rss_2.0Autex Research Journal FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Autex Research Journalhttps://sciendo.com/journal/AUThttps://www.sciendo.comAutex Research Journal 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6062bb8f9547524ed31646ed/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20220627T215730Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKP25APDM2%2F20220627%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=fad84ea5d5343d4760e3af737c1bb565fc1572ae89f4d20fd343051f8235b019200300Review on 3D Fabrication at Nanoscalehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Among the different nanostructures that have been demonstrated as promising materials for various applications, three–dimensional (3D) nanostructures have attracted significant attention as building blocks for constructing high-performance nanodevices because of their unusual mechanical, electrical, thermal, optical, and magnetic properties arising from their novel size effects and abundant active catalytic/reactive sites due to the high specific surface area. Considerable research efforts have been devoted to designing, fabricating, and evaluating 3D nanostructures for applications, including structural composites, electronics, photonics, biomedical engineering, and energy. This review provides an overview of the nanofabrication strategies that have been developed to fabricate 3D functional architectures with exquisite control over their morphology at the nanoscale. The pros and cons of the typical synthetic methods and experimental protocols are reviewed and outlined. Future challenges of fabrication of 3D nanostructured materials are also discussed to further advance current nanoscience and nanotechnology.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigation of the Performance of Cotton/Polyester Blend in Different Yarn Structureshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The demand for polyester fiber is increasing gradually day by day. Because of its good strength, low manufacturing cost, and ease of modification, polyester fiber has distinct characteristics, whereas cotton is well known for its comfort. Blending these fibers improves the performance of yarns. In this study, cotton/polyester was blended in different ratios to evaluate yarn performance. Three groups of yarn: rigid, core, and dual-core-spun, have been produced to examine the yarn’s performance. From the study, it has been found that increasing the polyester blend ratio increases the yarn strength and elongation but decreases the yarn unevenness and imperfections. Among the group, having more core components decreases yarn strength, unevenness, and imperfection but increases elongation. From the statistical analysis, except strength, all other properties have good interaction on yarn type and blending ratio. Pearson correlation also indicated that elongation and hairiness have a good correlation with yarn type where, except for hairiness, all other properties have shown a strong positive correlation on blending ratio.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-16T00:00:00.000+00:00Polyaniline Electrospun Composite Nanofibers Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubeshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Reinforcement of fibers was carried out by adding carbon black (CB), and hydroxylated and carboxylated carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into electrospinning solution containing doped polyaniline (CSA-PANI) and polyacrylonitrile (PAN). CB/CSA-PANI/PAN and CNT/CSA-PANI/PAN electrospun nanofiber composite membrane was formed in high-voltage electric field. The CSA-PANI/CB/PAN fiber membrane was found to be more brittle than the MWCNTs/CSA-PANI/PAN fiber membrane. The average diameter of the CSA-PANI/CB/PAN nanofibers increased with CB addition, while the average diameter of CNT-added MWCNTs/CSA-PANI/PAN nanofibers decreased with increasing CNT concentrations. Upon greater CB and CNT addition, agglomeration occurred, and the surface of the fibers was raised slightly. The fracture strength of the nanofiber membrane was greatly improved with 1% added CB but then decreased upon further CB addition. Upon addition of CNTs, the fracture strength of the nanofiber membrane first increased and then decreased, and the addition of carboxylated CNTs was more advantageous for improving the fracture strength of the fiber membrane. The electromagnetic shielding performance of the fiber membranes was essentially the same for different radiation frequencies. Upon addition of CB and CNTs, the electromagnetic shielding performance of the fiber first increased and then decreased, with a more pronounced decrease obtained by the addition of CB.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigation of Actual Phenomena and Auxiliary Ultrasonic Welding Parameters on Seam Strength of PVC-Coated Hybrid Textileshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A study of polyvinylchloride-coated woven polyester fabric welding potential was conducted using continuous ultrasonic welding machines. The effect of cooling air, anvil wheel status, anvil wheel width, material surface contact, and welding gap on seam strength was studied. Three main welding parameters with different levels were selected based on 5 and 10 mm welding widths using old and new anvil wheels with and without cooling air. A lapped type of seam was applied under full factorial design. A microstructure was captured to examine the formation of welding joints, and seam tensile properties were determined. Comparative analysis of comparable welding parameters was analyzed for a gap against pressure and amplitude against power. The