rss_2.0Contributions to Tobacco & Nicotine Research FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Contributions to Tobacco & Nicotine Research to Tobacco & Nicotine Research Feed Testing of Tobacco and Smoke to Examine Cigarette Temporal Variability<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Commercial cigarettes were analyzed for harmful and potentially harmful constituents (HPHCs) in tobacco and smoke to investigate temporal product variability independent of analytical variability over one week, one year, and three years. Cigarettes from the worldwide market with various design features were collected over a 3-year period, stored, and tested concurrently for HPHCs to minimize analytical variability; repeat testing of reference cigarette 3R4F was included as an analytical control for the study design. Physical parameters were found to be relatively consistent. No trends in variability were noted based on blend type, smoke analyte matrix, or magnitude of an HPHC's yield. Combustion-related HPHCs generally showed low variation. Long-term batch-to-batch variability was found to be higher than short-term variability for tobacco-related compounds that have the potential to vary over time due to weather and agronomic practices. “Tar”, nicotine, and carbon monoxide were tested in multiple labs and showed greater lab-to-lab variability than batch-to-batch variability across all phases. Based on the results of this study, commercial cigarette products appear to have relatively low product variability. The low analyte variability noted in this study with products tested under unconventionally controlled analytical conditions serves to indicate that analytical variability may be a significant contributor to overall variability for general product testing over time and in interlaboratory studies. Laboratory controls and using a matched reference product across studies and between laboratories are important to assess testing differences and variability.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Cross-Sectional Survey on Prevalence and Behaviour of Smokeless Tobacco Use Among Tobacco Users in China<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Increasing tobacco control and public health awareness have increased smokers’ attempts to quit smoking. However, some smokers also seek alternative products claimed to pose less risks. The use of smokeless tobacco (ST) products may thus increase in some countries which are not traditionally ST markets. To provide a cross-sectional picture on ST usage in China, a survey was conducted from December 2019 to March 2020 in representative metropolitan cities (divided into three tiers by their populations and gross domestic product (GDP) sizes), from which 3,000 tobacco users and 801 ST users were randomly recruited to provide a snapshot of ST usage behaviour and other pertinent factors for Chinese tobacco users. The study included questionnaires designed to probe potential reasons behind ST use, usage habits, and nicotine dependence attributes. These questions were devised to cover the type of tobacco products used, users’ age, gender, city of residence, residence time, household monthly income, etc., and was supported by some verification questions. Mann-Whitney-analysis was used for significance analysis between different groups. The results showed that ST prevalence for Chinese tobacco users was around 2.1%. The proportion of exclusively ST use was about 8.99%, and the mean conversion time to habitual ST use was about three months. Demographic information such as the city tiers where ST users lived, their age, gender, educational and income levels appeared to correlate with ST use habits although more studies are needed to verify the observations. The fact that a small but measurable population of Chinese ST users exists has important implications for tobacco control. This study provides the first large-scale, single-time-point survey on Chinese ST user profiles, which may help the future research on tobacco control policy regarding ST products in China.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Varying Tobacco Rod Circumference on Cigarette's Dynamic Ventilation Rate and Combustion State During Machine Smoking<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Cigarette ventilation characteristics are one of the important design factors that affect the combustion state and therefore smoke release. In order to study the changes of ventilation characteristics and the combustion state of cigarettes with different rod circumferences during smoking, a device was designed that could flexibly measure the different ventilation characteristics along the cigarette rod. The device was utilized to measure the changes of the total ventilation rate and filter ventilation rate of cigarettes with different rod circumference in both burned and