rss_2.0Annals of Animal Science FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Annals of Animal Science of Animal Science 's Cover indicators, coccidia oocyst counts, plasma biochemical parameters and fermentation processes in the cecum of rabbits fed a diet with the addition of black cumin seed meal<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study was to determine the effects of dietary supplementation with black cumin seed meal on growth performance parameters, coccidia oocyst counts, plasma biochemical parameters and cecal fermentation processes in growing rabbits. A total of 40 male Californian rabbits at 35 days of age were divided into two feeding groups: Control (complete rabbit diet) and Black cumin (2% of the complete diet was replaced with black cumin seed meal). Dietary supplementation with black cumin did not affect growth performance parameters, but it reduced coccidia oocyst counts in the feces of 63-day-old rabbits. Increased liver weight and elevated plasma albumin levels were noted in these rabbits. A significant decrease in small intestinal digesta viscosity was also observed in rabbits fed a diet supplemented with black cumin seed meal. The above change suppressed the formation of putrefactive compounds, i.e. ammonia and branched short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in the cecum, but it did not decrease the production of major SCFAs, i.e. acetic, propionic and butyric acids. The current study demonstrated that the dietary addition of 2% black cumin seed meal exerted a modulatory effect on gastrointestinal function, but it did not compromise microbial enzyme activity or SCFA production in the cecum.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of dietary L-Proline and L-Alanine on growth performance, and flesh quality of common carp () juveniles<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of amino acids L-Proline and LAlanine on growth performance, amino acid, and fatty acid levels in the fillet of juvenile common carp. 450 juvenile common carp were randomly distributed in 30 tanks and fed with three levels of proline (5 [P5], 10 [P10], and 15 [P15] g/kg), three levels of Alanine [A] (5 [A5], 10 [A10], and 15 [A15] g/kg), three levels of proline-alanine combination [PA] (2.5 + 2.5 [2.5PA], 5 + 5 [5PA], 7.5 + 7.5 [7.5PA] g/kg feed) and basal diet (control). The highest body weight gain (25.85 ± 0.1 g) and survival rate (91.11 ± 3.84) were observed in 7.5 PA treatment. The highest protein content (64.58 ± 0.49) was noticed in 2.5 PA; however, compared to combined treatments (5 PA and 2.5 PA), it did not show any significant difference (p&lt;0.05). The highest total amount of essential amino acids (48.30 ± 48.3) were observed in 7.5 PA treatment. The highest amount of DHA (5.65 ± 0.08), total EPA, and DHA (8.91 ± 0.13) were in 7.5 PA treatment. Finally, it can be concluded that two amino acids of L-Proline and L-Alanine at the combined level of 5 PA can improve the growth performance, survival, and fillet composition in the juvenile common carp.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Potential of silage to replace concentrate feed mixture in diet of lactating Damascus goats<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present study evaluates the effect of partial replacement of concentrate with <italic>Moringa oleifera</italic> silage (MOS) in the diet of lactating Damascus goats on milk production, nutrient utilization and ruminal fermentation. Fifteen lactating ewes were stratified in a quintuplicate 3 × 3 Latin square design (3 diets × 3 periods) for 90 days and fed a diet composed of a concentrate mixture and rice straw in 60:40 (DM basis) in the control group for 30 days in each period. In the other two diets, MOS was included in the control diet at 20 (MOS20 diet) or 40% (MOS40 diet) replacing the same amounts of concentrate on DM basis. Feeding MOS containing diets linearly (P&lt;0.05) decreased non-structural carbohydrates intake, while it increased the intakes of crude protein and acid detergent fiber as well as the digestibility of the nutrients compared to the control. Moreover, MOS diets linearly increased (P&lt;0.01) ruminal pH, concentrations of ruminal total volatile fatty acids, acetate and propionate, and concentrations of serum glucose and high-density lipoprotein. Increased milk production, concentrations of milk fat and total conjugated linoleic acid, and feed efficiency were observed with feeding MOS diets. It is concluded that concentrate feed mixture in diets of lactating Damascus goats can be replaced with <italic>M. oleifera</italic> silage up to 40% to improve their lactational performance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Non-targeted analysis of VOCs by HS-SPME-G C/MS coupled with chemometrics as a potential tool for authentication of White Kołuda oat goose<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study tested the possibility of using non-targeted analysis of volatile organic compounds by headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with chemometrics as a potential tool for differentiating leg meat of oat- and wheat-fed (<italic>ad libitum</italic>) White Kołuda geese. Thirty-six classification models were obtained for which the correct classification rate and classification accuracy for oatfed and wheat-fed geese were calculated based on a seven-fold cross-validation. Generally, the most advantageous method of the sample preparation was the high-temperature heat treatment version, whereas the highest correct classification rate was obtained when the chemometric analysis was carried out on the female, then male, and finally male + female variant of group comparisons (P&lt;0.01). Furthermore, log-transformation appeared to be a slightly better data preprocessing technique in comparison to systematic ratio normalization. The obtained classification models can potentially differentiate the meat of oat-fattened from wheat-fattened White Kołuda geese.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Multifunctional role of chitosan in farm animals: a comprehensive review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The deacetylation of chitin results in chitosan, a fibrous-like material. It may be produced in large quantities since the raw material (chitin) is plentiful in nature as a component of crustacean (shrimps and crabs) and insect hard outer skeletons, as well as the cell walls of some fungi. Chitosan is a nontoxic, biodegradable, and biocompatible polygluchitosanamine that contains two essential reactive functional groups, including amino and hydroxyl groups. This unique chemical structure confers chitosan with many biological functions and activities such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antitumor, immunostimulatory and hypocholesterolemic, when used as a feed additive for farm animals. Studies have indicated the beneficial effects of chitosan on animal health and performance, aside from its safer use as an antibiotic alternative. This review aimed to highlight the effects of chitosan on animal health and performance when used as a promising feed additive.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Chemical body composition and bone growth of young pigs as affected by deficiency, adequate and excess of dietary phosphorus supply<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Objective of the experiment was to study the effect of deficiency, adequate and excess dietary phosphorus supply on growth performance, retention and utilisation of phosphorus, length, mass and geometry measurements of the femur shaft, content of protein, ash, phosphorus in viscera, edible (meat and fat) and inedible (bones and skin) parts of the body in pigs ageing from 33 to 110 days. It was found that compared to animals fed according to phosphorus requirement the deficiency and excess of dietary phosphorus did not influenced o total feed intake (mean 120.6 kg) and feed conversion (mean 1.9 kg/kg gain). However phosphorus deficiency lowered total gain of the body mass (P=0.0072), diminished weight of the inedible part of the carcass (P=0.0229), decreased the content of body protein (P=0.0171), ash (P=0.0001), and phosphorus (P=0.0001). Whereas, over-supply of dietary phosphorus did not cause any change of these component. Utilisation of the total phosphorus was diminished (P=0.0001) in pigs fed diet with both excess (by 16.26%) and deficiency (by 12.28%) of the phosphorus, but excess had much lower negative impact than its’ deficiency. When available form of this element was considered over-supply still reduced (P=0.0001) its utilisation the most (by 26.58%) but deficiency made utilisation the best (7.77%). Both dietary deficiency and over-supply of the phosphorus diminished (P=0.0001) femur mass (by 25 and 11 g, respectively). Thus negative impact of phosphorus deficiency was much stronger. Moreover, phosphorus deficiency diminished (P=0.0015) bone length (by 0.5 cm), however, excess did not change this feature. Response of animals to a decrease bone mass and length due disturbances in phosphorus supply (both deficiency and excess) was the increase the vertical external diameter of the femur shaft.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Rice bran in old horse’s nutrition and their influence on condition, blood biochemical parameters, total feces bacteria and methanogen population<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aimed to verify whether the inclusion of 0.5 kg full-fat rice bran per day in the diet of geriatric horses will improve their condition, increase the population of methanogens in the cecum, and thus affect the biochemical blood parameters. The experiment assumed 2 research periods: 6 healthy, non-working horses over 20 years of age (480 ± 20 kg of body weight) were fed only hay (±8.86 kg/day/head) in the first period and hay (±8.00 kg/day/head) and rice bran (0.5 kg/day/head) in the second one. Each of these periods lasted 4 months. The Body Condition Scoring (BCS) assessment was performed at the beginning and end of the experiment. Blood and feces samples were collected on the first and last day of each period. After feeding with the addition of rice bran, BCS increased by 1.17 units on a 9-point scale. The experiment showed an increase in the total number of bacteria and methanogens inhabiting the cecum of horses. This can lead to better digestion of carbohydrates, absorption of nutrients, and, consequently, increased body weight. No differences occurred in the hematology and serum biochemistry indices of horses fed a diet including rice bran, except for the amount of serum globulin and the albumin to globulin ratio. Rice bran affected essential serum fatty acid profile (increased PUFA and decreased MUFA) which confirmed the possibility to use diet as a serum fatty acids profile modulator.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Synbiotic Lactic Dry enhanced the growth performance, growth-related genes, intestinal health, and immunity of Nile tilapia reared in inland brackish groundwater<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Nile tilapia is recognized as a suitable candidate for intensive farming and sustainability of the aquaculture industry. However, one issue limiting Nile tilapia expansion in arid and semi-arid areas is the scarcity of freshwater resources. In this study, the supplementation of synbiotics was investigated to enhance the growth performance, growth-related genes, intestinal health, and immunity of Nile tilapia reared in inland brackish groundwater. Four diets were prepared where the basal diets were mixed with the dietary mixture of probiotics and prebiotics (Synbiotic Lactic Dry<sup>®</sup>, a blend of <italic>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</italic>, <italic>Lactobacillus acidophilus</italic>, <italic>Streptococcus faecium</italic>, and <italic>Bacillus subtilis</italic>, mannan oligosaccharides and β-1.3/1.6-D-glucan) at 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 g/kg. After eight weeks, the final weight and weight gain are linearly increasing with increasing the supplementation level of synbiotic. Markedly fish fed 0.5, 1, and 2 g/kg of synbiotic had higher final weight, weight gain, and feed intake and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) than fish fed synbiotic free diet. The specific growth rate (SGR) was significantly higher in fish fed 1 and 2 g/kg than in fish fed 0 and 0.5 g/kg. The intestine of fish fed on synbiotic shows an increase in intestinal villi density. Further, the intestine of fish fed on synbiotic showed an increase in the length and branching intestinal villi (anterior, middle, and posterior) in a dose-dependent manner. The lysozyme and phagocytic activities were significantly different from the control, while synbiotic supplementation did not affect the phagocytic index. Interestingly, the results showed marked upregulation of ghrelin, IGF-1, and GH genes in fish fed synbiotics at 0.5, 1, and 2 g/kg. In addition, fish fed 2 g/kg had the highest expression of ghrelin, IGF-1, and GH genes. In conclusion, growing Nile tilapia in inland brackish groundwater can be achieved without negative impacts on the growth performance and health status. Supplementing synbiotics (1-2 g/kg) in Nile tilapia feeds enhanced the growth and feed performances, intestinal histomorphological features, growth-related genes, and immune response.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Dietary effect of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, skin mucosal immune response, and antioxidant capacity in goldfish ()<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on gold fish, <italic>Carassius auratus.</italic> In this regard, GSPE was added to a basal diet at four levels including 0, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg to produce four experimental diets including control, GSPE200, GSPE400, and GSPE600. Three hundred and sixty goldfish (3.75 ± 0.1 g) were stocked in twelve 100 L rectangular tanks (30 fish per tank) and fed with the experimental diets three times a day for nine weeks. During the experimental trial, water temperature was 26.7–28.5ºC. The weight gain and specific growth rate in the fish fed with GSPE supplemented diets were higher than the control, meanwhile feed conversion ratio value in these groups decreased compared to the control. Fish fed GSPE-supplemented diets had lower fillet lipid (10-19%), but higher protein levels (7–15%) compared to the control. The levels of serum triglyceride, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in the fish fed GSPE-supplemented diets were decreased compared to the control group. The highest and lowest levels of serum glucose, and ALP were in the fish fed with control and GSPE600 diets, respectively. The skin mucusal lysozyme activity (24–38%) and protein level (70–96%) were higher in fish fed GSPE-supplemented diets than the control. The highest, and lowest liver antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase, catalase, and gluthatione peroxidase were observed in in GSPE 600, and control groups, respectively. The findings of the present study indicated that supplementing 400 mg/kg GSPE in diet can improve growth and health condition in goldfish.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-15T00:00:00.000+00:00The dietary mixture of betaine, lactic acid bacteria, and exogenous digestive enzymes enhanced the growth performance, intestinal health, and immunity of Nile tilapia () grown in outdoor concrete tanks<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>It has been illustrated that using mixtures of feed additives is more efficient than using individual additives in aquaculture. Hence, this study aimed to study a dietary mixture of betaine, lactic acid bacteria, and exogenous digestive enzymes (BLE) on the growth performance, digestion capacity, intestinal health, and blood indices of Nile tilapia reared outdoors in concrete tanks. Five diets were prepared where the basal diets mixed with BLE at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1%. After 90 days, the growth performance of Nile tilapia-fed BLE was markedly enhanced in fish fed 0.25 and 0.5% of BLE, while the feed conversion ratio (FCR) was reduced (P&lt;0.05). The lipase activity was significantly higher in tilapia fed BLE at 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75% than 0 and 1%. The amylase activity was meaningfully increased by 0.5% of BLE than 0, 0.25, 0.75, and 1%. The protease activity was significantly higher in tilapia fed BLE at 0.25 and 0.5 than 0, 0.75, and 1% (P&lt;0.05). The intestine of fish fed on BLE showed an increase in intestinal villi density. The villi length, width, and the number of goblet cells were markedly higher in the anterior, middle, and posterior segments of the intestines of tilapia fed BLE than in the control group (P&lt;0.05). Further, fish fed BLE had higher intestinal morphometry indices and count of goblet cells than the control. Significantly fish fed 0.25, and 0.5% of BLE had higher hemoglobulin, and hematocrit levels than fish fed 0, 0.75, and 1%. While, fish fed 0.5% had higher red blood cells than fish fed the remaining BLE levels (P&lt;0.05). On the other hand, no marked effects for BLE supplementation were seen on the alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein, albumin, globulin, creatinine, uric acid, and urea. The regression analysis showed that the maximum dose of BLE supplementation to achieve the highest final weight and the lowest FCR is 0.46% and 0.42%, respectively.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Genetic structure of reconstituted native Carpathian goat breed based on information from microsatellite markers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic structure of the reconstituted native Carpathian goat breed based on information from microsatellite markers. The study analysed of 14 microsatellite markers recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG) for goats individual identification and parentage testing. Blood samples were taken from 249 Carpathian goats from 14 farms. All microsatellite markers deployed in this analysis showed sufficient polymorphism to assess genetic variation in Carpathian goats and the ISAG-recommended panel for goat individual identification and parentage testing is a highly useful one. The present study showed the status of the genetic structure of the reconstituted population of Carpathian goats. Carpathian goats maintained in Poland were characterized by relatively high genetic diversity (the average of alleles per locus was 9.143), high values of heterozygosity and a low level of inbreeding coefficient. The obtained parameters indicate the correctness of the breeding activities carried out within the framework of the programme for the protection of genetic resources and give guidelines for taking further steps related to the breeding of this valuable native breed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Potential protective effects of Thyme () essential oil on growth, hematology, immune responses, and antioxidant status of exposed to Malathion<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As an abundant source of antioxidants and diet flavor enhancers, the plant essential oils can have positive effects on fish growth, and resistance against environmental stressors. In this study, garden thyme (<italic>Thymus vulgaris</italic>) essential oil (TEO) was used in the diet of rainbow trout, <italic>Oncorhynchus mykiss</italic>, to evaluate its protective effect against Malathion pesticide exposure. Tested fish (19.99 ± 0.01 g) were divided into six groups (three replicates), namely: T1: control diet; T2: control diet + 0.025 mg L<sup>−1</sup> malathion; T3: control diet + 0.075 mg L<sup>−1</sup> malathion; T4: control diet + 1% TEO; T5: control diet + 0.025 mg L<sup>−1</sup> malathion + 1% TEO and T6: control diet + 0.075 mg L<sup>−1</sup> malathion + 1% TEO. After 21 days, T4 fish had the highest final body weight (FW), weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), and the lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) among experimental treatments (P&lt;0.05). The blood parameters including the red blood cells (RBC), white blood cell count (WBC), hematocrit (Hct), and hemoglobin (Hb) values were the highest in T4 treatment, displaying a significant difference with T1 treatment (P&lt;0.05). Fish in the T4 groups had the highest total protein (TP) and albumin (ALB), while fish of T3 showed the lowest levels of these parameters (P&lt;0.05) and also had the highest level of triglycerides (TRG), cholesterol (CHOL), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and urea (Ur). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzymes recorded the lowest levels in T4 treatment, which showed a significant difference with T1 group. The catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) showed the highest activities in T4 treatment, while the lowest SOD and the highest malondialdehyde (MDA) levels occurred in T3 group (P&lt;0.05). Total immunoglobulin (total Ig) level, alternative complement (ACH<sub>50</sub>) and lysozyme in the serum and skin mucus of T4 treatment of rainbow trout showed the highest activities with a significant difference from groups (P&lt;0.05). From the results of the present study, it can be concluded that 1% of <italic>T. vulgaris</italic> as a supplement to the diet of rainbow trout can stimulate and improve the immune system of the fish. TEO can have a protective effect against unfavorable effects of malathion and improves the growth of the fish.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of soybean meal substitution with raw chickpea ( l.) Seeds on growth performance, selected carcass traits, blood parameters, and bone quality in male broilers<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study determined the effect of introducing 50% of protein from the protein feed pool derived from raw chickpea seeds instead of 50% of soybean meal in the rearing period from day 22 to 42 on the coefficients of nutrient digestibility, growth performance, selected carcass traits, the hematological and metabolic profile of blood, and the quality of femur bones in male Ross 308 broilers. The study was carried out on 200 22-day-old male Ross 308 broiler chicks (initial weight of 756 g) randomly assigned to two groups (n=100 in each group; 5 cages with 20 birds each). All birds were reared for 42 days. They were fed isonitrogenous and isoenergetic pre-experimental starter diet (day 1 to 21) in the crumble form and experimental grower-finisher diets (day 22 to 42) in the pelleted form. From rearing day 22, SBM male broilers (grower/finisher) were fed diets with 100% SBM as a protein source. In the diet for the CPR group (grower and finisher), the SBM protein was replaced with 50% of CPR-derived protein. During the grower and finisher stage and between days 22 and 42, the CPR group exhibited significant (<italic>P=</italic>0.032) reductions in feed intake (FI), higher (<italic>P=</italic>0.043) slaughter yields, high (<italic>P=</italic>0.044) % share of breast muscles, and reduced (<italic>P=</italic>0.003) abdominal fat content. The addition of CPR influenced some blood parameters. The level of total protein, urea, and Mg decreased, whereas the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and aspartate transaminase (ALT) increased. In the CPR group, an increase in the physical, morphometric, and some strength parameters of the femur (maximum elastic strength – Wy, yielding deformation – dy, bone density index – BDI, and Young’s modulus) was observed. Therefore, CPR may be a promising partial substitute of SBM in broiler nutrition, as it enhances production performance and has a beneficial effect on bone quality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Bioactive compounds, antibiotics and heavy metals: effects on the intestinal structure and microbiome of monogastric animals – a non-systematic review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The intestinal structure and gut microbiota are essential for the animals‘ health. Chemical components taken with food provide the right environment for a specific microbiome which, together with its metabolites and the products of digestion, create an environment, which in turn is affects the population size of specific bacteria. Disturbances in the composition of the gut microbiota can be a reason for the malformation of guts, which has a decisive impact on the animal‘ health. This review aimed to analyse scientific literature, published over the past 20 years, concerning the effect of nutritional factors on gut health, determined by the intestinal structure and microbiota of monogastric animals. Several topics have been investigated: bioactive compounds (probiotics, prebiotics, organic acids, and herbal active substances), antibiotics and heavy metals (essentaial minerals and toxic heavy metals).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparison of the quality of mountain sheep milk obtained from animals kept on a natural and organic mountain pasture<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of mountain sheep milk obtained from animals kept on mountain pastures: natural and organic. The experimental procedure was conducted under production conditions, during annual grazing of mountain sheep on two mountain pastures in the region of the Polish Carpathians: on organic pasture certified for organic farming and natural mountain pasture belongs to the National Park. This study showed greater plant species diversity in the organic mountain pasture, but its yielding was lower than that of the natural pasture. The green growth of the natural pasture was characterised by lower dry matter and fibre content but contained more total protein. The type of pasture did not affect the basic composition of the milk of mountain sheep, while differences were found in terms of acidity, alcohol number, fatty acid profile of fat and milk protein fractions. Milk obtained from sheep grazed on organic pasture was characterized by a higher proportion of medium chain fatty acids, as well as polyunsaturated fatty acids, and also essential unsaturated fatty acids, both linoleic acid, α - linolenic acid, γ-linolenic acid and arachidonic acid. In milk originating from the natural mountain pasture, a higher proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid and the CLA c9-t11 isomer was found. The composition of milk protein fractions varied according to the location of grazing: milk from sheep grazing on natural pasture had a higher content of whey fractions, important for consumer health, milk from organic pasture had a higher content of κ-casein, of greatest importance in dairy processing technology. The floral composition of the pasture had an influence on the quality of sheep milk in relation to the fatty acid profile of fat and protein fractions of milk, which is important in terms of both the health-promoting and technological aspects of the raw material and may affect the quality of products made from it.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Temporal variations in hematological, immunological and serum biochemical parameters of rainbow trout () acclimated to high-saline water in the Northern Aegean Sea<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present study evaluated the health status of rainbow trout (30.24±5.34 g) acclimated to high-saline water (28‰). Among adaptation procedures, gradually-acclimated (for 48 h) fish showed best performance, which were then introduced to the offshore cage-farm for further monitoring of fish health in marine environment over a long-term period of 100 days, until harvest weight of 319.9±48.51 g. Fish health and welfare was evaluated by means of biochemical parameters (viscerasomatic index, hepatosomatic index, mesenteric fat index, and spleen somatic index), hematological parameters (serum glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, globulin), and immune parameters (lysozyme, myeloperoxidase, respiratory burst and potential killing values). Gradual acclimation to high-saline water did not show any adverse effects on health parameters. No significant differences were found in biometric measures (P&gt;0.05). However, a time-dependent increase was recorded in hematology markers (P&lt;0.05) after seawater transfer, and the health status improved over long-term from March 7 to June 14, 2018. All serum biochemical markers, except the total protein showed significant alterations (P&lt;0.05) in long-term but without detrimental influence by day-100. Therefore, it seems possible to expand trout farms from brackish water sites to higher saline environments up to 28‰ salinity, with no detrimental impacts on fish health, that in turns may significantly contribute to the extension of potential aquaculture sites to wider areas.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of a commercial feed additive (Sanacore GM ) on immune-antioxidant profile and resistance of gilthead seabream () against infection<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The effects of a functional additive (Sanacore<sup>®</sup> GM; SAN ) on immune and antioxidant indices, and the resistance of gilthead seabream (<italic>Sparus aurata</italic>) against <italic>Vibrio alginolyticus</italic> infection. For this, four diets containing 0% (the control), 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% SAN were offered to triplicated groups of fish (20 - 23 g) for ten weeks. Subsequently, fish were injected intraperitoneally with <italic>V. alginolyticus</italic> and monitored for further ten days. Feeding the fish on SAN-supplemented diets showed positive effects on leukocyte counts and its differential percentages. Serum lysozyme activity and total immunoglobulin values, as well as phagocytic activity and indices, were linearly and quadratically higher in SAN-fed fish; especially at the 0.4% SAN diet. Similarly, linear and quadratic increases in catalase, superoxide dismutase, and total antioxidant capacity were observed in SAN-fed fish, particularly at the 0.4% SAN diet. Conversely, serum malondialdehyde values decreased in SAN-fed fish compared with the control group, which showed its highest value. The highest expression of the <italic>IL-1β</italic> gene coupled with the lowest <italic>TNF-α</italic> and <italic>HSP70</italic> genes expressions was found in the fish fed with the 0.4% SAN. On the other hand, fish fed on the control diet showed the lowest <italic>IL-1β</italic> gene coupled with the highest <italic>TNF-α</italic> and <italic>HSP70</italic> genes expressions. After bacterial infection, most of the control fish died with a relative percent of survival of 5.0%; meanwhile feeding gilthead seabream on SAN-enriched diets significantly enhanced their protection against <italic>V. alginolyticus</italic> infection. Fish fed on the 0.4% SAN diet showed 100% survival. The SAN administration to gilthead seabream especially at the 0.4% level led to significant promotions in antioxidative and immune responses and augment the fish resistance to <italic>V. alginolyticus</italic> infection.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of feeding strawberry, raspberry and rapeseed oil in rats’ diet on the fatty acid profile of muscle tissue<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Currently, alternative plant oils with pro-health properties are sought. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of feeding strawberry, raspberry and rapeseed oils in rats’ diet on the fatty acid profile of muscle tissue. Adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=7) and fed with the addition of rapeseed, raspberry or strawberry seed oil, respectively, or control group. After a 6-week treatment period, the fatty acid profile in <italic>m. latisssimus dorsi,</italic> was analyzed using gas chromatography. The dietary strawberry or raspberry seed oil led to a significant increase in C-18:2 <italic>n-6</italic> ad C-18:3 <italic>n-3</italic> level in muscle fat when compared to control group. At the same time, in the group receiving raspberry oil, an unfavorable phenomenon of lowering the EPA content was observed, while a tendency towards a decrease in DHA level was observed in groups supplemented with both raspberry and strawberry oil. Both oils as a source of PUFA <italic>n-3</italic> and <italic>n-6</italic>, increased ALA <italic>n-3</italic> and LA <italic>n-6</italic> fatty acids in <italic>latissimus dorsi muscle</italic>, but due to different activity of enzymes taking apart in conversion of polyunsaturated fatty acids to their long chain derivatives in rats, the research on pig model would be advisable.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Feeds of animal origin in rabbit nutrition – a review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Rabbits are classified as obligate herbivores. However, under natural conditions, some members of the family Leporidae incorporate animal products into their diets. Therefore, it seems biologically justified to supplement the diets of farmed rabbits with feeds of animal origin as sources of protein, fat and minerals. The aim of this review was to describe, from a historical perspective, the use of various feeds of animal origin in rabbit nutrition. The applicability of by-products from mammal, poultry, fish and invertebrate processing for rabbit feeding was evaluated, including the future prospects for their use. A review of the available literature revealed that various animal-based feeds can be valuable protein sources in rabbit diets, but their inclusion levels should not exceed 5-10%. Studies investigating their efficacy have been conducted since the 1970s. In some regions of the world, the use of animal-derived protein in livestock feeds was prohibited due to the risk of spreading bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). However, the interest in animal by-products as protein sources in livestock diets is likely to increase since the above ban has been lifted.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Encapsulation as a way to improve the phytogenic effects of herbal additives in broilers – an overview<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The prohibition of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) and the restriction of synthetic antioxidants have had a negative impact on the productivity and health of broiler chickens. To ensure sustainability in broiler production, poultry nutritionists continue to look for alternatives to AGP and antioxidants. Using herbal ingredients is one alternative that is widely used today. However, the use of herbal ingredients in small doses is often constrained by bioavailability problems, thereby reducing the effectiveness of using herbal additives for broiler chickens. At higher doses, the use of herbal ingredients can increase feed costs and negatively impact palatability, digestion and protein utilization, and liver health. Encapsulation is a method that can improve the stability, palatability, and bioavailability of herbal additives, which may enhance the efficacy of herbs as AGP and antioxidant alternatives for broilers. This review article provides a comprehensive insight into the application of and problems related to herbal additives, benefits of encapsulation technology on herbs, and use of encapsulated herbs in broiler production.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-09-08T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1