actual weld phenomenon was also analyzed based on the recorded machine parameters. The results showed that auxiliary parameters had a significant effect on seam strength. A microscopic image of a welded seam indicated that cooling air reduced the number and size of holes produced. Weld seam with controlled pressure or power provided higher seam strength than that of the controlled gap or amplitude. The actual phenomenon of welding parameters was important to evaluate weld seam quality, whereby the obtained results indicated good quality at lower power and pressure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Washing Characterization of Compression Sockshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>Compression socks are highly recommended textile garments for the exertion of compression pressure (kPa) at the ankle. They work on the principle of the highest pressure at the ankle gradually decreasing from the ankle to the calf.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Aim</title> <p>The aim of the current research is to analyze all of the compression sock samples (Class I, Class II, and Class III) simultaneously at various number of times of washing them.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Method</title> <p>All of the sock samples were washed in a standard washing machine with standard methods (ISO 6330). For the measurement of the compression pressure, a Salzmann MST MKIV pressure measuring device was used according to the RAL-GZ 387/1 method.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Results included the effect of multiple wearing and washing cycles (up to 20) on compression pressure, the effect of temperature (up to 100°C) on compression pressure (kPa); multiple wearing and washing cycles on the percentage of shrinkage and the effect of marking methodology on compression pressure (Kpa) were observed and are discussed in this article. The results suggest that washing is the most important factor to consider while compression socks are used for compression therapy because they directly influence the efficacy of streamline blood flow across the legs.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Modeling of Material Characteristics of Conventional Synthetic Fabricshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article presents a method for modeling the material characteristics of synthetic fabrics based on static tensile test results with consideration of material orthotropy. Material characteristics were determined for fabrics under load at three different angles in relation to their orthotropy. The fabrics examined were the following: polyester fabrics Bratex and Ortalion, cotton fabric with nylon and elastin fabric (poplin), and Gore-Tex membrane fabric. Considering the material mechanical characteristics, the differences were in grammage, maximum strain, and tensile strength. The study allowed us to determine the nonlinear elastic dependency between strain and stress. Test results were implemented within the Abaqus/Explicit framework for the purpose of performance of verification simulations. The correlation between simulated and experimental results was established. A high degree of similarity allows us to classify the obtained material model as usable in simulation work.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of Surface Modification of Himalayan Nettle Fiber and Characterization of the Morphology, Physical and Mechanical Propertieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The process of retting bast fiber plants for the production of long fiber has presented major challenges. Water retting, dew retting, chemical extraction, and micro-organism (fungi, enzymes) techniques were applied to the extraction of natural fibers. The two nettle samples were extracted with water retting for 14 days and dew retting for 4 weeks. This research investigated the effects on the traditional retting process of nettle fiber by fungi and bacteria formation in lignocellulosic. The latter biological extraction methods successfully degraded the lignin and pectin materials of the fiber and increases the cellulose content. These extraction methods produced high quality fiber and tensile strength at a low cost. This study determined the chemical, physical, and mechanical characteristics such as fiber cellulose, non-cellulosic content, tensile strength, tenacity, and elongation break to see how treatments affected them. The treated fiber surface morphology was characterized using scanning electron microscopy. To evaluate functional group alterations, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used on the fiber specimen.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Development of a Small, Covered Yarn Prototypehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The rapid development of the textile industry has led to the demand for more advanced textile equipment because the current covering yarn machines are large and expensive and have a large physical footprint. Also, the current technology is unsuitable for most laboratory research and small factory proofing. In this paper, the principle of forming covered yarn is analyzed and simplified in three systems: the unwinding system, the covering system, and the winding system. A small sample of low volume and better flexibility is developed, the production process and primary structure of the covered yarn prototype are introduced, and the covering effect of the small prototype is debugged and analyzed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Numerical Prediction of the Heat Transfer in Air Gap of Different Garment Modelshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study