unburned conditions. At the same time, a test method was implemented to measure the temperature of the combustion coal puff-by-puff during the smoking process. The relationship between ventilation and the combustion state was analyzed on a per-puff basis. The results show that with the decrease of the rod circumference from 24 mm to 20 mm and 17 mm, the total ventilation rate under burning conditions changed considerably compared with unburned conditions, increasing by 55.7%, 60.5% and 74.5% on average, respectively. The ventilation of the cigarette paper played a major role in regulating the ventilation during puffing. With the increase from 17 mm to 24 mm in circumference, the combustion efficiency of the tobacco decreased as indicated by a range of thermophysical parameters of the burning coal.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of the Particle Size Distribution and Vapor Phase of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Using Two Impactors<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) contain numerous volatile aerosol constituents (e.g., nicotine, propylene glycol, flavors, etc.). Past work clearly indicates the temporal and chemical dynamics of ENDS aerosol requires consideration of these volatile constituents when measuring the particle size distribution. An MSP-135-8 Mini MOUDI™ and Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI<sup>®</sup>+) were used to measure the particle size distribution of two JUUL ENDS products. Volatile chemicals were measured from each cascade impactor's exhaust airflow to assess their effect on collection efficiency. Similar mass median aerodynamic diameters were obtained for both ENDS products by both cascade impactors, however the geometric standard deviation from the ELPI<sup>®</sup>+ measurements were larger for both products than measurements using the Mini MOUDI™ impactor. Although the measured mass of volatile chemicals was greater in the exhaust from the Mini MOUDI™ impactor, a greater variety of volatile chemicals were found within the exhaust of the ELPI<sup>®</sup>+. The greater variety of volatile chemicals correlated with more room air sampling by the ELPI<sup>®</sup>+. The reduced amount of volatile chemicals measured in the exhaust of the ELPI<sup>®</sup>+ may be due to their collection by the vacuum oil used in the sintered collection plates of the ELPI<sup>®</sup>+. Accounting for the measured volatile chemicals improved the recovery efficiency of the Mini MOUDI™ impactor by 2.9–7.5% with the average recovery efficiency exceeding 82% for the two JUUL ENDS Products. In comparison, accounting for the measured volatile constituents increased the recovery efficiency of the ELPI<sup>®</sup>+ impactor by 0.4% or less, which did not narrow the recovery efficiency range, that based upon the estimated dilution, consistently exceeded the measured mass loss from both JUUL ENDS products.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Inter-Laboratory Comparison for the Urinary Acrolein Biomarker 3-Hydroxypropyl-Mercapturic Acid (3-HPMA)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>An inter-laboratory comparison study on the acrolein biomarker of exposure 3-hydroxypropyl-mercapturic acid (3-HPMA) with 12 laboratories from 7 globally distributed countries was performed. The laboratories received coded triplicates of 4 spiked and lyophilized urine samples (LU, 12 samples) as well as 5 authentic urine pool samples (PU, 15 samples) covering the 3-HPMA concentration range from background (non-smoking) to heavy smoking levels for analysis by using their own (in-house) analytical method. All laboratories applied liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), with most of them (10 of 12) using solid phase extraction (SPE) as sample work-up procedure. The intra-laboratory variation (indicating repeatability) was determined by calculating the standard deviation (s<sub>r</sub>) and the coefficient of variation (CV<sub>r</sub>) of the triplicates, whereas the inter-laboratory variation (indicating reproducibility) was determined by calculating the standard deviation between laboratories (s<sub>R</sub>) and the corresponding coefficient of variation (CV<sub>R</sub>). After removal of outlier samples or laboratories, the mean CV<sub>r</sub> values for LU and PU test samples ranged from 2.1–3.6% (mean: 2.8%) and 2.4–3.7% (mean: 3.3%), respectively, indicating good repeatability for the determination of 3-HPMA in both sample types. CV<sub>R</sub> for LU and PU test samples ranged from 9.1–31.9% (mean: 18.8%) and 13.9–27.0% (mean: 18.5%), respectively, indicating limited reproducibility in 3-HPMA analysis for both sample types. Re-calculation of the PU results by applying an embedded calibration (EC), derived from the reported peak areas for the LU test samples, somewhat improved the CV<sub>R</sub> values (range: 9.6–28.8%, mean: 16.7%).</p> <p>It is concluded that the intra-laboratory variation (repeatability) in the determination of 3-HPMA in urine is in general acceptable in the participating laboratories, while the inter-laboratory variability requires further improvement. The relatively small reduction in the inter-laboratory variability (s<sub>R</sub> and CV<sub>R</sub>) by applying an EC suggests that other methodological factors than the standard reference material for 3-HPMA have to be addressed to achieve further improvement in reproducibility.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue Intent and Product Appeal of Velo Nicotine Pouches Among Current Tobacco Users and Nonusers of Tobacco<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <sec><title style='display:none'>Background and objectives</title> <p>Oral nicotine pouches is a rapidly growing product category that potentially offers less risk than combustible tobacco products. Nicotine pouches may provide harm reduction for smokers because they contain no tobacco and have reduced harmful constituents compared to traditional tobacco product categories. Any potential public health benefit must weigh the likelihood that current tobacco users will switch to the lower-risk product against the likelihood that nonusers will start using tobacco products. To our knowledge, no existing studies provide population-level estimates of purchase intent or product appeal across tobacco user groups or how product characteristics might affect those variables.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>This paper presents population-level estimates of purchase intent and product appeal for multiple Velo nicotine pouch products (including different flavors, nicotine strengths, format, and packaging) among five adult tobacco user groups (current established cigarette smokers, current established non-cigarette tobacco users, current tobacco experimenters, former tobacco users, and never ever tobacco users). Over 49,000 respondents were surveyed across twelve analytic samples.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Results for the pooled sample as well as for each individual sample were remarkably consistent for every product. Ratings of purchase intent and appeal are higher for current tobacco users (current established cigarette smokers, current established non-cigarette tobacco users, and current tobacco experimenters) than for former and never ever tobacco users.</p> </sec> <sec><title style='display:none'>Conclusions and scientific significance</title> <p>Variation in product characteristics had little or no effect on purchase intent or appeal ratings across tobacco user groups, suggesting that product characteristics do not materially affect public health.</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Quantitative Analyses of the Enantiomers of Nicotine and Related Alkaloids Employing Chiral Supercritical Fluid Chromatography in Commercial Nicotine Samples and in E-Cigarette Products<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Several commercial sources of tobacco-derived nicotine (TDN) and synthetic nicotine (SyN) and a variety of e-cigarette liquids employing either TDN or SyN have been evaluated to determine the enantiomer distributions of R- and S-nicotine and R- and S-nornicotine by chiral supercritical fluid chromatography (chiral-SFC) with UV diode array detection (DAD-UV). The data generated are used to test the mismatched <italic>vs</italic>. matched hypothesis of C<sc>heetham</sc> <italic>et al.</italic> as a means to distinguish products containing TDN from products with SyN.</p> <p>Two sets of experiments were conducted in this study. The first experiment was conducted on a series of 11 commercial nicotine samples (three characterized as tobacco-derived and eight characterized as synthetic nicotine). The commercial nicotine samples were either from a tobacco-derived nicotine (TDN) source or were synthetic nicotine (SyN). Some of the commercial nicotine samples were nicotine salts. The second experiment was conducted on e-liquids from a set of 11 e-cigarettes. The nicotine in the e-liquids was either from TDN or SyN. The e-liquid samples were differentiated based on the advertised information on the internet or from printed information on the e-cigarette packaging.</p> <p>None of the three commercial TDN samples in the first experiment could be unequivocally characterized as coming from a tobacco source. Five of the eight commercial SyN samples were correctly characterized as SyN based on the matched <italic>vs</italic>. mismatched nicotine and nornicotine hypothesis of C<sc>heetham</sc> <italic>et al.