rss_2.0Cybernetics and Information Technologies FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Cybernetics and Information Technologies and Information Technologies 's Cover Insight on Clustering Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) have drawn the attention of many researchers as well as general users in recent years. Since WSN has a wide range of applications, including environmental monitoring, medical applications, and surveillance, their usage is not limited. As energy is a major constraint in WSN, it is necessary to employ techniques that reduce energy consumption in order to extend the network’s lifetime. Clustering, data aggregation, duty cycling, load balancing, and efficient routing are some of the techniques used to reduce energy consumption. In this paper, we discuss in details about clustering, its properties, the existing clustering protocols. The clustering protocols that support data aggregation will also be discussed. The paper concludes with considering the impact of clustering and data aggregation in WSN.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Tunnel Parsing with the Token’s Lexeme<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article describes a string recognition approach, engraved in the parsers generated by Tunnel Grammar Studio that use the tunnel parsing algorithm, of how a lexer and a parser can operate on the input during its recognition. Proposed is an addition of the augmented Backus-Naur form syntax that enables the formal language to be expressed with a parser grammar and optionally with an additional lexer grammar. The tokens outputted from the lexer are matched to the phrases in the parser grammar by their name and optionally by their lexeme, case sensitively or insensitively.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Development of a Scheme for Correcting Arbitrary Errors and Averaging Noise in Quantum Computing<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Intensive research is currently being carried out to develop and create quantum computers and their software. This work is devoted to study of the influence of the environment on the quantum system of qubits. Quantum error correction is a set of methods for protecting quantum information and quantum state from unwanted interactions of the environment (decoherence) and other forms and types of noise. The article discusses the solution to the problem of research and development of corrective codes for rectifying several types of quantum errors that occur during computational processes in quantum algorithms and models of quantum computing devices. The aim of the work is to study existing methods for correcting various types of quantum errors and to create a corrective code for quantum error rectification. The scientific novelty is expressed in the exclusion of one of the shortcomings of the quantum computing process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Enhancing Weak Nodes in Decision Tree Algorithm Using Data Augmentation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Decision trees are among the most popular classifiers in machine learning, artificial intelligence, and pattern recognition because they are accurate and easy to interpret. During the tree construction, a node containing too few observations (weak node) could still get split, and then the resulted split is unreliable and statistically has no value. Many existing machine-learning methods can resolve this issue, such as pruning, which removes the tree’s non-meaningful parts. This paper deals with the weak nodes differently; we introduce a new algorithm Enhancing Weak Nodes in Decision Tree (EWNDT), which reinforces them by increasing their data from other similar tree nodes. We called the data augmentation a virtual merging because we temporarily recalculate the best splitting attribute and the best threshold in the weak node. We have used two approaches to defining the similarity between two nodes. The experimental results are verified using benchmark datasets from the UCI machine-learning repository. The results indicate that the EWNDT algorithm gives a good performance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Optimization of Cross Diagonal Pixel Value Differencing and Modulus Function Steganography Using Edge Area Block Patterns<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The existence of a trade-off between embedding capacity and imperceptibility is a challenge to improve the quality of steganographic images. This research proposes to cross diagonal embedding Pixel Value Differencing (PVD) and Modulus Function (MF) techniques using edge area patterns to improve embedding capacity and imperceptibility simultaneously. At the same time still, maintain a good quality of security. By implementing them into 14 public datasets, the proposed techniques are proven to increase both capacity and imperceptibility. The cross diagonal embedding PVD is responsible for increasing the embedding capacity reaching an average value of 3.18 bits per pixel (bpp), and at the same time, the implementation of edge area block patterns-based embedding is a solution of improving imperceptibility toward an average value of PSNR above 40 dB and that of SSIM above 0.98. Aside from its success in increasing the embedding capacity and the imperceptibility, the proposed techniques remain resistant to RS attacks.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Enhancing the Speed of the Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) Algorithm by Adding Partial Distance Computation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) is one of the most widely used classification approaches. LVQ faces a problem as when the size of data grows large it becomes slower. In this paper, a modified version of LVQ, which is called PDLVQ is proposed to accelerate the traditional version. The proposed scheme aims to avoid unnecessary computations by applying an efficient Partial Distance (PD) computation strategy. Three different benchmark datasets are used in the experiments. The comparisons have been done between LVQ and PDLVQ in terms of runtime and in result, it turns out that PDLVQ shows better efficiency than LVQ. PDLVQ has achieved up to 37% efficiency in runtime compared to LVQ when the dimensions have increased. Also, the enhanced algorithm (PDLVQ) shows clear enhancement to decrease runtime when the size of dimensions, the number of clusters, or the size of data becomes increased compared with the traditional one which is LVQ.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-23T00:00:00.000+00:00An Augmented UCAL Model for Predicting Trajectory and Location<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Predicting human mobility between locations plays an important role in a wide range of applications and services such as transportation, economics, sociology and other fields. Mobility prediction can be implemented through various machine learning algorithms that can predict the future trajectory of a user relying on the current trajectory and time, learning from historical sequences of locations previously visited by the user. But, it is not easy to capture complex patterns from the long historical sequences of locations. Inspired by the methods of the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN), we propose an augmented Union ConvAttention-LSTM (UCAL) model. The UCAL consists of the 1D CNN that allows capturing locations from historical trajectories and the augmented proposed model that contains an Attention technique with a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) in order to capture patterns from current trajectories. The experimental results prove the effectiveness of our proposed methodology that outperforms the existing models.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Modelling Activity of a Malicious User in Computer Networks<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the present study, an extended classification of Internet users penetrating in computer networks and a definition of the motivation as a psychological and emotional state and main prerequisites for modelling of network intruder’s activity are suggested. A mathematical model as a quadratic function of malicious individual’s behavior and impact on the computer network based on three quantified factors, motivation, satisfaction and system protection is developed. Numerical simulation experiments of the unauthorized access and its effect onto the computer network are carried out. The obtained results are graphically illustrated and discussed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-23T00:00:00.000+00:00A Scrutiny of Honeyword Generation Methods: Remarks on Strengths and Weaknesses Points<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Honeyword system is a successful password cracking detection system. Simply the honeywords are (False passwords) that are accompanied to the sugarword (Real password). Honeyword system aims to improve the security of hashed passwords by facilitating the detection of password cracking. The password database will have many honeywords for every user in the system. If the adversary uses a honeyword for login, a silent alert will indicate that the password database might be compromised. All previous studies present a few remarks on honeyword generation methods for max two preceding methods only. So, the need for one that lists all preceding researches with their weaknesses is shown. This work presents all generation methods then lists the strengths and weaknesses of 26 ones. In addition, it puts 32 remarks that highlight their strengths and weaknesses points. This research has proved that every honeyword generation method has many weaknesses points.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-23T00:00:00.000+00:00A Rule-Generation Model for Class Imbalances to Detect Student Entrepreneurship Based on the Theory of Planned Behavior<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The ability to identify the entrepreneurial potential of students enables higher education institutions to contribute to the economic and social development of a country. Current research trends regarding the detection of student entrepreneurial potential have the greatest challenge in the unequal ratio of datasets. This study proposes a rule-generation model in an imbalanced situation to classify student entrepreneurship based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The result is a ruleset that is used for the early detection of student entrepreneurial potential. The proposed method consists of three main stages, namely preprocessing data to classify data based on TPB variables, generating a dataset by clustering and selecting attributes by sampling to balance the data, and finally generating a ruleset. Furthermore, the results of the detecting ruleset have been evaluated with actual data from the student tracer study as ground truth. The evaluation results show high accuracy so that the ruleset can be applied to the higher education environment in the future.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Visualizing Interesting Patterns in Cyber Threat Intelligence Using Machine Learning Techniques<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In an advanced and dynamic cyber threat environment, organizations need to yield more proactive methods to handle their cyber defenses. Cyber threat data known as Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) of previous incidents plays an important role by helping security analysts understand recent cyber threats and their mitigations. The mass of CTI is exponentially increasing, most of the content is textual which makes it difficult to analyze. The current CTI visualization tools do not provide effective visualizations. To address this issue, an exploratory data analysis of CTI reports is performed to dig-out and visualize interesting patterns of cyber threats which help security analysts to proactively mitigate vulnerabilities and timely predict cyber threats in their networks.