aims to investigate the characteristics of heat transfer and its mechanism for styling a design garment differently, and to improve thermal comfort caused by clothing styling design, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach has been used to perform numerical investigations of fluid flow and heat transfer across a clothing air gap. Relationships between the heat transfer from the body to clothing (computed by heat transfer equations) and the air gap were examined by body heat loss of different styles of garments. Also, the clothing temperature distribution of different garments was obtained and compared. Computed results reveal that the air gap can play a central role in the heat transfer from the body to the surface of different style garments. When the air gap is small enough, namely about 5 mm in the chest and bust of the X-type of clothing, the conductive heat flux can transfer through the air gap and reach the cloth surface easily, which will bring about the increase of temperature on the clothing surface. The decreasing air gap distance from 50 mm (O-type) to 10 mm (X-type) increases the convective heat flux by up to 25% on the waist. However, the airspeed will increase to greater numbers while the air gap decreases to narrow channels, and it will bring about fierce forced convection heat flux. So the heat transfer must be considered in the process of garment design, and the air gap should be kept at a suitable level. These findings can be used to improve the clothing’s thermal comfort or optimize the cloth structure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Development of the Smart T-Shirt for Monitoring Thermal Status of Athleteshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Athletes are often subjected to a great physical strain during training and competition. Sport activities performed in hot and humid conditions may result in different heat illnesses with mild or fatal consequences. Against this background it is important to know the thermal state of athletes during physical activity.</p> <p>This article presents the development of a smart T-shirt for monitoring the thermal status of an athlete. The smart T-shirt was created by embedding an electronic system with temperature and humidity sensors that allows the measurement of temperature and the relative humidity of the microclimate. A smart T-shirt is comfortable, and integrated sensors and electronics do not affect wearing comfort. A good concurrence between the temperature and humidity results from using the smart T-shirt, and thus the medical device was achieved. Data obtained can be of great importance to the sports staff who will be able to monitor the athletes' thermal state during matches and competitions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-11T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment and Semantic Categorization of Fabric Visual Texture Preferenceshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The texture of a fabric can be perceived by the haptic and visual senses. Visual texture can be defined as a visual quality of a surface. It is an important phenomenon because it can be significant in many fields, such as textile design and e-commerce. At the same time, when we consider the semantics of the word, it is important to take into account that there are a variety of manifestations of fabrics (e.g., woven, knitted, etc.). The mechanism of visual texture perception of fabrics was investigated by measuring visual evaluation values. In our experiment, 12 textile samples with different surface textures are evaluated using thirty-four adjectives (Kansei words). For each visual texture, the adjectives with the highest mean ratings are extracted and analyzed. By using Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), we aimed to discover and determine preferences for the visual texture of fabrics. The result is a semantic explanation of fabric texture with the adjectives proposed, which can help customers to evaluate the quality of the textile.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-03T00:00:00.000+00:00A Biomimetic Approach to Protective Glove Design: Inspirations from Nature and the Structural Limitations of Living Organismshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Drawing inspiration from nature for the design of new technological solutions and smart materials constitutes an important development area for engineers and researchers in many disciplines. Biomimetic materials design brings numerous benefits, especially the possibility of implementing promising interdisciplinary projects based on effective existing solutions that have emerged in the course of natural evolution.</p> <p>A major aspect of biomimetic materials design, especially relevant to protective gloves, is the identification of an optimum combination of the physicochemical properties and microstructural characteristics of a surface with a view to its potential applications. Properties such as wetting and adhesion can be adjusted by modifications of the surface morphology both on micro- and nanoscales. From the standpoint of the occupational safety performance of polymeric protective gloves, biomimetic materials should exhibit two crucial properties: reversible adhesion (via a large number of contact points) and hydrophobicity (water repellence).</p> <p>This review analyzes the superhydrophobic and reversible adhesion patterns found in nature that can be used to improve the properties of polymeric protective gloves with major commercial implications.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Application of Coating Mixture Based on Silica Aerogel to Improve Thermal Protective Performance of Fabricshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main aim of this research is to improve the protective thermal performance of fabrics. Flame-resistant fabrics characterizing comparable thermal properties were chosen, cotton fabric with a flame-retardant finish and Nomex<sup>®</sup> fabric. To improve thermal parameters the coating mixture, based on silica aerogel, was applied on one side of the sample surface. Parameters such as the thermal conductivity, resistance to contact, and radiant heat were determined based on the standards, which set high expectations for the protective clothing. Analysis of the coated fabrics surfaces was conducted based on confocal microscopy. It was found that the coating mixture caused a decrease in thermal conductivity. All the modified fabrics reached 1st efficiency level of protection against contact and radiant heat. The best sample from the point of view of protection against contact and radiant heat was modified cotton fabric with a flame-retardant finish. The coating mixture contained 45 wt% of silica aerogel. Moreover, better adhesion of the coating mixture to the cotton fabric compared with Nomex<sup>®</sup> fabric was observed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Archaeology and Virtual Simulation Restoration of Costumes in the Han Xizai Banquet Paintinghttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2022-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Based on 3D virtual fitting technology, this paper simulates and reproduces the fabric patterns and sewing processes of 12 characters’ costumes in different scenes on the basis of completing the archaeology of the characters’ costumes in the painting, so as to realize the 3D virtual sewing and digital simulation restoration of the characters costumes. This paper draws the style diagram, structure diagram and 3D virtual simulation diagram of the character costumes in the painting. The article further improves the research on the costumes of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms, which has a certain reference value for the study of ancient character costumes and the promotion of Chinese garment culture. At the same time, it provides a reference for the design of artistic works such as character costumes in film and television and games.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-30T00:00:00.000+00:00From Raw To Finished Cotton—Characterization By Interface Phenomenahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2021-0055<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Interface phenomena that occur at the solid–liquid interface, such as wettability, adsorption, and particle aggregation, depend on the kind and magnitude of the solid surface free energy and electrokinetic properties found in water solutions. These phenomena are crucial for textile dyeing, finishing, and care. They characterize the material surface and change with different material pretreatment and finishing. In this paper, electrokinetic potential, isoelectric point, point of zero charge, a specific amount of surface charge and surface free energy of raw, enzymatically scoured, bleached, and finished cotton fabrics were investigated. Electrokinetic potential was measured by a streaming potential method and a specific quantity of surface charge by the back-titration method. For determination of the solid surface free energy components, the thin-layer wicking and contact-angle methods were used. On the basis of these results, components of solid surface free energy were calculated and discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Study On Structure And Anti-Uv Properties Of Sericin Cocoonshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2021-0058<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Through biogenetic engineering, the posterior silk glands of <italic>Bombyx mori</italic> larvae are degenerated, and only the middle silk glands are retained to secrete sericin to produce sericin fibers, so as to obtain sericin cocoons with high sericin content (&gt;98.5%). For this paper, sericin cocoons were studied, and the morphological structure characteristics and properties of sericin cocoons and common <italic>Bombyx mori</italic> cocoons were compared and analyzed through such modern test techniques as SEM, FTIR, and XRD. Results show that sericin cocoons have the basic morphological structure of cocoons, but because of the brittleness and hardness of sericin, the ssericin cocoons have poor integrity with a thermal decomposition rate that is higher than that of cocoons; the two cocoons are of a similar protein structure, with both α-helix and β-sheet structures, and dominantly the β-sheet structure; and the crystallinity of sericin cocoons (10.48%) is lower than that of the common <italic>Bombyx mori</italic> cocoons (27.10%). Sericin was extracted from both cocoons to obtain a mixed sericin solution respectively, which were coated on base fabrics of polyester taffeta (210T) for coating finish and subjected to qualitative research for their anti-UV properties. The base fabrics coated with mixed sericin solutions of sericin cocoons and <italic>Bombyx mori</italic> cocoons have an anti-UV performance index (UPF) of 23.9% and 22.5% respectively, which are higher than that of the base fabric (8.9%).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Review on Fabrication and Application of Regenerated Silk Fibroin Materialshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2021-0059<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Natural silk fiber derived from the Bombyx mori (B. mori) silkworm has long been used as a luxury raw material in textile industry because of its shimmering appearance and durability, and as surgical suture for its high strength and flexibility. Regenerated silk fibroin, as the main protein extracted from the cocoons of the B. mori silkworm, recently has gained considerable attention due to its outstanding properties, including facile processability, superior biocompatibility, controllable biodegradation, and versatile functionalization. Tremendous effort has been made to fabricate silk fibroin into various promising materials with controlled structural and functional characteristics for advanced utilities in a multitude of biomedical applications, flexible optics, electronics devices, and filtration systems. Herein, reverse engineered silk fibroin extraction methods are reviewed, recent advances in extraction techniques are discussed. Fabrication methods of silk fibroin materials in various formats are also addressed in detail; in particular, progress in new fabrication technologies is presented. Attractive applications of silk fibroin-based materials are then summarized and highlighted. The challenges faced by current approaches in production of silk fibroin-based materials and future directions acquired for pushing these favorable materials further toward above mentioned applications are further elaborated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-31T00:00:00.000+00:00AUTEX 2022 – 21 World Textile Conference Announcementhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2021-0060<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article is an invitation to the Autex 2022 - 21<sup>st</sup> World Textile Conference, which is organized by the Faculty of Material Technologies and Textile Design, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland. The conference will be held ONLINE on the 7<sup>th</sup> to the 10<sup>th</sup> June 2022, under the motto Passion for innovation. The conference will be focused on the latest scientific and technical achievements in the field of textiles.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-02-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Fit And Pressure Comfort Evaluation On A Virtual Prototype Of A Tight-Fit Cycling Shirthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2021-0057<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Graduated compression is widely used for medical application to prevent perioperative venous thromboembolism, but other applications such as sportswear can potentially also benefit from it. A tight-fit cycling shirt meant to ensure the correct position during cycling and prevent injuries was designed. The aim of this study was to improve garment pattern design from the aspect of clothing pressure for providing support and enhancing comfort to the user. This paper investigates the suitability of pressure maps from 3D fashion design software CLO 3D for design and in particular its capability to discriminate between various materials and cycling postures. Moreover, the impact of the mechanical properties of fabric was analyzed. In particular, virtual prototyping tool CLO 3D and pressure mapping were employed to achieve the required graduated compression while ensuring fit and comfort. Pattern adjustments were iteratively performed until stress, strain, and pressure maps showed adequate fit and pressure of the cycling garment on the virtual cyclist in static and dynamic cycling positions. The impact of fabric types on garment fit has been shown by generating the stress, strain, and pressure maps with a virtual simulation. It was found that the visualized pressure on the human body model shows distributions that are related to contact between body and garment, and large compression stresses occur in the lower parts of the two shirts. Evident garment deformation was shown at hip level, upper arm, lower front side seam, and front neck, which can reduce garment wear comfort and freedom of movement. The output was found to be sufficiently accurate to optimize the garments based on material and cycling posture.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-21T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparative Study of Needle Penetration Forces in Sewing Hems on Toweling Terry Fabrics: Influence of Needle Type and Sizehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/aut-2019-0047<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In this paper, an industrial case study comparing the use of different needles in the production of hems in towels is presented. The study aims to assess the sewability of the fabrics, quantified by needle penetration forces. The market offers an interesting range of options for the needle, regarding the geometry of the needle point, surface finishing, and sizes. However, in practice, the choice is difficult, namely due to the lack of quantitative data that may support the empirical evaluation made by the sewing technicians. The work aims to assess how the needle type and size relate to the resulting needle penetration forces. Three terry fabric structures, produced by a home textiles manufacturer, were tested using needles of different sizes, points, and coatings. Needle penetration forces were measured on a sewability tester prototype, previously designed and developed, based on an instrumented overedge sewing machine. It was found that needle penetration forces present very significant differences with small size increments, needle coating also influences forces significantly, and different needle points produce only slight differences, significant only on some of the fabrics that were tested.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-05-13T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1