</italic></p> <p>In the second experiment, none of the e-liquids characterized as being from TDN sources could be unequivocally characterized as coming from a tobacco source. All of the e-liquids characterized as being from SyN sources were either characterized as equivocal or of uncertain origin based on the matched <italic>vs</italic>. mismatched nicotine and nornicotine hypothesis of C<sc>heetham</sc> <italic>et al.</italic></p> <p>These sets of experiments represent an excellent example of the difficulty that the United States Food and Drug Administration is having in trying to determine if TDN or SyN is being used in tobacco products. Even highly advanced chromatographic methods such as chiral-SFC were not able to unequivocally distinguish products with TDN from products with SyN 100% of the time.</p> <p>Other analytical methods such as <sup>14</sup>C quantitation of nicotine samples by accelerator mass spectrometry offer a more reliable determinate of nicotine source (TDN <italic>vs</italic>. SyN) and can be used to identify misbranded products labelled as containing SyN, even though this methodology is more expensive and offered in limited locations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue’ Note Intent and Appeal of ENDS Products among Current, Former and Never Ever Users of Tobacco Products in the U.S.<abstract> <title style='display:none'>SUMMARY</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Background and objectives</title> <p>The last decade has seen extensive research into electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) such as e-cigarettes. Although some studies assess ENDS’ potential benefits, there is a paucity of studies that provide population-level estimates of purchase intent or product appeal among various tobacco user groups, or that have examined the impact of different product characteristics on those variables.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>Purchase intent and product appeal ratings were analyzed from six online studies for multiple sub-brands of Vuse vapor products (including different flavors, nicotine levels, and device styles). The sample in each study was weighted to represent the adult U.S. population of current established, former established, and never established cigarette smokers on five key demographics; providing population-level estimates.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>Results for purchase intent and appeal are remarkably consistent. Ratings of purchase intent and appeal are higher for current tobacco users (current established cigarette smokers, current established non-cigarette tobacco users, and current tobacco experimenters) than for former and never ever tobacco users.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions and scientific significance</title> <p>These findings show that varying sub-brands of an e-cigarette has little or no impact on population level purchase intent and appeal ratings across tobacco user groups. Additionally, greater variability in ratings among current tobacco experimenters than other tobacco user groups is discussed as well as correlations between measures. This paper provides the first population estimates of both purchase intent and product appeal for various ENDS products among adult tobacco users and nonusers; information that is critical for evaluating the impact on public health. [Contrib. Tob. Nicotine Res. 32 (2023) 34–42]</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue do Risk Perceptions Drive Smokers to Completely Switch to a Smoke-Free Tobacco Product ()? A Four-Country Cohort Study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>SUMMARY</title> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Background</title> <p>The perceived reduced formation of harmful chemicals (RF) or perceived reduced risk of harm (RH) of a smoke-free tobacco product relative to combustible tobacco products may influence its acceptance and use patterns among adult smokers and therefore impact public health. We analyzed whether and how the RF and/or RH of the heated tobacco product (HTP) <italic>IQOS</italic><sup>™</sup> impacted “exclusive” (100%) <italic>IQOS</italic><sup>™</sup> use in Japan, Italy, Germany, and Russia.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Methods</title> <p>Between 2016 and 2020, adult participants from longitudinal <italic>IQOS</italic><sup>™</sup> user cohorts in Japan (<italic>N</italic> = 6257), Italy (<italic>N</italic> = 8137), Germany (<italic>N</italic> = 8474), and Russia (<italic>N</italic> = 7231) repeatedly indicated the reasons for using <italic>IQOS</italic><sup>™</sup>, including reasons referring to RF and RH, during their first 48 weeks in the cohort. Logistic and Cox regression were used to analyze the relationships between RF and/or RH indications for using <italic>IQOS</italic><sup>™</sup> and exclusive or stable exclusive <italic>IQOS</italic><sup>™</sup> use.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Results</title> <p>At week 48, exclusive <italic>IQOS</italic><sup>™</sup> use in Japan (odds ratio [OR] = 1.89), Italy (OR = 3.35), Germany (OR = 3.48), and Russia (OR = 3.05) was more likely among participants who more frequently (highest <italic>vs</italic>. lowest category of number of RF and/or RH indications) indicated RF and/or RH as a reason for using <italic>IQOS</italic><sup>™</sup>. In Japan, where other HTPs were also marketed, this was also true for the overall HTP category. Also, in Japan where RF and RH could be indicated separately as reasons for using <italic>IQOS</italic><sup>™</sup>, indicating RH (OR = 2.92) compared to RF (OR = 1.81) resulted in a greater likelihood of exclusive <italic>IQOS</italic><sup>™</sup> use within the highest category of RF or RH indications. In Japan (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.74), Italy (HR = 0.80), Germany (HR = 0.72), and Russia (HR = 0.85), <italic>IQOS</italic><sup>™</sup> users who indicated RF and/or RH as a reason for using <italic>IQOS</italic><sup>™</sup> had a lower risk of becoming a stable nonexclusive than stable exclusive <italic>IQOS</italic><sup>™</sup> user as well as a 10–25% lower number of weeks until reaching stable exclusive <italic>IQOS</italic><sup>™</sup> use.</p> </sec> <sec> <title style='display:none'>Conclusions</title> <p>Perceived reduced formation of harmful chemicals (RF) or perceived reduced risk of harm (RH) of <italic>IQOS</italic><sup>™</sup> have a significant impact on <italic>IQOS</italic><sup>™</sup> users’ switching to exclusive <italic>IQOS</italic><sup>™</sup> use and the acceleration of stable exclusive <italic>IQOS</italic><sup>™</sup> use. This may also be true for the overall HTP category. Moreover, perceived RH of <italic>IQOS</italic><sup>™</sup> seems to be a stronger driver for exclusive <italic>IQOS</italic><sup>™</sup> use than perceived RF. [Contrib. Tob. Nicotine Res. 32 (2023) 50–64]</p> </sec> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue and Quantitation of Nicotine Polacrilex in Nicotine Pouches and Other Oral Nicotine Delivery Products<abstract> <title style='display:none'>SUMMARY</title> <p>Nicotine polacrilex (CAS-No. 96055-45-7) can be used as the source of nicotine in nicotine pouches and other oral nicotine delivery products such as lozenges, tablets, and gums. The compound is the salt of nicotine with Amberlite IRP64, a copolymer of methacrylic acid and divinylbenzene. Present study describes a unique procedure to identify the presence of the compound nicotine polacrilex in oral nicotine delivery products and to evaluate its level. In oral nicotine delivery products, nicotine polacrilex is used in a mixture with other ingredients such as microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), maltitol, sweeteners, flavors, salts (such as Na<sub>2</sub>CO<sub>3</sub>, NaHCO<sub>3</sub>), water, etc. These ingredients make the analysis of the compound nicotine polacrilex by spectroscopic techniques such as IR or Raman difficult. Also, since nicotine polacrilex is insoluble in common solvents, the analysis using solutions is not possible. The study is also attempting to detect if the product contains only nicotine polacrilex or if it has additional nicotine in a different form (e.g., nicotine or nicotine tartrate). The analysis uses pyrolysis-GC/MS (Py-GC/MS) and the detection and quantitation of nicotine polacrilex is based on measuring the pyrolysis products of divinylbenzene (DVB) moiety from the Amberlite IRP64. The detection was proven very reliable by this procedure, while the quantitation showed some variability caused by the typical variability in the pyrolysis process. [Contrib. Tob. Nicotine Res. 32 (2023) 43–49]</p> </abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Tobacco Alkaloids<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Chemical transformation: In air oxidation of nicotine at room temperature, N´-methylmyosmine, which is supposed to be an active intermediate of degradation, cotinine, nicotine-N´-oxide, nicotyrine, myosmine, 3-pyridylpropyI ketone, 3-pyridylmethyI ketone, nicotinic acid, methylamine and ammonia were isolated. N´-Methylmyosmine was first characterized by 1H-NMR. When N´-methylmyosmine was heated, N-methylnicotinamide and nicotyrine were obtained in addition to a large amount of polymerized resinous substances. 2´(S)-nicotine-1´-N-oxide was rearranged to acetyl pseudooxynicotine by reaction with acetyl chloride or acetyl anhydride. This rearrangement could be generally useful for the preparation of Δ1-pyrrolines or Δ1-piperideines. When appropriate acetyl groups were used, the products were effective in improving tobacco taste. </p><p>Phytochemical transformation: Transformation of alkaloids in the tobacco plant was investigated by measuring their optical rotatory power, from which it was presumed that nicotine is biosynthesized in the S-form. The nornicotine formed in the leaves is synthesized from S-nicotine, but the one formed in the root is synthesized in the racemic form, indicating a route different from that found in the leaves. Secondary amine alkaloids such as anabasine and anatabine are in the racemic form. From Cherry Red tobacco, a transformation product of nornicotine. 1-(1´-2´(S)-nornicotino)1-β-D-fructofuranoside (m.p. 66-68°C), was isolated for the first time. The structure was confirmed physico-chemically and finally by synthesis. This compound increased markedly during curing, especially at the drying stage, suggesting formation through a non-enzymatic process. </p><p>Microbial transformation: 2´(S)-nicotine-1´-N-oxide, which is the most common natural oxidation product of nicotine, was degraded by bacteria abundant on the tobacco leaf surface and in the tobacco field soil. The isolated micro-organisms belong to genus Arthrobacter. Degradation pathway was: nicotine-N´-oxide → N´-methylmyosmine (60 % - 70 % yield) → 4-oxo-4- (3´-pyridyl)butyric acid, whereas nicotine degraded slowly by a different route: S-nicotine → 6-hydroxy-nicotine → 6-hydroxy-N´-methylmyosmine. No analogous and homologous oxides tested were degraded by the bacteria. 1´(R)-2´(S)nicotine-1´-N-oxide was preferentially degraded, compared to 1 ´(S)2´(S)-nicotine-1´-N- oxide. </p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Volatile Components of Burley Tobacco<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The constituents of the neutral volatiles in air-cured Burley tobacco were studied, and the following 19 substances were newly added to our lists: </p><p>1. 6-Methyl-6,9-oxidonon-4-en-2-ol </p><p>2. 5-Isopropylnon-3-en-2,8-dioI </p><p>3. 5-Isopropylnonan-2,8-diol </p><p>4. 3,3,5-Trimethyl-8-isopropyl-4,9-dioxabicyclo-[3.3.1]nonan-2-oI </p><p>5. 2-(1-Methyl-4-isopropyl-7,8-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]-octan-6-yl)propan-2-ol </p><p>6. 3-Oxoactinidol </p><p>7. 5-Isopropyl-7-(2-methyltetrahydrofur-2-yl)hept-6-en-2-ol </p><p>8. O-Methyl acetophenone </p><p>9. 1,5,5-Trimethyl-9-oxabicyclo[4.3.0]nonan-3-one </p><p>10. 4-(3-Hydroxybutylidene)-3,5,5-trimethylcyclohex-2-en-1-one </p><p>11. (1-Methyl-4-isopropyl-7,8-dioxabicyclo[3.2.1]-octan-6-yl)methyl ketone </p><p>12. 6,10-Dimethyl-2-(1-methylethenyl)spiro[4.5]dec-6-en-8-one (solavetivone) </p><p>13. 5-Isopropyl-7-(2-methyltetrahydrofur-2-yl)hept-6-en-2-one </p><p>14. 4-Ethyl-4-methylbutan-4-olide </p><p>15. Phthalide </p><p>16. Hydroxydihydrobovolide </p><p>17. 1,2-Dimethoxy benzene </p><p>18. o-Anisidine </p><p>19. Methylanthranilate </p><p>A large number of identified compounds may be viewed as degradation products of carotenoids and thunberganoids. These compounds have a characteristic aroma and are thought to be key flavour components in the essential oils of tobacco. The presence of any labdanoid hydrocarbons or their oxygenated products was not recognized in our Burley tobacco extract. Burley tobacco is thought to be deficient in labdanoid compounds. </p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Spectrophotometric Analysis of the Chemical Composition of Tobacco: Part 2: TotaI AIkaloids<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> This paper illustrates the potential of a computerized spectrophotometer for measuring total alkaloids in tobacco. Prediction equations were developed for three optical parameters. Of the three parameters investigated d<sup>2</sup> (log (1/R)) /d/<sup>2</sup> gave the best results and d R / R d l gave better results than log (1/R), where reflectance R is the ratio of the detector signal of the sample to the detector signal of the ceramic standard in the reflectance mode. The coefficient of determination r<sup>2</sup> for the prediction equation containing d<sup>2</sup> (log (1/R)) /d/<sup>2</sup> terms at 10 different wavelengths was 0.975. This equation predicted the total alkaloids in an independent set of samples with a standard error of 0.438 %. Instrument noise contributed 43 % of the variation, the remainder was attributed to anomalies of the chemical methods.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Improved Instrument for Measuring Filter Rod Pressure Drop<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> A compact, portable pressure-drop instrument that incorporates modern electronic pressure-drop measuring techniques has been designed and built. It includes a built-in laminar-flow calibration standard. The new design offers virtual independence from external capillary standards (and the associated problems of maintaining capillary cleanliness), fast digital readout, potential for automatic data processing, and a simple method of flow-rate adjustment at different filter rod pressure drops. Pressure drop measured with the new instrument meets the CORESTA-recommended definition of pressure drop for filter rods. Data collected on the new instrument show that the average and percent coefficient of variation of pressure drops measured on the new instrument compare favourably with data collected by the previously used standard instrument having mainly a vacuum pump, needle valve and water column manometer. </p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Electron-Beam Processing of Tobacco<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> While it is known that ionizing radiation can bring about chemical, biological and physical changes in organic tissue, relatively little is known concerning radiation effects on tobacco and its combustion products. In an effort to study such changes, Virginia bright tobacco was exposed to ionizing radiation at doses up to 50 Mrads, generated electronically by a high-voltage discharge. It was found that tobacco exposed to this high radiation will undergo physical changes such as a darkening, an increase in brittleness, puffing of the stems and a change in aroma characteristics. Chemical changes were found in selected chemicaI components such as water and solvent solubles, nicotine, reducing sugars, dextrin, cellulose, pectin, tannins and lignin. Both physical and chemical changes seem to be dose dependent. Studies on smoke components from cigarettes of both irradiated and non-irradiated tobacco indicate that irradiation had no major effects on the components of the gas phase examined and only minor effects on the composition of the particulate phase.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue of Dyes in Paper for Tobacco Products with Particular Consideration of Humic Acid/Identifizierung von Farbstoffen bei Papieren für Tabakerzeugnisse unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Huminsäure<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> After a brief look at the food law situation, the particular problems of the presence of humic acid in paper are dealt with. Origin and significance as well as physical and chemical properties of humic acid are described. The principle of the method of analysis is that the dyes transferred from the paper to an aqueous solution are freed of humic acid by acidification and extracted from the centrifugate, using isoamyl alcohol. The concentrated aqueous eluate from the amyl alcohol is examined paper chromatographically. The Rf figures for the dyes after their said preparation are quoted and the analytical procedure explained by means of examples.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Determination of Dithiocarbamate Residues in Tobacco: Results of Joint Experiments Carried out Between 1976 and 1978 by CORESTA Pesticide Sub-Group<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The CORESTA Pesticide Sub-Group has examined various methods for the determination of dithiocarbamate residues in tobacco. As a result of this work the method described in this paper is recommended.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue for the Definition of Pressure Drop – Vorschlag für die Definition des Zugwiderstandes<abstract><p>Abstract A new suggestion for the definition of pressure drop is submitted which was accepted by the ISO/TC126-SC1 committee and Coresta Technology Study Group. The various standard conditions under which the pressure drop is to be measured are substantiated individually. The suggestion is based on a thorough study of the literature (state 1976), which is cited, with sources. This report was published in English and French in: Coresta Information Bulletin 1977-1, 17-33.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons of Tobacco Smoke: Separation and Identification<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The methyl, multi-methyl, and ethyl derivatives of the polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) were isolated from the neutrals by silicic acid chromatography, solvent partitioning and gel chromatography. The procedure yielded a relatively pure PAH isolate amenable to further identifications. The multi-alkylated PAH were concentrated in the early gel fractions with parent and higher ring PAH found in subsequent gel fractions. It was shown that CSC is very rich in alkylated PAH, and their successful identification required extensive use of gas and liquid chromatography and ultra-violet and GC - mass spectrometric techniques. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) separated individual isomers of the alkylated PAH in complex GC peaks. PAH from indene to pentamethylchrysene were found. This report concludes our identification studies on the PAH of CSC and complements our two previous reports in this journal. Collectively, our studies have identified approximately 1000 PAH of cigarette smoke condensate and have led to the development of methods for the routine quantitation of PAH in smalI quantities of cigarette smoke condensate.</p></abstract>ARTICLEtrue