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-06-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Hy-MOM: Hybrid Recommender System Framework Using Memory-Based and Model-Based Collaborative Filtering Framework<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Lack of personalization, rating sparsity, and cold start are commonly seen in e-Learning based recommender systems. The proposed work here suggests a personalized fused recommendation framework for e-Learning. The framework consists of a two-fold approach to generate recommendations. Firstly, it attempts to find the neighbourhood of similar learners based on certain learner characteristics by applying a user-based collaborative filtering approach. Secondly, it generates a matrix of ratings given by the learners. The outcome of the first stage is merged with the second stage to generate recommendations for the learner. Learner characteristics, namely knowledge level, learning style, and learner preference, have been considered to bring in the personalization factor on the recommendations. As the stochastic gradient approach predicts the learner-course rating matrix, it helps overcome the rating sparsity and cold-start issues. The fused model is compared with traditional stand-alone methods and shows performance improvement.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00A Proposal for Honeyword Generation via Meerkat Clan Algorithm<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An effective password cracking detection system is the honeyword system. The Honeyword method attempts to increase the security of hashed passwords by making password cracking easier to detect. Each user in the system has many honeywords in the password database. If the attacker logs in using a honeyword, a quiet alert trigger indicates that the password database has been hacked. Many honeyword generation methods have been proposed, they have a weakness in generating process, do not support all honeyword properties, and have many honeyword issues. This article proposes a novel method to generate honeyword using the meerkat clan intelligence algorithm, a metaheuristic swarm intelligence algorithm. The proposed generation methods will improve the honeyword generating process, enhance the honeyword properties, and solve the issues of previous methods. This work will show some previous generation methods, explain the proposed method, discuss the experimental results and compare the new one with the prior ones.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Data Fusion and the Impact of Group Mobility on Load Distribution on MRHOF and OF0<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Many routing algorithms proposed for IoT are based on modifications on RPL objective functions and trickle algorithms. However, there is a lack of an in-depth study to examine the impact of mobility on routing protocols based on MRHOF and OF0 algorithms. This paper examines the impact of group mobility on these algorithms, also examines their ability in distributing the load and the impact of varying traffic with the aid of simulations using the well-known Cooja simulator. The two algorithms exhibit similar performance for various metrics for low traffic rates and low mobility speed. However, when the traffic rate becomes relatively high, OF0 performance merits appear, in terms of throughput, packet load deviation, power deviation, and CPU power deviation. The mobility with higher speeds helps MRHOF to enhance its throughput and load deviation. The mobility allowed MRHOF to demonstrate better packets load deviation.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Citation and Similarity in Academic Texts: Colombian Engineering Case<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article provides the results of a citation determinants model for a set of academic engineering texts from Colombia. The model establishes the determinants of the probability that a text receives at least one citation through the relationship among previous citations, journal characteristics, the author and the text. Through a similarity matrix constructed by Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA), a similarity variable has been constructed to capture the fact that the texts have similar titles, abstracts and keywords to the most cited texts. The results show: i) joint significance of the variables selected to characterize the text; ii) direct relationship of the citation with similarity of keywords, published in an IEEE journal, research article, more than one author; and authored by at least one foreign author; and iii) inverse relationship between the probability of citation with the similarity of abstracts, published in 2016 or 2017, and published in a Colombian journal.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Deterministic Centroid Localization for Improving Energy Efficiency in Wireless Sensor Networks<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Wireless sensor networks are an enthralling field of study with numerous applications. A Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is used to monitor real-time scenarios such as weather, temperature, humidity, and military surveillance. A WSN is composed of several sensor nodes that are responsible for sensing, aggregating, and transmitting data in the system, in which it has been deployed. These sensors are powered by small batteries because they are small. Managing power consumption and extending network life is a common challenge in WSNs. Data transmission is a critical process in a WSN that consumes the majority of the network’s resources. Since the cluster heads in the network are in charge of data transmission, they require more energy. We need to know where these CHs are deployed in order to calculate how much energy they use. The deployment of a WSN can be either static or random. Although most researchers focus on random deployment, this paper applies the proposed Deterministic Centroid algorithm for static deployment. Based on the coverage of the deployment area, this algorithm places the sensors in a predetermined location. The simulation results show how this algorithm generates balanced clusters, improves coverage, and saves energy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Blockchain-Enabled Supply-Chain in Crop Production Framework<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this paper is to propose an approach to blockchain-enabled supply-chain model for a smart crop production framework. The defined tasks are: (1) analysis of blockchain ecosystem as a network of stakeholders and as an infrastructure of technical and logical elements; (2) definition of a supply-chain model; (3) design of blockchain reference infrastructure; (4) description of blockchain information channels with smart contracts basic functionalities. The results presented include: а supply-chain model facilitating seeds certification process, monitoring and supervision of the grain process, provenance and as optional interactions with regulatory bodies, logistics and financial services; the three level blockchain reference infrastructure and a blockchain-enabled supply-chain supporting five information channels with nine participants and smart contracts. An account management user application tool, the general descriptions of smart contract basic functionalities and a selected parts of one smart contract code are provided as examples.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Combination of Resnet and Spatial Pyramid Pooling for Musical Instrument Identification<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Identifying similar objects is one of the most challenging tasks in computer vision image recognition. The following musical instruments will be recognized in this study: French horn, harp, recorder, bassoon, cello, clarinet, erhu, guitar saxophone, trumpet, and violin. Numerous musical instruments are identical in size, form, and sound. Further, our works combine Resnet 50 with Spatial Pyramid Pooling (SPP) to identify musical instruments that are similar to one another. Next, the Resnet 50 and Resnet 50 SPP model evaluation performance includes the Floating-Point Operations (FLOPS), detection time, mAP, and IoU. Our work can increase the detection performance of musical instruments similar to one another. The method we propose, Resnet 50 SPP, shows the highest average accuracy of 84.64% compared to the results of previous studies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Hiding Sensitive High Utility and Frequent Itemsets Based on Constrained Intersection Lattice<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Hiding high utility and frequent itemset is the method used to preserve sensitive knowledge from being revealed by pattern mining process. Its goal is to remove sensitive high utility and frequent itemsets from a database before sharing it for data mining purposes while minimizing the side effects. The current methods succeed in the hiding goal but they cause high side effects. This paper proposes a novel algorithm, named HSUFIBL, that applies a heuristic for finding victim item based on the constrained intersection lattice theory. This algorithm specifies exactly the condition that allows the application of utility reduction or support reduction method, the victim item, and the victim transaction for the hiding process so that the process needs the fewest data modifications and gives the lowest number of lost non-sensitive itemsets. The experimental results indicate that the HSUFIBL algorithm achieves better performance than previous works in minimizing the side effect.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00Long Short Term Memory Neural Network-Based Model Construction and Fne-Tuning for Air Quality Parameters Prediction<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Air pollution has increased worries regarding health and ecosystems. Precise prediction of air quality parameters can assist in the effective action of air pollution control and prevention. In this work, a deep learning framework is proposed to predict parameters such as fine particulate matter and carbon monoxide. Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) neural network-based model that processes sequences in forward and backward direction to consider the influence of timesteps in both directions is employed. For further learning, unidirectional layers’ stacking is implemented. The performance of the model is optimized by fine-tuning hyperparameters, regularization techniques for overfitting resolution, and various merging options for the bidirectional input layer. The proposed model achieves good optimization and performs better than the simple LSTM and a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) based model. Moreover, an attention-based mechanism is adopted to focus on more significant timesteps for prediction. The self-attention approach improves performance further and works well especially for longer sequences and extended time horizons. Experiments are conducted using real-world data collected, and results are evaluated using the mean square error loss function.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-10T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1