rss_2.0Annals of Animal Science FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Annals of Animal Science of Animal Science Feed of hematological and blood biochemical indices in cultured Nile tilapia ) as affected by using phage therapy against<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Pseudomonas</italic> spp. causes significant losses in aquaculture, consecutive use of antibiotics, and reveals bacterial resistance; therefore, therapeutic bacteriophages, commonly called phages, are a promising potential alternative to antibiotics in the management of bacterial infections of a wide range of organisms, including cultured fish. The novelty of current work represented in examining the lytic activity of four phages and their combination compared to the antibiotic streptomycin on <italic>Pseudomonas aeruginosa-</italic>infected Nile tilapia (<italic>Oreochromis niloticus</italic>) while measuring the hematological and blood biochemical parameters as a response for phage therapy. This study evaluated the <italic>in vitro</italic> killing curve for each phage using a growth curve that measured the OD600 after a single phage suspension was combined with the host <italic>P. aeruginosa,</italic> considered the best multiplicity of infection (MOI) for each phage. A144 healthy fish were acclimatized in the laboratory and divided into six groups: control, <italic>P. aeruginosa</italic>-infected fish<italic>,</italic> streptomycin, phage Ps1, Ps2, both (Ps1 and Ps2), were added to the T3, T4, T5, and T6 groups, respectively. Our findings demonstrated that <italic>P. aeruginosa</italic> infection caused surface body hemorrhages, tail and fin rot, irritated skin, superficial ulcers, and 100% mortality through 14 days. <italic>P. aeruginosa</italic> caused a reduction in hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells (RBCs), platelet number (PLt), and platelet crit (PCT) count protein, albumin, and A/G ratio; however, an increase in hematocrit (Hct); Red cell distribution width (RDW), PDW, MPV compared to other groups after three days of infection and the effects increased after 12 days post-infection. The fish vaccinated with P1 (T4) and P1+P2 (T6) showed enhanced levels of Hb, RBCs, PLt, PCt, protein, albumin and decreased levels of RDW, PDW, MPV, and liver and kidney enzymes with enhanced contents more than streptomycin and closer to the control group. The biochemical markers recorded significant changes indicating liver and kidney impairments due to the infection with <italic>P. aeruginosa</italic>. It can concluded that P1 and P1+P2 combinations could use as therapy in <italic>Pseudomonas</italic>-infectd fish to enhance their blood parameters and performance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue presumptive zygotes assessment in relation to their development<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The evaluation of oocytes and zygotes, based on their size, shape and morphology, is a valuable tool for predicting subsequent embryo development. While this assessment is non-invasive and made possible with time-lapse monitoring systems, not all the assessment criteria used for zygotes with pale cytoplasm can be used for domestic cat zygotes, which have dark cytoplasm. In this study, feline presumptive zygotes were evaluated for shape, size, and morphology. Measurements were also made of the diameter of the entire zygote, its cytoplasm, and the zona pellucida. Differences in the dataset were assessed using the generalized linear model (GLM) procedure. While there was no relationship between a combination of the tested parameters with the potential for cleavage, blastocyst development, and hatching, the parameters of the shape and size of the entire oocyte, and of the zona pellucida, were related to the development potential. The results presented in this study indicate that the assessment procedure for human zygotes have to be adjust to be used in the cat model, however the relationship between measurements of the diameter of presumptive feline zygotes and the thickness of zona pellucida with their developmental potential deserve further investigation to optimize assessment of cat presumptive zygotes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue analysis for the effects of L on growth performance, health status, and economic efficiency of fattened rabbits raised under high ambient temperature<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The dose-response analysis was used to investigate the effects of green coffee (GC) on growth performance, feed utilization, carcass traits, and health status of newly weaned rabbits. A total of 60 clinically healthy growing rabbits (5-weeks old) reared during summer season were divided randomly into three experimental groups, 20 rabbits each, and received 0, 2, and 4 g GC /kg diet, (GC0, GC2, and GC4), respectively. Growth performance (live body weight, LBW and average daily gain, ADG) and feed utilization (feed conversion ratio, FCR) as well as the dressing percentage and the relative weight of liver were improved significantly in the GC-treated groups compared to the control group. The dose-response regression analysis showed that the optimal doses were 2.75 and 3g GC/kg diet for ADG and FCR, respectively. Moreover, GC treatments significantly decreased both of rectum temperature and respiration rate compared to GC0, with an optimal dose being at 2.5g GC /kg diet. Erythrocytes and leukocyte counts improved significantly in the GC-treated groups compared to the GC0 group. Blood protein and its fractions, liver and kidney functions, and lipid profile were quadratically improved by GC supplementation. The optimal dose was 3g GC/kg diet for total protein and its fractions, ALT, and TG, while it was 2.5 and 2.75 g GC/kg diets for creatinine and TC, respectively. Total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione activities were significantly higher, while the levels of malondialdehyde were significantly lower in the GC-treated groups than the GC0 group. A level of 2.5g GC/kg diet was the optimal dose required for improving immunoglobulin A and G. improved in blood serum of GC treated groups compared to the control. Economically, dietary addition of GC enhanced the economic efficiency of the supplemented diets, thereby improving the profitability of the fattening process. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of GC at level of 2.5-3g/kg diet could be effectively used to enhance the growth indices, redox status, immune function, and economic efficiency of rabbits fattened during the summer season.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue analysis of runs of homozygosity and heterozygosity of Holstein cattle on the basis of medium and high density SNP panels and large population sample<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study reports runs of homozygosity (ROH) and heterozygosity (ROHet) distributed in a large population of Holstein cattle on the basis of two microarrays of medium (50k; 2163 animals; 54 609 SNPs) and high single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) density (HD; 600 animals; 777 692 SNPs). To assess the inbreeding values of Holstein cattle, the ROH-based genomic inbreeding coefficient (F<sub>ROH</sub>) was calculated. The comparison of SNP panels suggested that F<sub>ROH</sub> values above 4 Mb should be considered for panels of medium densities as a relatively reliable measure of inbreeding. Moreover, ROH hotspots and coldspots were identified and compared between the HD and 50k SNP panels and were carefully examined for association with production and functional traits. The obtained results pinpointed genomic regions presumably under selection pressure in Holstein cattle. The regions overlapped with a large number of genes, including <italic>GHR, GBF1, SUMF1, CCL28, NIM1K, U6, BTRC</italic> and <italic>FABP1</italic>, many of which are involved in important Holstein cattle characteristics. We also found that some ROH hotspots and coldspots identified with the HD panel were not detected with the 50k panel, mainly because of insufficient SNP density in certain genomic regions. This suggests that using medium-density panels might not be the best choice when precise identification of ROH patterns is the main goal. In summary, in this work, we confirmed that a high-density SNP panel compared to a medium-density SNP panel allows for more precise identification of ROH patterns, especially in the case of short ROH that could be associated with ancestral inbreeding.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of management systems on severity of heat stress on reproductive performance of rams in the tropics – a review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Sheep are an important source of protein for humans, and recent decades have seen a significant increase in the production of sheep-based products, thus indicating an increase in demand for this commodity. At a time when this sector is growing, sheep are exposed to various challenges. These include climate change, which can cause heat stress in sheep, including rams, which later negatively affects their growth and reproductive performance. Exposure to heat stress results in physiological and reproductive behaviour responses in rams, which could also be used to visually identify the effect of heat stress as it will affect the productivity of livestock. In addition, the year-round hot and humid climate of the tropics is expected to contribute to a higher probability of heat stress occurrences in rams reared in developing countries around the equator. Nevertheless, the adaptability of rams to heat stress varies according to their origin, whereby native breeds tend to adapt better. Despite that, native breeds still can be affected by adverse environmental conditions and rely on thermoregulation mechanisms to mitigate heat stress. This results in numerous negative physiological changes, such as sweating and increased heart rate. This review highlights the effects of heat stress on the physiology, reproductive behaviour and reproductive performance of male sheep. The review also discusses the impact of management systems on heat stress in rams, which affects sheep productivity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue seed oil: health benefits and useful impacts on live stock performance and products quality<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Grape seed oil (GSO) is a rich resource of unsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants, and phenolic compounds that have been shown to affect physiological disorders associated with chronic diseases positively. The article demonstrates GSO’s chemical structure and health benefits, including its ability to alleviate oxidative stress, modulate cytokines, exhibit antimicrobial activity, and potentially prevent cancer. The review highlights the positive impact of GSO on livestock growth and products quality, particularly when in combined with grape pomace in broiler and rabbits diets. Including grape seed extract in animals<sup>’</sup> diets improved carcass traits under oxidative stress conditions. It may also help reduce total lipid levels and lower LDL cholesterol levels, benefiting heart health. The article emphasizes the need for more studies to better understanding of the optimal bioactivity of GSO and to determine the recommended doses of GSO for human consumption. The review suggests that GSO could be a promising natural feed additive for improving poultry health and product quality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of various lighting programs on chicken production and behaviour<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Environmental changes have an impact on agriculture, especially the production of poultry. These changes have caused grave concerns that will negatively affect the health and productivity of chickens. We must consider illumination, density, and dietary aspects when determining the optimal environmental conditions for poultry rearing and output. Each of these variables influences the performance and behavior of birds uniquely. A crucial aspect of evaluating animal well-being is that it understands animal behavior. Artificial lighting has been widely investigated in poultry production over the last fifty years to enhance muscle gain and egg production while preserving an effective feed conversion ratio, bird health, and well-being. Yet, researchers and breeders still disagree over the ideal light quality and quantity, density, and feeding levels for poultry farming, particularly for chickens. This evaluation, therefore, covered the most up-to-date practical methods for enhancing illumination, density, and feeding-related aspects of poultry behavior, health, and production.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of thymoquinone nanoparticles on paracetamol-induced nephrotoxicity by mitigating oxidative stress and inflammation in rats<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A common and efficient analgesic-antipyretic medication for a variety of syndromes is paracetamol (PAR). The use of PAR was associated with acute kidney injury and other side effects, and its hazardous effects were influenced by oxidative stress and inflammation. Black seed oil's primary active ingredient, thymoquinone (TQ), has anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, and antioxidant properties. A few animal models for drug-induced nephrotoxicity described promising outcomes of its renoprotective action. The main goal of this work was to evaluate TQ nanoparticles' (TQNP) powerful renoprotective properties in a rat model of nephrotoxicity caused by PAR. Three groups of eight rats each were assigned; group one (the control group, CON) was given gavaged normal saline. Group 2 (PAR group, PAR) received 600 mg/kg of gavaged PAR diluted in regular saline. One hour after PAR delivery, group 3 (the TQNP group) received TQNP 0.5 mg/kg via oral administration. In rat kidney tissues, PAR resulted in renal damage, a rise in blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, cystatin C (CYC), myeloperoxidase, protein carbonyl (PC), malondialdehyde (MDA), and a decrease in nitric oxide and cellular antioxidants. In rats given PAR, TQNP effectively reduced renal damage, lowered serum levels of creatinine, BUN, and CYC, and improved oxidative stress (MDA, MYO, and PC) and inflammatory markers (TNFα and IFN-γ). TQNP treatment resulted in modestly dilated/congested blood vessels in the renal tissues of PAR. The TQNP's reno-protective action is an effective preventative against PAR-induced nephrotoxicity, primarily by enhancing cellular defense mechanisms and reducing inflammatory and oxidative indicators in a rat model. However, additional research and clinical trials should be needed for testing in future studies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue quality change, growth performance, health status in response to dietary inclusion of black soldier fly larvae meal in the diet of Nile tilapia,<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>With increasing intensive aquaculture production, the search for nourishing, environmentally, and economically viable fishmeal (FM) alternative is an endless approach. Therefore, the present study examines the use of black soldier fly, <italic>Hermetia illucens</italic>, larvae meal (BSFM) as an alternative protein for FM in the diet of Nile tilapia, <italic>Oreochromis niloticus,</italic> on nitrogen wastes, zootechnical performance, body composition, and hematobiochemical parameters. A total of 315 Nile tilapia fingerlings (4.11± 0.12 g/fish) were divided into seven treatments in triplicate. The fish were stocked in glass aquaria (50 × 40 × 30 cm; 60 L each) at a rate of 15 fish per aquaria. Experimental diets contained BSFM at increasing levels of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30% as FM replacers were offered twice daily to apparent satiation for 84 days. The results revealed that BSFM replacements significantly (p = 0.001) enhance water quality and reduce the total ammonia, NH3, and NO2 levels compared to the control. The growth performance, feed conversion ratio, and survival were improved with increasing BSFM meal inclusion levels up to 25% (p = 0.001, 0.017, and 0.001 respectively). However, the zootechnical performance of the experimental fish started to decline with increasing replacement levels to 30%. Also, by an increase in BSFM level to 25%, hematobiochemical markers were considerably (p ≤ 0.01) enhanced. The liver and kidney function indicators improved (p = 0.001) with dietary BSFM. The economic evaluation revealed that feed costs and fish weight gain were decreased by increasing BSFM levels in fish diets. The current study highlighted the potential environmentally beneficial use of BSFM as an FM replacer in terms of reducing water nitrogen waste levels and improving growth performance, health status, and enhancing the economic feasibility of the commercial tilapia diet.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue technology in improving shellfish aquaculture production – a review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Biofloc technology is instrumental in improving growth performance and yield in shellfish aquaculture, while leading to enhanced water quality through maintaining the nutrients level within a safe range. More specifically, toxic nitrogenous wastes are converted into beneficial microbial biomass known as “biofloc”, contributing to improve shellfish immune system. Among the various parameters affecting the efficiency of the process is the carbon source and C:N ratio. In light of these, the present work critically reviews the effects of biofloc systems on growth performance, immunity and diseases resistance in shellfish production. Moreover, it scrutinizes the microbial diversity and nutritional composition of biofloc. Then, the application of the technology in various shellfish cultures, including shrimp, freshwater prawn, crabs, crayfish, clam, and oyster, are presented. Overall, biofloc systems contribute to enhanced shellfish survival rate to the highest value of 96-100% for marine shrimp, 95-99% for freshwater prawn, 70-83% for crayfish, 83-100% for oyster, <italic>Crassostrea</italic> sp. and up to 2% for mud crabs larvae through substantially reducing the ammonia level in the culture (summarized in table 1- table 5). Finally, the main challenges in utilizing biofloc systems, i.e., suitable aeration and mixing and microbial mechanisms involved are also explained to shed light on future research directions in the field.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of light wavelength on growth and welfare of broiler chickens: An overview and future perspective<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Lighting in poultry production holds notable importance with the advancement and modernization of the industry, as it plays a significant role in the physiology and growth of broiler chickens. Increasing attention has been paid to the impacts of lighting management on growth performance, immune status, and welfare of meat-type chickens. It is essential to have an appropriate lighting regimen that includes the light source, intensity, duration, and wavelength of light to improve broilers’ growth and behavior. By manipulating various physiological, immunological, and behavioral activities, altering the color of light has been acknowledged as a potent managerial strategy capable of mitigating an array of stressors in broiler chickens. Assessing animal welfare is necessary for animal behavior and product quality perspectives. Birds have a unique visual system, and their behavior is primarily mediated by vision. Different monochromatic light regimes can affect feed conversion ratio, modulating broiler chickens’ systematic immune response and aggressive behaviour. With the advancement of lighting technology, new possibilities have emerged to enhance traditional lighting programs in poultry houses. This review integrates recent findings on the use of monochromatic light and its impact on broilers’ welfare, growth, and physiological response.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of corn gluten meal on the replacement of soybean meal on the survival, biochemical and metabolic responses, and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp ()<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study delves into the potential of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with corn gluten meal (CGM) in the diet of <italic>Litopaeneaus vannamei</italic>. We aimed to investigate the effects of a dietary soybean meal replacement on various aspects of shrimp, including survival, biochemical indices, digestive enzymes, metabolomics, and disease resistance against <italic>Vibrio harveyi</italic> . To conduct the study, we fed 840 juvenile Pacific shrimp seven different diets, each containing varying levels of CGM. The control group received a diet with 0% CGM; the other diets contained 3%, 5%, 7%, 9%, 12%, and 14% CGM. Each group comprised three replicates, and the shrimp were fed their diets for eight weeks. Our findings revealed that the survival rate of the shrimp ranged from 90.83% to 97.50% and did not differ significantly between the control and those fed diet treatments 2-5. Additionally, there were no significant differences in crude protein, moisture, and lipid content. However, we observed that total antioxidant capacity content increased with the dietary inclusion of CGM. Furthermore, malondialdehyde content decreased with increasing CGM levels, while superoxide dismutase increased, indicating no obvious oxidative damage was observed in CGM treatment groups. Interestingly, shrimp fed diets 2 and 3 had considerably lower alanine aminotransferase activity than shrimp in the control group. The disease resistance in shrimp was improved across all treatment groups, with a notably higher CGM inclusion having the highest level of mortality during the challenge test. Finally, we analyzed the metabolomics data and found PCA score plots clearly separated the control group and shrimp-fed CGM diets. Our study revealed that a 3% substitution rate of SBM with CGM can enhance survival and immunity, regulate metabolites and improve disease resistance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of genetic diversity among polish red and white (PRW) and polish holstein-friesian (PHF) cattle<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cattle breeding in Poland, including the maintenance of indigenous breeds, is exposed to the occurrence of many diseases of infectious and non-infectious etiologies. Bovine MHC (BoLA)-DRB3 is a highly polymorphic gene that plays an important role in the immune response to antigens. This pilot study aimed to analyze <italic>BoLA-DRB3</italic> genetic diversity among Polish Red and White (PRW) and Polish Holstein-Frisian (PHF) cattle. DNA sequencing revealed haplotypes for 48 out of 106 PRW and 10 out of 26 PHF cows. Analysis indicated 42 alleles detected in the PRW breed and 16 in the PHF animals. Interestingly, within the PRW breed three alleles BOLA03100|BoLA-DRB3*001:01|554, BOLA03113|BoLA-DRB3*009:02|270 and BOLA03302|BoLA-DRB3*049:01|236 were observed in 24 cows. Overall, the presented study demonstrated the genetic diversity of the <italic>BoLA-DRB3</italic> gene in the indigenous cattle breed Polish Red and White cattle breed for the first time. The acquired results broaden the knowledge of <italic>BoLA-DRB3</italic> diversity in cattle, whose genetic variants promote resistance or susceptibility to viral or bacterial diseases.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and adrenoreceptors regulate prostaglandin F2α formation in endometrium after experimentally-induced inflammation in the pig<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Endometritis is the most common pathology in animals. However, in the context of an inflamed endometrium, alterations occur in the production of prostaglandins (PGs) and the noradrenergic innervation of the uterus, although the precise relationship between noradrenaline (NA), adrenoreceptors (ARs), and the output of PGF2α remains unclear. To clarify this issue, the participation of α1-, α2- and β-ARs in NA-influenced the PGF synthase (PGFS) and PG 9-ketoreductase/carbonyl reductase (CBR1) protein abundances in the porcine inflamed endometrium, and the secretion of PGF2α from the tissue were determined. <italic>E.coli</italic> suspension (<italic>E.coli</italic> group) or saline (CON group) was injected into the uterine horns. After eight days, severe acute endometritis was diagnosed in the <italic>E.coli</italic> group. Endometrial explants were treated with NA and/or α1-, α2- and β-ARs antagonists. In the CON and <italic>E.coli</italic> groups, NA increased endometrial PGFS and CBR1 protein abundances and PGF2α secretion, compared to the control values (obtained from an endometrium that had not undergone any <italic>in vitro</italic> treatment). In the <italic>E.coli</italic> group, NA-stimulated CBR1 protein abundance and PGF2α release were higher, while PGFS protein abundance was lower than in the CON group. In the latter group, the antagonists of α1A-, α1D-, α2B- and α2C-ARs isoforms and β2-ARs subtype decreased NA-stimulated PGFS protein abundances, compared to NA action alone. In the <italic>E.coli</italic> group, this effect on PGFS abundances evoked α1D-, α2C-, β1- and β2-ARs antagonists with NA. Antagonists of α1B-, α2B-, β1- and β2-ARs in the CON group and antagonists of α1B-, α1D-, α2A-, α2C-, β1- and β2-ARs in the <italic>E.coli</italic> group eliminated a rise in the NA-stimulated CBR1 abundance of protein versus the NA influence alone. In comparison to NA effect alone, α1D-, α2C- and β2-ARs antagonists with NA reduced PGF2α secretion in both the CON and <italic>E.coli</italic> groups. Such effect on PGF2α release was also exerted in the <italic>E.coli</italic> group by α1B-, α2A- and β1-ARs antagonists with NA. Summarizing, in the porcine inflamed endometrium, NA increases PGFS protein abundance via α1D-, α2C- and β(1, 2)-ARs, and CBR1 protein abundance and PGF2α release by α1(B, D)-, α2(A, C) and β(1, 2)-ARs. The obtained findings suggest that, in an indirect manner, NA may affect the PGF2α-regulated processes by influencing its production and secretion. The results could offer new targets for drugs to regulate inflammation and improve uterine and ovarian functions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue potentials of Phytoestrogen compounds in aquaculture – a review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>All organisms require the ability to engage in either sexual or asexual reproduction in order to ensure their own survival. In aquaculture, when one sex outgrows the other faster, farmers use hormones to stimulate growth. Furthermore, the production of fish based on sexual dimorphism is predominantly executed through the utilization of estrogens and androgens. Environmentally, these compounds may pollute the ecosystem and cause endocrine system alterations that cause harmful effects; thus, they must be handled carefully to assure environmental, biological, and food safety. Phytoestrogens as natural non-steroidal phenolic plant chemicals that resemble 17-β-estradiol, could be employed as a safe alternative source of natural estrogens. The phytoestrogens have many biological effects due to their ability to compete with estrogen receptors, but they may negatively affect fish production, reproduction, and behaviors under controlled conditions. Thus, the current literature emphasizes on the beneficial effects of phytoestrogens on aquatic animal performance, behaviors, and some reproductive features.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of different origins for reduction of mycotoxins’ level in feed<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Toxic secondary metabolites of some fungi (mainly representatives of <italic>Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium</italic> and <italic>Penicillium</italic> genera) may contaminate agricultural products, representing serious health hazards both to humans and animals. Along with this, the economic losses due to the mycotoxins’ presence in feed production, including crop and animal feedstuff processing and distribution, motivated the plentiful research of detoxification strategies. Feed supplementation with mineral adsorbents (zeolites, hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS), bentonites, etc.) is the most prominent approach widely applied. Besides these, other products for mycotoxin level reduction based on the constituents of the yeast cell wall or <italic>Lactobacilli</italic> are often used. Recently, many investigations are directed toward plant-derived products that can efficiently adsorb mycotoxins in their native (biosorbents) or modified forms (e.g. activated carbon, biochar etc.). These renewable, easily accessible and readily prepared sorbents are economically viable and safe alternatives for mycotoxin decontamination of feed resources. Organic polymers (chitosan, cellulose, etc.) as well as synthetic polymers, such as polyvinyl pyrrolidine, also might reduce mycotoxins’ level in feed. Besides these conventional methods, new research trends are nanotechnologies, the promising, effective, low-cost way for mycotoxins’ removal. This overview systematically summarizes information on binding agents of different origins for the reduction of mycotoxins’ levels in feed. Furthermore, the knowledge of potential applications of binding agents in the feed industry is also reviewed and discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue prospects of nutraceuticals in rabbit productivity and health – an updated review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Weaned rabbits become extremely vulnerable to enteric infections as a result of ban of using antibiotics as growth promoters. Recently, there are a growing interest in natural alternatives of antibiotics that could be used in rabbit production. Nutraceuticals are dietary components that offer additional health benefits override their nutritive benefits. Nutraceuticals include vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, enzymes, organic acids, fatty acids, medicinal plants, etc. Due to its potential impacts on maintaining the normal physiological status, strengthening the immune system, and preventing illness, which ultimately led to an increase in productivity, nutraceuticals have recently attracted a lot of attention in rabbit farms. The objective of the present review is to provide information on recent findings about the advantages of dietary supplementation of nutraceuticals on performance, digestibility, meat quality, antioxidative properties, and immunological response in rabbits.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of early qualitative feed restriction and barrier perch access on some meat quality traits, growth performance, and diet cost analysis in broiler chickens<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this trial, the effects of early qualitative feed restriction and barrier perch access on some meat quality traits, growth performance, and diet cost analysis of broiler chickens were investigated. A total of 504 1-d old male chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allocated to four treatments (qualitative feed restriction-QFR; absence-/presence+ and barrier perch-BP; absence-/presence+) with three replicate pens in a completely randomised design involving a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Broiler chickens in the treatment of QFR (-) were fed with a corn-soybean meal diet containing protein and energy at the level specified in the commercial hybrid catalogue during d 0-42. The treatment of QFR (+) was fed with a corn-soybean meal diet containing lower energy (10%) and protein (20%) for the first d 21, and then between d 22-42, they were fed with a diet specified in the commercial hybrid catalogue. In the treatment of BP (+), the barrier perch was placed between the feeder and the drinker. Meat quality traits (pH, lightness-L*, redness-a*, yellowness-b*, chroma, hue angle, and cooking loss-CL), growth performance (body weight-BW, body weight gain-BWG, feed intake-FI, and feed conversion ratio-FCR), and diet cost analysis (total diet cost and diet cost per unit weight gain) were recorded. Except for the a* value and hue angle measured at 24-h post-slaughter, the effect of QFR treatments on meat quality traits was insignificant in all measurements. During d 0-42, in the treatments of QFR (+) of BW, BWG, and FI were lower (respectively P&lt;0.001, P&lt;0.001, and P=0.005), and FCR was worse (P=0.014). The QFR treatments did not differ significantly in dietary cost per unit weight gained during d 0-42. As a result, it can be said that early qualitative feed restriction did not significantly affect meat quality traits. The treatment of QFR (+) resulted in reduced growth performance. However, diet cost per unit weight gain showed similar values in both the QFR treatments (QFR+ €0.75, QFR- €0.76, P=0.511).</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue fish oil sparing with blended vegetable oils on growth, fatty acid composition and lipid-metabolism-related genes expression in juvenile rainbow trout ()<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A nutritional study was conducted to evaluate the influence of dietary fish oil (FO) sparing by using a mixture of vegetal oils (VO) on rainbow trout (<italic>Oncorhynchus mykiss</italic>) juveniles (30.0 g). A basal diet was supplemented with the experimental oils at a 10% level, including FO (FO diet), a blend of VO (sunflower, soybean and, rapeseed oils with a 1:1:1 ratio), and a mixture (1:1 ratio) of FO and the blends of VO (MIX). In a raceway system, four hundred and fifty fish were stocked in nine rectangular concrete tanks (50 fish. tank<sup>−1</sup>). Three experimental diets, with three replicate each, were offered to fish up to visual satiation for eight weeks. Growth performance did not change among groups (P&gt;0.05). The highest and lowest proportions of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-3 long chain-PUFA, especially docosahexaenoic acid, and n-3/n-6 PUFA ratio were in the whole body of FO and the VO groups, respectively (P&lt;0.05). Serum catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in VO group were higher than others. Serum superoxide dismutase activity in fish-fed FO and VO diets was higher than MIX group (P&lt;0.05). VO group had higher serum lysozyme, alternative complement pathway, and total immunoglobulin levels than other experimental groups. MIX group had highest serum triglyceride, cholesterol, and low-density lipoproteins. Serum high-density lipoproteins, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase levels in VO treatment were in the lowest level compared to others (P&lt;0.05). The highest relative transcription levels of fatty acid synthase, delta-6 fatty acyl desaturase, and apolipoprotein b-100 genes were in the liver of fish fed the MIX diet. The relative transcription level of the fatty acid-binding protein1 gene did not change (P&gt;0.05). In summary, the results of this study revealed that dietary FO sparing with VO did not adversely affect the growth and health indices of rainbow trout; nevertheless, it had adverse effects on its nutritional values by reducing whole-body n-3 LC-PUFA content.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of dietary chitosan-oligosaccharides supplementation on productive and reproductive performance of laying hens<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This experiment aimed to ascertain whether adding chitosan-oligosaccharides (COS) to the diet will affect Mandarah laying hens’ productivity and reproductive efficiency. At the age of 34 weeks, 120 laying hens and 12 cocks of the Mandarah chicken strain were separated into four groups, each consisting of 30 hens and three cocks. The 1<sup>st</sup> group served as a control group, receiving only a basic diet. The 2<sup>nd</sup>, 3<sup>rd</sup>, and 4<sup>th</sup> experimental groups received 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 g/kg of chitosan-oligosaccharides as an addition to the base diet, respectively. According to the findings of this study, the majority of the analyzed attributes differed significantly between treatment groups. Comparing the COS-treated birds to the control birds, the COS-treated birds significantly increased egg production, improved feed conversion, haugh unit score, shell thickness, fertility, hatchability, ovary weight, and the number of yellow ovarian follicles as well as blood estradiol-17β (E<sub>2</sub>) and testosterone concentrations. Furthermore, compared to the other treated groups, introducing COS at a level 0.1 g/kg diet resulted in the best laying rate, egg mass, and feed conversion. The highest percentage of fertility, hatchability of hatching eggs, ovary weight, number of yellow ovarian follicles, and serum E2 concentration was also found in birds fed COS at a dose of 0.2 g/kg feed. In addition, compared to the control diet, COS treatment at 0.1, 0.2, and 0.5 g/kg enhanced relative economic efficiency by 464.43, 457.41, and 352.75%, respectively. It is concluded that chitosan improves economic efficiency, reproductive performance, productivity in laying hens, and overall health when used at a 0.1 g/kg diet.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue