hardenability of the balls than the cooling rate (quenching medium) by reducing the hardness difference between the surface and the medium of the ball to minimal values.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Waste Polypropylene to Produce New Composite Materials with Jute Reinforcements<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Waste polypropylene (PP) polymer was collected, washed, dried and mechanically recycled into granules. Natural fibers are a sustainable and renewable resource, and in this work, <italic>Corchorus olitorius</italic> jute fiber was used as a reinforcing agent with waste PP. Jute fiber was collected from local market, cleaned, dried and cut into 1-2 mm in length for the production of waste PP-jute composites. The molecular structure of waste PP and virgin PP were characterized by the attenuated total reflection-fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR). The purpose of the current research was to examine the effectiveness of waste PP by comparing waste PP-jute composites and virgin PP-jute composites. The injection molding process was utilized to make jute fiber reinforced waste PP composites with various jute fiber loadings (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, and 30% in weight).The same process was used to produce virgin PP composites reinforced with jute fiber. All composites undergo water absorption and tensile testing in order to assess the recycled PP. Injection molded virgin and waste PP's physico-mechanical, thermal, and tensile strengths are also examined. In comparison to waste PP, virgin PP has a 6% greater tensile strength and a 19% higher elongation at break. Results from waste PP-jute composites and virgin PP-jute composites did not significantly differ from one another. Products made from recycled PP can thus be both economically and environmentally viable.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Crack Growth and Fatigue Life of an Axial Fan Blade Based on a Co-Simulation Approach<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper presents static and dynamic stress analyses of an axial fan blade, which were carried out under real-life centrifugal and aerodynamic loading conditions using the Abaqus software. The location of the crack was identified on the pressure side of the blade at the conjunction between the blade and the blade root. It reveals a high agreement between the predicted location of stress distribution and the real origin of the crack location. Furthermore, a fracture mechanics criterion was adopted to simulate fatigue crack growth. This was performed using a fracture analysis FRANC3D code for three-dimensional problems. As a result, the calculated stress intensity factors (SIFs) were presented for the first steps, and the fatigue life of the fan blade was evaluated using the Forman de Koning model at different stress ratios.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Rise in Temperature (250°C) on the Physico-Mechanical Properties of Rubber Mortars<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The recovery and use of waste in the field of civil engineering, particularly in construction materials, is one of the most prominent solutions for preserving the environment. In order to evaluate the results obtained, it is necessary to study the evolution of the properties of these new materials in the different environments where they can live or be exposed, and why not develop an effective method of treatment of such materials for the possibility of their use even in the field of precast concrete. The objective of this work is to study the effect of the increase in temperature as a living environment or as a treatment on the physico-mechanical properties of a crumbled mortar, a potential source of many environmental and economic problems. Hence the screening and the possibility of using these new mortars with sufficient physico-mechanical properties for masonry and why not for prefabrication. The formulation of the mixtures based on the substitution of dune sand by crumb rubber, at different weight contents 10, 20 and 30%. Consequently, prismatic specimens (4x4x16) cm<sup>3</sup> subjected to the temperature (250°C), with a speed of 2°C/min followed by a one-hour plateau at the target temperature then cooling to the ambient temperature. The results obtained show that the maximum mass loss is 5% for 30% substitution and that for 10% substitution the absorption by total immersion decreased by more than two thirds and the porosity accessible to water decreased by more than half. The compressive strength increases by 8.9% for 10% substitution and the minimum decrease in tensile strength by bending is at the same substitution of an order of 26.9%. Using the analysis of variance, the influence of the substitution of dune sand by rubber crumbs and of the rise in temperature to 250°C on the behavior of the mortar acquired. Patterns developed by response surface methodology were significant for all p-value substitutions &lt;5%. The results of the numerical optimization showed that the best mixture could obtained by replacing 30% of dune sand with rubber crumb and subjecting the hardened mortar obtained from this mixture to the temperature of 135°C.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Kinetics and Mechanism in Type 347H Alloy Steel for Boiler Tubes<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The research material (type 347H alloy steel) has been characterized using optical microscopy and an EDS/SEM system. Annealing experiments have been conducted at temperatures range of 600–1050°C for 30 min–20 h by using an atmosphere-controlled furnace. Normal grain growth with intermediate grain size has been related to the favouring of creep resistance to recommend the material suitable for boiler tubes at operating temperatures up to 750°C for long duration. The kinetics of grain growth in the 347H has been shown to behave similar to a pure metal in the initial stage of annealing in the range of 0–30 min, beyond which the grain-growth process was found to be suppressed due to second-phase (NbC) particle-pinning and solute drag effects. The grain-growth exponent n is computed to be in the range of 0.117–0.313; the deviation from ideal kinetic behavior (n=0.5) has been scientifically justified. The activation energy for grain growth Q<sub>g</sub>, for the investigated alloy, has been graphically computed and validated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of a Steel Industrial Co-Product for the Development of Alkali-Activated Materials: Effect of Curing Environments<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>While natural resources are becoming scarce and climate change is accelerating, the recovery and recycling of wastes and by-products is an effective way to deal with the economic and ecological constraints of recent decades. The valorization of industrial by-products in civil engineering is a common practice either by their incorporation during the manufacture of Portland cements or as a partial replacement of cement during the production of concrete. The present work aims to develop waste-based alkali-activated materials WAAMs intended for civil engineering applications as a potential alternative to cement-based materials. A steel industrial by-product called commonly granulated blast furnace slag GBFS was used alone as a solid CaO-rich precursor; two alkaline activators such us sodium silicate (Na<sub>2</sub>SiO<sub>3</sub>) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were used separately for the production of two-part alkali-activated materials. Besides the microstructure analysis of the hardened samples, the influence of activator/precursor mass ratio, NaOH molarity, and two curing environments (Room temperature and 60°C) on the compressive strength, water accessible porosity, mass loss, and drying shrinkage were assessed. The results showed that a high Liquid/Solid ratio leads to a decrease in the compressive strength of the samples, while high NaOH molarity significantly improves the mechanical properties by reducing the porosity of the specimens. Moreover, alkaline silicate activator provides higher compressive strengths compared to the alkaline hydroxide activator, especially when the samples were cured at room temperature where a maximum 28days-compressive strength value of 105.28 MPa was achieved. For the samples activated using sodium hydroxide solution, the results revealed that their curing at 60°C promotes obtaining high initial-compressive strengths (7 days) before decreasing subsequently as a function of the curing time. As an indication, at high alkaline concentration (NaOH = 9M), a mechanical strength decline of 21% was recorded between a curing time of 7 to 28 days. Moreover, curing at 60°C induced high porosity, significant mass loss and high drying shrinkage. SEM analysis highlighted a dense, homogeneous microstructure without apparent defects, in particular for the samples where the alkali silicate activator was used.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Thermoelastic Heat Conduction Model Involving Three Different Fractional Operators<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this paper is to introduce a new time-fractional heat conduction model with three-phase-lags and three distinct fractional-order derivatives. We investigate the introduced model in the situation of an isotropic and homogeneous solid sphere. The exterior of the sphere is exposed to a thermal shock and a decaying heat generation rate. We recuperate some earlier thermoelasticity models as particular cases from the proposed model. Moreover, the effects of different fractional thermoelastic models and the effect of instant time on the physical variables of the medium are studied. We obtain the numerical solutions for the various physical fields using a numerical Laplace inversion technique. We represent the obtained results graphically and discuss them. Physical views presented in this article may be useful for the design of new materials, bio-heat transfer mechanisms between tissues and other scientific domains.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Synthesis by Precipitation of Zinc Oxide for Boimedical Application<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of the study is the chemical synthesis of ZnO powders, from ZnCl<sub>2</sub> and NaOH solutions according to an appropriate procedure. The powders (a) and (b) obtained underwent various characterizations such as: optical microscopy, SEM, UV, BET, IR, XRD and antimicrobial activity. The results showed the inhomogeneous distribution, the nanometric size, the absorbance at 353 and 346 nm and the specific surface of 25.701 and 30.534 cm<sub>2</sub>/g of the particles, the presence of all the characteristic bands of ZnO which was confirmed by XRD and very good bacterial sensitivity of the two ZnO powders.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Behavior of the AL 2017-A Aluminium Plate Corroded and with Horizontal Cracks Treated by the Technique of Composite Materials<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This work presents a comprehensive study consisting of two aspects: a numerical analytical aspect and a laboratory experimental aspect. The numerical study was a three-dimensional finite element numerical analysis of performance of corroded and horizontally cracked aluminium plates, which were repaired by composite patching. The effect of the composite types on the variance of the damaged area of the adhesive (FM-73) and their efficiency on the stress intensity factor were studied. In the experimental study, corroded aluminium plates were prepared and repaired them using technology of the composite. The results showed that the panels that were repaired with composite (boron/epoxy) give values of stress intensity factor (K<sub>I</sub>) and damaged area ratio (D<sub>R</sub>) less than the other two studied composites (glass/epoxy and graphite/epoxy), and increase the ultimate strength of plates damage, and this leads to the conclusion that (Boron/epoxy) increases the performance and durability of (Al 2017-A) plates.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Lubrication Performance of Low-Carbon Steel Sheets in the Presence of Pressurised Lubricant<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In sheet metal forming processes, friction increases the force parameters of the forming process and produces a deterioration in the quality of the surface of the components. The basic way to reduce the unfavourable impact of friction is to lubricate the sheet metal surface with commercial oils. This article presents the results of experimental studies and analysis of variance (ANOVA) of the friction of DC01 low-carbon steel sheets using a strip drawing test. For these tests, a special device was built containing countersamples with a flat surface made of 145Cr6 steel covered with a protective AlTiN coating. Lubricants of different viscosities were fed into the contact zone under forced pressure. The effect of contact pressure on the value of the coefficient of friction was also determined. The predicted R² of 0.9227 was in reasonable agreement with the adjusted R² of 0.9411 confirming that the ANOVA model was reliable. It was found that increasing the lubricant pressure had a beneficial effect in reducing the value of the coefficient of friction. The higher the contact pressure, the more effectively the pressurised oil reduced the value of the coefficient of friction.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue welded joint properties investigation<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Underwater welded joint properties investigation</title><p>Macroscopic and microscopic examinations of implant joints made under water have been performed. The investigations results indicate that in HAZ of the tested joints a formation of brittle structures has occurred. The brittle structures are responsible for an increase of susceptibility to cold cracking of high strength low alloy steel. An analysis of hardness penetration patterns of implant joints also indicates an adverse effect of water environment on weldability of steel.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue