rss_2.0European Pharmaceutical Journal FeedSciendo RSS Feed for European Pharmaceutical Journalhttps://sciendo.com/journal/AFPUChttps://www.sciendo.comEuropean Pharmaceutical Journal 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/624b40302aa0ea73850f8e08/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20220811T023101Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20220811%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=ddf1b96280673326809f795d23d9c50bf4785cb760d2607753d217b71637b16d200300Influence of Organic Solvents and β-cyclodextrins on Capillary Zone Electrophoresis Separation of Five Biogenic Amines and Two B Vitaminshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afpuc-2022-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The effects of organic modifiers—alcohols (methanol, isopropanol), acetonitrile, and tetrahydrofuran—and β-cyclodextrins in capillary zone electrophoresis were investigated using a test mixture containing five biogenic amines important from the human health point of view—serotonin, dopamine, adrenaline, noradrenaline, and tyramine—and two B vitamins—thiamine and pyridoxine. The simultaneous addition of tetrahydrofuran and isopropanol was found to improve the resolution of determined analytes and enable effective separation of analytes with very similar electromigration characteristics migrating as one peak (dopamine and serotonin). The developed and optimised separation method based on capillary zone electrophoresis and ultraviolet detection was capable to achieve detection limits at the concentration level in the range of 0.15 to 1.25 μg/mL<sup>−1</sup>. The developed method was also characterised by other favourable validation parameters, such as linearity (<italic>r</italic><sup>2</sup> &gt; 0.99), accuracy (82.9–117.8% for the intraday measurements, and 87.6–119.2% for the interday measurements), and precision (intraday relative standard deviation in the range of 0.4–15.5%, interday relative standard deviation in the range of 0.9–18.3%). The method was finally applied to investigate the stability of the analytes in model water matrix samples under various storage conditions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-08-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Secondary prevention of patients with ischaemic stroke after recanalization treatmenthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afpuc-2022-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We performed a retrospective analysis of 100 patients with ischaemic stroke. All patients underwent intravenous thrombolysis in the acute care setting (avg. 2.8 hours, max 4.5 hours) and 10 of them also underwent mechanical thrombectomy. For 20% of the patients, the stroke was fatal. Door to needle time was 38.46 minutes. Although changes in antithrombotic treatment were introduced due to strokes, there was no significant difference in National Institute of Health Stroke Scale scores between the patients who were on antithrombotic treatment and those who were on no antithrombotic treatment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-13T00:00:00.000+00:00The experimental study of the immunomodulating action of Semax and Selank on the model of „social” stresshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afpuc-2022-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study is devoted to the experimental study of the immunocorrecting action of Semax (Met-Glu-His-Phe-Pro-Gly-Pro) and Selank (Thr-Lys-Pro-Arg-Pro-Gly-Pro) on the model of “social” stress formed as a result of sensory contact and inter-confrontation. Functional activity of the immune system of laboratory animals was assessed on the basis of standard immunopharmacological tests: delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (DTH), direct agglutination test (DAT), latex test for studying the phagocytic activity of peripheral blood neutrophils, and evaluation of changes in the leukocyte formula. As a result of the experiment, it was found that, under the influence of “social” stress, changes in the immune response are multidirectional, which confirms the theory of “immune disbalance” under the action of stressors. As a result of studying the influence of Semax and Selank on the model of “social” stress, it was found that the drug proved to be an effective corrector, restoring the cellular and humoral immunogenesis reactions, the phagocytic activity of neutrophils, which indicates the presence of immunomodulating properties, and emphasizes the need for further studies in this scientific direction. This study expands the scientific research base in the field of immunoreaction under stress-induced conditions with the aim of further developing a pharmacological strategy for correcting the revealed disorders by means of substances of a neuropeptide structure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Endocrine changes in women with a medically indicated abortion: the study designhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afpuc-2022-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A strongly psychosocially demanding situation in the life of a woman is the option of medically indicated abortion. Here we present the design of an ongoing study aiming to examine the stressfulness of life events related to medically indicated abortions by measuring cortisol concentrations in the participants’ hair and saliva. Pilot results show high salivary cortisol concentrations in the majority of the women one day before induced abortion. In half of the group, two months after the abortion, hair cortisol concentrations were higher in comparison to cumulative values from two months before. There were no changes in the second half.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-25T00:00:00.000+00:00Short cognitive screening in elderlies as a part of advanced pharmaceutical care in Slovak community pharmacies - The pilot study KOGNIMET-SKhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afpuc-2022-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study is to evaluate the implementation of a simple, easy-to-use cognitive screening test in the pharmaceutical care of elderly patients (aged 60 years and over) in community pharmacies and to test whether cognitive decline is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS).</p> <p>Current research has reported the increasing prevalence of MetS with age and indicated a link between cardiovascular risk factors and impairment of cognitive functions. We hypothesized that the short cognitive test realised in pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies could help identify risk groups of patients with potential cognitive decline. Because of the increasing pressure on primary care, collaboration between community pharmacists and general practitioners is essential, especially in preventive programmes and regarding chronically ill patients.</p> <p>The study included 222 elderly patients aged 60 years and over reached between February 2018 and February 2019 in 16 community pharmacies in Slovakia. Criteria for the classification of MetS were used, following the International Diabetes Federation Worldwide Definition of MetS (2005) for European populations. Cognitive performance was evaluated using the Slovak version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. The scale range of the MoCA test is 0–30 points, and the cut-off for cognitive impairment is ≤ 24 points.</p> <p>Our outcomes show that the presence of metabolic syndrome only slightly contributes to the impairment of cognitive functions of patients receiving routine pharmaceutical care in community pharmacies. Cognitive assessment might be an important tool for identifying risk groups of patients that would benefit from a specific approach within the framework of pharmaceutical care.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-24T00:00:00.000+00:00The influence of mineral nutrition and humic acids on the intensity of photosynthesis, as well as the yield and quality of seeds, roots, and aboveground phytomass of milk thistle (L.) Gaertn. in marginal growing conditionshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afpuc-2022-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Milk thistle <italic>Silybum marianum</italic> (L.) Gaertn. is one of the most researched medicinal plants, but at the same time it belongs to crops with wide industry potential whose growth requirements for marginal agroecological conditions or the response to agronomic interventions has not yet been sufficiently studied. The aim of the present research was to verify the effect of mineral nutrition (NPK 200 kg/ha) and humic acids applied to the soil (HUMAC Agro 250 kg/ha) on the main biometric parameters and the intensity of photosynthesis of milk thistle grown under less favourable climatic conditions of the semi-cold and humid foothills in Central Europe. The highest seed yield was achieved with the NPK variant in terms of dry matter 0.534 t/ha, in the HUMAC Agro variant 0.254 t/ha and with the untreated control 0.087 t/ha. The soil before the trial establishment was characterised by low nutrient content. The use of mineral fertiliser on NPK treatment eliminated the influence of low PK nutrients content of the soil, influencing the crop growth and yield/quality, while no doses of NPK were used on the HUMAC Agro variant and the untreated control. For both of the two sequences created (temperature and light), the highest photosynthesis rate was measured on untreated control (20.115 and 12.386 mmol/m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>1</sup>), markedly lower on HUMAC Agro (16.386 and 9.653 mmol/m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>1</sup>) – and the lowest on the NPK (10.933 and 7.813 mmol/m<sup>2</sup>/s<sup>1</sup>, respectively), in inverse proportion to the crop yield. Therefore, the size of the leaf area of the crop was decisive for the increased crop yield. The polynomial trend line of the photosynthesis rate according to the temperature sequence shows the photosynthesis rate and the torrential decrease by temperature increasing on untreated control compared with both treated variants. Both of these threats, mineral nutrition and use of humic preparations to soil, although they reduce the photosynthesis rate, have a wide range of complex effects that provide an opportunity to optimise the growth and yield of milk thistle. Ideally, the mineral nutrition and humic preparations should be used in combination with the crop of milk thistle for medicinal and energy purposes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-24T00:00:00.000+00:00A Study of Phenolic Bioactive Compounds Of Daucus Carota Subsp. Sativus Fruits of Yaskrava, Nantska Kharkivska and Olenka Species and Of Dauci Carotae Subsp. Sativi Fructuum Extractum Siccumhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afpuc-2022-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of the work was to study the qualitative composition and determine the quantitative content of phenolic compounds of <italic>Daucus carota</italic> subsp. <italic>sativus</italic> fruits of Yaskrava, Nantska Kharkivska and Olenka species and of <italic>Dauci carotae</italic> subsp. <italic>sativi</italic> fructuum extractum siccum. Phenolic compounds were studied by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS method. High content of phenol-origin bioactive substances was fixed in <italic>Daucus carota</italic> subsp. <italic>sativus fruits</italic> of Nantska Kharkivska variety (363.19 μg/g). Dominating compounds were chlorogenic acid, cynaroside, rutin and hyperoside. <italic>Daucus carota</italic> subsp. <italic>sativus fruits</italic> of all study species under question were found to possess permanent qualitative composition of phenolic compounds, whereas their quantitative content in experimental samples differed slightly. The results of analysis confirm promising development of novel antioxidant and cardioprotective drugs on the basis of <italic>Dauci carotae</italic> subsp. <italic>sativi</italic> fructuum extractum siccum.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Presentationshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afpuc-2022-0008ARTICLE2022-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Immune-Mediated Adverse Effects of Checkpoint Inhibitors: A Clinical Experiencehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afpuc-2022-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Autoimmune adverse effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are rare but may be life-threatening. We performed a retrospective analysis of the immune-related adverse effects (irAEs) of ICIs in the Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute (MMCI) from 2011 to 2021. The ICIs were administered to 648 patients. Severe irAEs were pronounced in 83 patients (12.8 %). Further, we report a case of severe irAE after treatment with ipilimumab and nivolumab. Prednisone, mesalazine, octreotide, infliximab, vedolizumab, and mycophenolate mofetil were used to manage G4 colitis, with partial response. Early diagnosis and appropriate management of irAE are essential in the perspective of further oncological treatment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Optimisation of flow cytometric detection of intracellular SLAMF receptor-associated adaptor proteins SAP and EAT-2https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afpuc-2022-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>SAP and EAT-2 are intracellular adaptor proteins that link SLAMF receptors to downstream intracellular signalling pathways. Their expression and functions vary among different types of hematopoietic cells. The roles of SAP and EAT-2 in haematological malignancies are poorly understood. Here, we attempted to optimise a method for the detection of intracellular SAP and EAT-2 by flow cytometry. We found that using PerFix EXPOSE kit for cell fixation and permeabilization ensures optimal results in terms of staining intensity and signal-to-noise ratio.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Postershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afpuc-2022-0009ARTICLE2022-06-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Shortages of medicines in a psychiatric hospital in Cyprushttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afpuc-2021-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title><p>The incidence of drug shortages has surged in recent years and it poses a major threat to public health worldwide. It can also downgrade the quality of care provided to patients. Data concerning shortages pertinent to mental health care are scarce, while treatment continuity is vital to avert disease recurrence and deterioration of patients’ mental health.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Objective</title><p>The scope of this study is to elucidate the attitudes and perceptions of mental health professionals regarding drug shortages in Cyprus in a tertiary health institute, through a specially designed questionnaire.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>The most frequently reported effects of psychiatric drug shortages were the impaired efficacy of the alternative therapeutic regimen, re-admission of patients, delays in care provision and increased frequency of adverse events. Concerning the loss of working hours in managing drug shortages, the majority responded that they dedicate 1 to 5 working hours to this per week. Informing the patient about alternative medication and the ongoing shortages were the first strategies to minimise the effects of shortages, as attested by 74% and 72% of responders, respectively. The proposed solutions for drug shortages included thorough investigation of the root causes, the elaboration of an e-based database, drawing up a national annual report and assuming legal responsibility of pharmaceutical companies. Drug shortages constitute an important burden in the field of mental health care in Cyprus. Given the serious impact of the problem and the externalities of mental health disorders, appropriate measures must be swiftly taken to ensure timely and effective administration of the appropriate therapeutic regimen.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-13T00:00:00.000+00:00The Evaluation of Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetic Patientshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afpuc-2022-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>AIM</title> <p>The aim of the study was to evaluate cardiovascular risk in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 according to gender.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>METHODS</title> <p>The monitoring was designed as a retrospective analysis of data obtained from the documentation of the diabetic outpatients treated with the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP4is) or sodium–glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2). Cardiovascular risk was assessed according to UKPDS risk engine.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>RESULTS</title> <p>The levels of HbA1c decreased throughout the whole study. Sixty per cent of patients achieved an HbA1c level &lt;8% after 18 months. Both men and women had similar glycaemic compensation. Men had a significantly higher risk of fatal coronary heart disease (CHD) (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001), stroke (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01) and fatal stroke (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01) compared to women. We found the risk of fatal CHD to be 38-fold higher in men compared to women (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01).</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>CONCLUSION</title> <p>Potential cardiovascular effects of antidiabetic treatment should be clearly defined with possible different effects according to gender. We found a much higher risk in men than women, even when their glycaemic compensation was comparable.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the EORTC QLQ-BR45 to Assess Health-Related Quality of Life of Breast Cancer Patientshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afpuc-2021-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-BR23 is considered a premier module for breast cancer patients that is utilised synchronously with the core questionnaire. However, new and scalable treatments on breast cancer patients’ quality of life (QoL) need a more accurate and comprehensive tool to be assessed. Therefore, the EORTC introduced the newly updated module EORTC QLQ-BR45. Hence, the current study aims to perform cultural adaptation, pilot testing and assessment of the psychometric properties of the Egyptian Arabic translation of the EORTC QLQ-BR45 module on Egyptian breast cancer patients.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Patients and Methods</title> <p>First, a review of the existing Arabic translation and the modified preliminary translation was sent to a professional proofreader. Then, comprehensibility of the Egyptian Arabic translation was pilot tested on a sample of 13 breast cancer patients. Afterwards, 74 patients with proven locally advanced breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy at Beni-Suef University Hospital, Beni-Suef, Egypt were interviewed. A second interview was conducted post-surgery for patients receiving target therapy, endocrine therapy or radiotherapy. The psychometric properties of the EORTC QLQ-BR45 were assessed in terms of reliability, convergent and divergent validity.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Adequate internal consistency reliability (Cronbach’s α coefficients &gt;0.7) was demonstrated for the questionnaire, except for body image scale (α = 0.51) and systemic therapy side effects scale (α = 0.63). Multi-trait scaling analysis exhibited acceptable convergent and divergent validity, and scaling success was observed for all questionnaire items.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The Egyptian Arabic version of the EORTC QLQ-BR45 module is valid and adequately reliable. These results support using the EORTC QLQ-BR45 in future breast cancer clinical trials.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Development and Validation of Bioanalytical Method for Determination of Nebivolol and Valsartan in Human Plasma by Using RP-HPLChttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afpuc-2021-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Aim</title> <p>Nebivolol and valsartan are used in the treatment of hypertension. So, this study was conducted for the purpose of determining bioavailability/bioequivalence of nebivolol and valsartan in human plasma.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and Methods</title> <p>The chromatographic separation was performed on Symmetry C18 (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column using 0.01 N potassium dihydrogen phosphate (pH 3.0):acetonitrile (60:40) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and a detector wavelength of 280 nm. The retention times of nebivolol and valsartan in plasma were found to be 3.1 and 4.3 min, respectively.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>The method was validated statistically and by recovery studies. The linearity concentration was acceptable in the range of 0.5–10 ng/mL for nebivolol and 400–8000 ng/mL for valsartan. The lower limits of quantification were 0.5 ng/mL for nebivolol and 400 ng/mL for valsartan, which reached the levels of both drugs possibly found in human plasma. Per cent recoveries were obtained as 97.78% and 98.11% for nebivolol and valsartan, respectively.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title> <p>The proposed method is simple, rapid, accurate, precise and gives us knowledge about the pharmacokinetics and therapeutic drug monitoring in clinical laboratories.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of Demographic Characteristics and Consumer Behavior in the selection of Retail Pharmacies and Over-the-Counter Medicinehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afpuc-2021-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Aim</title> <p>The study aimed to provide new insights into consumer behaviour by identifying the key demographic factors that influence the choice of pharmacy and over-the-counter (OTC) medicine.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Materials and Methods</title> <p>A cross-sectional study was conducted in an urban area (Thessaloniki, Greece), surveying a convenience sample of 314 consumers with a structured questionnaire. Data analysis was conducted using the chi-square test, one-way analyses of variance (ANOVAs) and Spearman's rho correlation coefficient.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Respondents with a lower educational level and retired consumers tended to make their purchases in a single pharmacy (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001). Older participants were more likely to consider the pharmacy staff and additional services to be important factors (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01). Students were the only group to prefer a formal relationship with the pharmacy staff (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.001). Participants with a lower educational level tended to know exactly what they would buy (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05), whereas women made more unscheduled purchases of OTCs (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05). Respondents with a higher income assigned more importance to the product's country of origin (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05) and manufacturing company (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.01) and less importance to the pharmacist's opinion than those of a lower income (<italic>p</italic> &lt; 0.05).</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>The educational level, occupation and age of consumers have a marked effect in their selection of pharmacy, and along with gender and personal income, in their choice of OTC medicine. Our findings yield implications for the management of community pharmacies.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Amelioration of the Abnormalities Associated with Metabolic Syndrome by L-Norvaline in Hyperlipidemic Diabetic Ratshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afpuc-2021-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present study was designed to assess the treatment effect of arginase inhibitor, L-Norvaline in abnormalities associated with high fat diet (HFD) and fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. The HFD and fructose was fed to the rats for a period of 45 days. Animals having body weight of 350 g and fasting blood sugar level of more than 250 mg/dl were considered as hyperlipidemic diabetic rats (HDR) and selected for the study. The HDR were divided into three groups having six animals each. The HDR received L–Norvaline (10 mg/kg/day, i.p.) and standard drug, gemfibrozil (60 mg/kg/day, p.o.), for a period of 30 days. Various hormonal, biochemical and tissue parameters were evaluated at the end of the study. Both treatments significantly decreased body weight, BMI, fasting blood sugar and insulin level and improved insulin resistance in HDR as compared to the toxicant control group. A significant improvement was observed in the lipid profile, levels of nitrate, leptin, C-reactive protein and adiponectin in HDR. L-Norvaline also caused slight decrease in the malondialdehyde level, though, no prominent effect was observed on the level of superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione in the pancreas of HDR, as compared to the toxicant control group. L-Norvaline treatment also improved the histo-architecture of pancreatic cells. Results of the present study concludes that L-Norvaline caused significant alleviation of the abnormalities of MetS indicating that it can be used as potential treatment strategy for managing the symptoms of metabolic syndrome.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Non-Absorbable Oral Gentamicin Sulphate: Biopharmaceutical and Dosage Form Evaluationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afpuc-2020-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Gentamicin sulphate is an antibiotic belonging to the aminoglycosides and to class III of the Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS). Gentamicin sulphate is highly water soluble, but has very low intestinal permeability. The wide use is because of its broad spectrum of activity. In the current study, the suitability of administering gentamicin sulphate orally for local action against susceptible gastrointestinal tract (GIT) bacteria was investigated. The possibility of the drug escaping into the systemic circulation even in the presence of some permeation enhancers was ascertained. Representatives of potential GIT bacteria pathogens were evaluated for their susceptibility to the drug at concentrations obtainable in the GIT using standard microbiological methods. Dose levels that will inhibit these potential bacteria pathogens were also established, as well as the frequency of their administration. Different batches of oral capsules of 250 mg gentamicin sulphate were formulated and their release profiles ascertained using standard methods. The results showed that the selected representatives of the GIT potential pathogenic bacteria were all susceptible to gentamicin sulphate. The drug at its plausible dosage levels of 14.28 mg/kg (1,000 mg/70 kg), 10.71 mg/kg (750 mg/70 kg) and 7.14 mg/kg (500 mg/70 kg) did not cross the mucosal barrier into the systemic circulation even in the presence of some permeation enhancers. The drug's frequency of administration were found to be on 8-hourly bases. Gentamicin sulphate (250 mg) granules formulated with polyethylene glycol (PEG 4000) as granulating aid were quick drying because the granules were not hygroscopic. The formulated gentamicin sulphate capsule batch released enough concentration of the drug that inhibits the test organism within 2 min of dissolution. The above stated doses are acceptable in the dosage form design; it is possible to formulate non-absorbable oral gentamicin sulphate dosage form for local activity in the GIT using existing conventional solid dosage formulating equipment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-02T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effect of Different Extracts of Beetroots as Antioxidant and Anti-Anaemia On Phenylhydrazine-Induced Ratshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afpuc-2020-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Aim</title><p>evaluate antioxidant and anti-anaemia activity of dichloromethane, hydroethanolic, and alkaloids-free hydroethanolic extracts of beetroot (<italic>Beta vulgaris</italic> (L.) subsp. <italic>vulgaris</italic>) on phenylhydrazine-induced rats.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title><p>Male rats were divided into five groups: normal control group, negative control group, dichloromethane extract group, hydroethanolic extract group, and alkaloids-free hydroethanolic extract group. All groups were induced with phenylhydrazine (30 mg.Kg<sup>−1</sup> BW) for three days, except for the normal control group. After induction, each treatment group received each extract (200 mg.Kg<sup>−1</sup> BW) for 21 days. The haematology parameters (haemoglobin levels, the number of erythrocytes, and haematocrit levels) were measured using Haematology Analyzer, and the antioxidant activity was measured through MDA level parameters in rats. Data were analysed using one-way ANOVA and then continued with the Tukey test.</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title><p>The results showed that the hydroethanolic extract of beetroot increased the percentage of erythrocytes (33.5%), haemoglobin (25%), and haematocrit (24.4%) to the negative control group, which was comparable to the normal control group (p &gt; 0.05). In addition, the best antioxidant activity was shown in the hydroethanolic extract of beetroot, which is comparable to the normal group (p &gt; 0.05).</p></sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusion</title><p>The beetroot hydroethanolic crude extract could be potentially produced in a natural pharmaceutical product as a beneficial resource within anti-anaemia and antioxidant activities.</p></sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Retraction Notehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/afpuc-2017-0024ARTICLE2017-09-01T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1